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Full-Text Articles in Behavior and Ethology

Designing Sustainable Systems Using Nature’S Toolbox, Matthew J. Hasenjager May 2024

Designing Sustainable Systems Using Nature’S Toolbox, Matthew J. Hasenjager

Faculty Publications and Other Works -- Ecology and Evolutionary Biology

Supporting the Earth’s human population without destabilizing planetary processes is the central challenge of sustainability science. Key to achieving this goal is designing systems that are robust and resilient to dynamic and unpredictable conditions. Bioinspiration leverages naturally evolved solutions to address such challenges, yet a solution derived from one-to-one correspondence between a natural and artificial challenge can be limited in its broader application. Here we advocate for an approach to nature-inspired design that forgoes mimicking specