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Full-Text Articles in Plant Sciences

Patterns And Sources Of Variation In Heterospecific Pollen Deposition In Flowers Of The Native Blue Cardinal Flower (Lobelia Siphilitica), Allie Drinnon May 2023

Patterns And Sources Of Variation In Heterospecific Pollen Deposition In Flowers Of The Native Blue Cardinal Flower (Lobelia Siphilitica), Allie Drinnon

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Plants species interactions via pollinators are a model system to understand the mechanisms that generate plant diversity in nature. However, most studies have focused on plant-plant interactions via pollinator attraction while ignoring the role of plant-plant interactions via pollen transfer. Heterospecific pollen transfer (henceforth HP) can be common and have negative fitness effects. Negative HP fitness effects may prompt the evolution of adaptive strategies to minimize them. However, the extent of spatial variation in HP load size within and among populations, a tenet for natural selection, remains unexplored. Such knowledge would hence constitute a first step in advancing our understanding …


Linking Soil Properties To Originally Wooded And Afforested Areas, Ashton A. Crowe, Matthew Laun Jan 2023

Linking Soil Properties To Originally Wooded And Afforested Areas, Ashton A. Crowe, Matthew Laun

Posters-at-the-Capitol

Linking Soil Properties to Originally Wooded and Afforested Areas

Matthew Laun, Ashton Crowe

Mentor: I. P. Handayani

Hutson School of Agriculture Murray State University, KY, USA

Abstract

Afforestation, adding an artificial forest to a piece of land that has been barren of trees for a significant amount of time, has some seriously huge impacts on the environment. These effects can be seen as an increase in the soil organic matter, a decrease in compaction, and enhancement of porosity. Therefore, the soil can support more diverse microbes and fungal communities leading to better micro and macro nutrient transfers between plants. This …


Foliar Application Of Acetic Acid And Effectiveness Against Drought At Different Time Points In Soybean (Glycine Max) Development, Miranda Rudolph, Megan Taylor Phd. Jan 2023

Foliar Application Of Acetic Acid And Effectiveness Against Drought At Different Time Points In Soybean (Glycine Max) Development, Miranda Rudolph, Megan Taylor Phd.

Posters-at-the-Capitol

Drought is arguably the most serious environmental factor affecting crop production today. A plants response to drought stress is extremely complex, affecting numerous metabolic pathways that are all interconnected in their responses. Due to this complex nature, scientists do not fully understand the implications of different treatments and how they affect these processes. Acetic acid has been shown to improve plant growth and resistance to drought stress, but exactly how it accomplishes this is also unknown. Soybeans (Glycine max) are one of the most important crops worldwide and can suffer significant yield loss due to drought stress. As climate change …


Attack Of The Clones: Elucidating The Role Of Clonality In The Invasion Success Of Carpobrotus Edulis, Eduardo Luis Cruz Jan 2023

Attack Of The Clones: Elucidating The Role Of Clonality In The Invasion Success Of Carpobrotus Edulis, Eduardo Luis Cruz

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

Transcriptomics is a modern technique in genomics that utilizes RNA sequences to get a snapshot of genetic expression. This is a powerful tool in non-model species lacking a reference genome. Thus, the application of comparative transcriptomics has the potential to help us elucidate the evolutionary mechanisms that facilitate species invasion. Carpobrotus edulis is a prolific and widespread invasive succulent plant belonging to the Aizoaceae family. A native to South Africa, this species has become a dominant invader of many Mediterranean coastal areas. In this study, we leveraged the use of RNAseq to investigate evolutionary changes among invasive populations. RNA-seq data …


Weed-Induced Crop Yield Loss: A New Paradigm And New Challenges, David Horvath, Sharon A. Clay, Clarence J. Swanton, James V. Anderson, Wun S. Chao Jan 2023

Weed-Induced Crop Yield Loss: A New Paradigm And New Challenges, David Horvath, Sharon A. Clay, Clarence J. Swanton, James V. Anderson, Wun S. Chao

Agronomy, Horticulture and Plant Science Faculty Publications

Direct competition for resources is generally considered the primary mechanism for weed-induced yield loss. A re-evaluation of physiological evidence suggests weeds initially impact crop growth and development through resource-independent interference. We suggest weed perception by crops induce a shift in crop development, before resources become limited, which ultimately reduce crop yield, even if weeds are subsequently removed. We present the mechanisms by which crops perceive and respond to weeds and discuss the technologies used to identify these mechanisms. These data lead to a fundamental paradigm shift in our understanding of how weeds reduce crop yield and suggest new research directions …


Antibacterial, Antioxidant, And Repellency Potential Of The Essential Oil From Spartium Junceum L. Grown In Lebanon, Hawraa Zahrddin, Mahmoud Khalil, Akram Hijazi Dec 2022

Antibacterial, Antioxidant, And Repellency Potential Of The Essential Oil From Spartium Junceum L. Grown In Lebanon, Hawraa Zahrddin, Mahmoud Khalil, Akram Hijazi

BAU Journal - Science and Technology

The goal of our present study is to assess the pharmacological potential of essential oil extracted from Spartium junceum cultivated in Lebanon. This oil was obtained by hydrodistillation using the Clevenger apparatus. Then, an organoleptic characterization and an evaluation of its antioxidant, repellent/insecticidal, and antibacterial activities have been evaluated. The obtained results showed that this oil had an antioxidant activity reaching 82 % dependent on the dilution used. In addition, it showed an insecticidal effect and an antibacterial effect.


Crop Adaptation And Improvement For Drought-Prone Environments, Michael D. Abrouk, Enoch G. Achigan-Dako, Wafa Achouak, Myriam Adam, Charlotte O.A. Adje, Joseph Adjebeng-Danquah, Hanin Ibrahim Ahmed, Louise Akanvou, Amidou Assima, Jonathan A. Atkinson Dec 2022

Crop Adaptation And Improvement For Drought-Prone Environments, Michael D. Abrouk, Enoch G. Achigan-Dako, Wafa Achouak, Myriam Adam, Charlotte O.A. Adje, Joseph Adjebeng-Danquah, Hanin Ibrahim Ahmed, Louise Akanvou, Amidou Assima, Jonathan A. Atkinson

NPP eBooks

No abstract provided.


Is There An Economic Advantage To Planting Diverse Summer Annual Forage Mixtures?, Kelly Mercier, Chris Teutsch, Ray Smith, Kenny Burdine, Edwin Ritchey, Eric Vanzant Dec 2022

Is There An Economic Advantage To Planting Diverse Summer Annual Forage Mixtures?, Kelly Mercier, Chris Teutsch, Ray Smith, Kenny Burdine, Edwin Ritchey, Eric Vanzant

The Journal of Extension

This study examined economic implications of planting summer annual mixtures of grasses, legumes, and forbs at varying nitrogen rates. No differences in yield occurred between the three mixtures, indicating that mixtures with lowest seed cost will be most economical. Applying N resulted in yield increases of 12.26 lb DM per lb N applied. Although yield responses to N were positive, sensitivity analyses showed that applying N resulted in positive net returns only when hay prices were high and N prices were low. When utilization rates are accounted for, enterprise budgets determined grazing to be 18% cheaper to implement than haying.


Colored Sweet Bell And Tapered Pepper Cultivar Evaluation For High Tunnel Production In West-Central Indiana, 2022, Petrus Langenhoven, Lian Mahorith Duron Alvarado, Eduardo Jose Miranda Oviedo Dec 2022

Colored Sweet Bell And Tapered Pepper Cultivar Evaluation For High Tunnel Production In West-Central Indiana, 2022, Petrus Langenhoven, Lian Mahorith Duron Alvarado, Eduardo Jose Miranda Oviedo

Midwest Vegetable Trial Reports

Colored sweet bell-shaped and tapered peppers are a staple at the farmers' market. Many small and medium-sized farming operations in Indiana grow this summer crop. High tunnels allow growers to protect their crops and extend their growing season. Sweet peppers, in particular, benefit from the unique growing environment created by the high tunnel. Planting of peppers can start at least 2-4 weeks earlier in the spring, and production can continue into the fall until the first hard freeze. Pepper variety performance data for Indiana is not readily available. We are working hard to change that. Currently, we have evaluated twenty-five …


Pariette Wetlands Water, Sediment And Plant Total Selenium Concentration, Colleen P. Jones, Paul R. Grossl, Astrid R. Jacobson Dec 2022

Pariette Wetlands Water, Sediment And Plant Total Selenium Concentration, Colleen P. Jones, Paul R. Grossl, Astrid R. Jacobson

Browse all Datasets

We measured total Selenium in plants from July through November of 2012 and in water, macroinvertebrates, plants, and sediments from July of 2014 from Pariette Wetlands, Utah, U.S.A. to test for spatial, temporal, plant species and plant tissue distribution of Selenium.


Comparison Of Maize Hybrids For Production Of Quality Fodder And Silage In Faisalabad, Punjab, Pakistan, Ali Hamed, Muhammad Shahid Ibni Zamir, Asif Tanveer, Muhammad Yaseen Dec 2022

Comparison Of Maize Hybrids For Production Of Quality Fodder And Silage In Faisalabad, Punjab, Pakistan, Ali Hamed, Muhammad Shahid Ibni Zamir, Asif Tanveer, Muhammad Yaseen

Journal of Bioresource Management

Fodder crops have to compete with those of field crops, and the majority of farmers are smallholders in the circumstances of Pakistan. Therefore, this study was planned to search for the best maize hybrid which would serve dual purposes, i.e. for grain production as well as its later usage as fodder and silage. So, seven maize hybrids most commonly grown in the vicinity were selected and compared for their forage production. Maize hybrids were sown on ridges followed by all cultural operations as carried out by farmers. At harvest, plant morphological parameters were measured before ensiling the whole maize plant. …


In Vitro Anti-Helicobacter Pylori And Antioxidant Activities Of Plants Used In Algerian Traditional Medicine For Gastrointestinal Disorders, Souhila Tabak, Bendif Hamdi, Mohamed Djamel Miara, Luca A. Vitali Dec 2022

In Vitro Anti-Helicobacter Pylori And Antioxidant Activities Of Plants Used In Algerian Traditional Medicine For Gastrointestinal Disorders, Souhila Tabak, Bendif Hamdi, Mohamed Djamel Miara, Luca A. Vitali

Journal of Bioresource Management

It has been recognized that gastric colonization with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) induces a risk of developing ulcer disease and gastric cancer. The interest of this research relates for the first time to the study of the Anti-Helicobacter pylori activities of three medicinal plants methanolic extracts, namely Allium sativum, Allium cepa and Foeniculum vulgare. The activity of the methanolic extracts was assessed against two strains of H. pylori (SAN158 and 26659) by the disc diffusion method on Muller Hinton agar. The content of phenolic compounds (TPC) was determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu test and the antioxidant …


Bio Prospecting Of Lapachol Producing Endophytic Fungi, Chandrashekar Srinivasa, Sushma Pradeep, Shashank M Patil, Ramith Ramu, Shiva Prasad Kollur, Shashanka K Prasad, Chandan Shivamallu Dec 2022

Bio Prospecting Of Lapachol Producing Endophytic Fungi, Chandrashekar Srinivasa, Sushma Pradeep, Shashank M Patil, Ramith Ramu, Shiva Prasad Kollur, Shashanka K Prasad, Chandan Shivamallu

International Journal of Health and Allied Sciences

Background: The association of endophytic fungi with medicinal plants has been one of the evolving areas of research in the past few decades. The secondary metabolites produced owing to such associations have been recognised for a wide range of biological activities. Objectives: The aim of the present review is to highlight the isolation of lapachol from endophytic microorganisms with an emphasis on its biotransformation to improve its efficacy. Methodology: The researchers followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) criteria. Published scientific articles on endophytes, host-pathogen interaction and lapachol isolation were collected from reputed journals from …


Early Detection, Rapid Response Invasives Management: Documenting Perennial Pepperweed In New Hampshire Using Eddmaps, Final Project Report, December 2022, Malin Clyde Dec 2022

Early Detection, Rapid Response Invasives Management: Documenting Perennial Pepperweed In New Hampshire Using Eddmaps, Final Project Report, December 2022, Malin Clyde

UNH Cooperative Extension

No abstract provided.


Invasive Fruit Pest Guide For Utah: Insect & Disease Identification, Monitoring & Management, Claudia Nischwitz, Diane G. Alston, Lori R. Spears, Clint Burfitt Dec 2022

Invasive Fruit Pest Guide For Utah: Insect & Disease Identification, Monitoring & Management, Claudia Nischwitz, Diane G. Alston, Lori R. Spears, Clint Burfitt

All Current Publications

This invasive fruit pest guide covers insects and diseases affecting fruit in Utah and reviews monitoring and management.


Evaluation Of Soybean [Glycine Max (L.) Merr.] Cultivar Response To Prophylactic Fungicide Application, Steven B. Stoker Dec 2022

Evaluation Of Soybean [Glycine Max (L.) Merr.] Cultivar Response To Prophylactic Fungicide Application, Steven B. Stoker

Theses and Dissertations

Soybean growers in the southern United States commonly deal with disease issues that can limit yield potential. As a result, growers have adopted prophylactic fungicide application targeted at specific growth stages as a standard management practice. However, yield responses to prophylactic applications have become sporadic over time. One major change that has occurred is adoption of cultivars with improved disease tolerances. Therefore, the objective of this research was to evaluate yield response of cultivars representing multiple genetic backgrounds to fungicides applied prophylactically at the R4 soybean growth stage. Experiments were conducted in 2020 and 2021 to determine the yield impact …


Reassessing Nitrogen Management For Maize Production In Mississippi, Camden Dawson Oglesby Dec 2022

Reassessing Nitrogen Management For Maize Production In Mississippi, Camden Dawson Oglesby

Theses and Dissertations

12 N treatments in 2020 and 11 in 2021 were replicated four times over four locations in a randomized complete block design. The first research tested the efficacy of CYG for Mississippi corn (Zea mays L.) production. The optimum N rates were calculated by fitting four models. Differences between the CYG rate and AONR were compared. AONR varied from 134 to 301 kg N ha–1 at different management levels. When we compared the AONR to the CYG rate, the CYG rate over-recommended N in 12 of the 14 possible comparisons. The second study compared different VIs, methods, and sensors at …


Evaluating The Impacts Of Waterlogging Stress On Cowpea (Vigna Unguiculata L.) Growth Traits And Physiological Performance, Omolayo Joshua Olorunwa Dec 2022

Evaluating The Impacts Of Waterlogging Stress On Cowpea (Vigna Unguiculata L.) Growth Traits And Physiological Performance, Omolayo Joshua Olorunwa

Theses and Dissertations

The progressive increase in the global population and the rapidly changing climate have put unprecedented pressure on crop production. Cowpea is one of the world’s most important leguminous crops, contributing to food security and environmental sustainability. However, cowpea productivity is limited due to waterlogging stress. The main objective of this study was to explore physiological and biochemical mechanisms to understand how cowpea genotypes respond to waterlogging stress. Four studies were conducted in controlled and field conditions to achieve these objectives. Study 1 characterized the waterlogging tolerance of 30 cowpea genotypes in a controlled environment using 24 morphophysiological parameters with waterlogging …


The Emerging Value Of The Viroid Model In Understanding Plant Responses To Foreign Rnas, Junfei Ma Dec 2022

The Emerging Value Of The Viroid Model In Understanding Plant Responses To Foreign Rnas, Junfei Ma

Theses and Dissertations

RNAs play essential roles in various biological processes. Mounting evidence has demonstrated that RNA subcellular localization and intercellular trafficking govern their functions in coordinating plant growth at the organismal level. Beyond that, plants constantly encounter foreign RNAs (i.e., RNAs from pathogens including viruses and viroids). The subcellular localizations of RNAs are crucial for their function. While numerous types of RNAs (i.e., mRNAs, small RNAs, rRNAs, tRNAs, and long noncoding RNAs) have been found to traffic in a non-cell-autonomous fashion within plants, the underlying regulatory mechanism remains unclear. Viroids are single-stranded circular noncoding RNAs, which entirely rely …


Non-Traditional Adjuvants And Methods For Applying Root-Promoting Compounds In Commercial Cutting Propagation, Anthony Turner Bowden Dec 2022

Non-Traditional Adjuvants And Methods For Applying Root-Promoting Compounds In Commercial Cutting Propagation, Anthony Turner Bowden

Theses and Dissertations

The nursery/greenhouse industry is innovative. There have been several reports in the popular literature of non-traditional adjuvants used in plant propagation; however, these claims have never been evaluated in a scientific setting. Five studies, conducted at the South Mississippi Branch Experiment Station in Poplarville in 2019 and 2021 determined the impact that adding honey to water-soluble auxin solutions and surfactants to foliar applied auxin solutions on physiological responses associated with adventitious root formation. Treatments in studies presented in chapters two and three included three honey sources (multiflora, local, and Manuka). Honey-infused water-soluble auxin solutions affected plant species but not in …


Evaluation For Using Expended Bioelectrochemical Systems As Soil Amendments For Improved Corn Plant Growth And A Drought Resistant Soil., Jackson Lee Sauers Dec 2022

Evaluation For Using Expended Bioelectrochemical Systems As Soil Amendments For Improved Corn Plant Growth And A Drought Resistant Soil., Jackson Lee Sauers

Theses and Dissertations

A long-held practice is to mix agricultural soil with a soil amendment to improve growing conditions in crops. A common soil amendment is biosolids produced from both municipal and dairy wastewater due to the macro- and micronutrients within it. Both the agricultural and wastewater industries are participating in the Circular Economy concept (CEC). Two experiments explored using expended bioelectrochemical systems (BES) that treated either synthetic dairy wastewater (DWW) or synthetic municipal wastewater (SWW) as soil amendments to improve corn plant growth when treated with three different nutrient treatments: 100%- 50%- and 0% Hoagland Nutrient Solutions. Biochar and used terracotta clay …


Disease Resistance And Productivity In Genetically Improved Loblolly Pine: Results From A Resistance Screening Trial And A Midrotation Comparison Of Genetic Improvement Levels, Stephen W. Goodfellow Dec 2022

Disease Resistance And Productivity In Genetically Improved Loblolly Pine: Results From A Resistance Screening Trial And A Midrotation Comparison Of Genetic Improvement Levels, Stephen W. Goodfellow

Theses and Dissertations

Decades of tree improvement has resulted in genetic gains in loblolly pine productivity, form, and resistance to fusiform rust. The goal of this study was to advance the understanding and applied use of genetic improvement by analyzing inter- and intra-provenances hybrids’ rust resistance and evaluating midrotation performance of varying levels of genetically improved stock types. The first study compares 16 seedlots at the USDA Resistance Screening Center and evaluates rust resistance of controlled-pollinated inter- and intra-provenances crosses, and openpollinated seedlots from three provenances: Western Gulf, Atlantic Coastal, and Interior Piedmont. Post inoculation, one Coastal OP seedlot was resistant and ten …


Biological Remediation Of Fragipan, Corey Hale Dec 2022

Biological Remediation Of Fragipan, Corey Hale

Honors College Theses

The fragipan layer in the soil is a naturally occurring subsurface layer that restricts water percolation as well as inhibits root growth. A fragipan layer can be found almost ubiquitously across Southwestern Kentucky. This limits how agriculturalists manage soils in this area. It has been recently discovered by the University of Kentucky that Annual Ryegrass roots produce 3,4 dihydroxyphenylpropionic acid (DHPPA) that reacts with this hardpan to weaken the layer. Certain bacteria, such as Escherichia coli, Lactobacilli, and Bifidobacteria can also synthesize DHPPA through a breakdown process of chlorogenic acid. This reaction typically happens in the human digestive tract. …


Demonstration Farm Provides Educational Opportunity For Ipm, Nick Volesky, Mair Murray Dec 2022

Demonstration Farm Provides Educational Opportunity For Ipm, Nick Volesky, Mair Murray

Outcomes and Impact Quarterly

The mission of USU Extension’s Integrated Pest Management (IPM) program is to increase the use of sustainable pest management practices within urban and rural landscapes to provide economic, human, and environmental health in Utah. In the spring of 2022, the IPM program established a vegetable farm to test and demonstrate IPM practices. The farm served as an experiential learning classroom for almost 50 farmers and home gardeners.


Deciphering The Genetic Architecture Of Key Female Floral Traits For Hybrid Wheat Seed Production, Juan Jimenez Dec 2022

Deciphering The Genetic Architecture Of Key Female Floral Traits For Hybrid Wheat Seed Production, Juan Jimenez

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research in Agronomy and Horticulture

Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is a staple cereal that provides 20% of the calories and proteins in human intake (Ray et al., 2013). Global population is projected to increase to 9.7 billion by 2050. Food production must increase by 70% to feed this future population. Wheat production is in crisis due to political and environmental challenges and is projected to decline by 0.8% in 2022 (FAO, 2022). To ensure food security yield genetic gain must increase by around 1.4% annually. Taking advantage of heterosis, hybrid wheat has the potential to boost grain yield. However, hybrid wheat seed production systems …


Wrack Lines Volume 22, Number 2, Fall-Winter 2022-2023, Nancy C. Balcom, Juliana Barrett, Judy Benson, Ben Crnic, Sto Len Dec 2022

Wrack Lines Volume 22, Number 2, Fall-Winter 2022-2023, Nancy C. Balcom, Juliana Barrett, Judy Benson, Ben Crnic, Sto Len

Wrack Lines

With the theme, "Looking Ahead: People and Projects Shaping the Future," the Fall-Winter 2022-2023 leads with the first in what will be a series of articles about offshore wind development impacting Connecticut. That is followed by the inspiring story of how a dying forest was replanted for climate resilience. Next, a profile of longtime marine educator Tim Visel tells about his lasting impact on Connecticut schools and students. Lastly, the complex challenge of dealing with Contaminants of Emerging Concern is examined, with descriptions of how Sea Grant is involved and the particularly troublesome group of substances called PFAS.


Insights On The Behavior Of Nano-Copper In The Agroecosystem: Mycorrhizal Associations With Spearmint (Mentha Spicata), Suzanne Annette Apodaca Dec 2022

Insights On The Behavior Of Nano-Copper In The Agroecosystem: Mycorrhizal Associations With Spearmint (Mentha Spicata), Suzanne Annette Apodaca

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

Nanotechnology offers significant potential benefits to our society, including the agriculture sector. With the advancement of nano-enabled agrochemicals towards sustainable and efficient agricultural practices, it is essential to address environmental issues associated with the use of nanoscale materials. The same properties that give promise to applications of nanotechnology in modern agriculture could have unintended consequences on ecosystem dynamics. A point of concern for risk management is the impact of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) to beneficial microbial communities, which support a variety of ecosystem services.

Use of copper (Cu) products in agriculture are based on their abundance, role as a micronutrient, and …


2021-2022 Tallgrass Prairie Center Highlights, Tallgrass Prairie Center. University Of Northern Iowa. Dec 2022

2021-2022 Tallgrass Prairie Center Highlights, Tallgrass Prairie Center. University Of Northern Iowa.

UNI Tallgrass Prairie Publications and Reports

From our director:

The roots of the Tallgrass Prairie Center go back to the 1980s, when UNI Biology Professor Daryl Smith began to collaborate with the Black Hawk County Secondary Roads Department. It was passion for prairie, combined with practicality, that drove this unusual partnership. Then in 1988, the Iowa Legislature wrote a powerful idea into the Iowa code: that it is in the public interest to manage Iowa’s roadsides for multiple purposes using ecological principles.

The Native Roadside Vegetation Center at UNI was formed to meet the practical challenges of that idea. Subsequently renamed the Tallgrass Prairie Center, we …


Forage News [2022-12], Department Of Plant And Soil Sciences, University Of Kentucky Dec 2022

Forage News [2022-12], Department Of Plant And Soil Sciences, University Of Kentucky

Forage News

No abstract provided.


Image Analysis And Machine Learning In Agricultural Research, Xinzheng Chen Dec 2022

Image Analysis And Machine Learning In Agricultural Research, Xinzheng Chen

Doctoral Documents from Doctor of Plant Health Program

Agricultural research has been a focus for academia and industry to improve human well-being. Given the challenges in water scarcity, global warming, and increased prices of fertilizer, and fossil fuel, improving the efficiency of agricultural research has become even more critical. Data collection by humans presents several challenges including: 1) the subjectiveness and reproducibility when doing the visual evaluation, 2) safety when dealing with high toxicity chemicals or severe weather events, 3) mistakes cannot be avoided, and 4) low efficiency and speed.

Image analysis and machine learning are more versatile and advantageous in evaluating different plant characteristics, and this could …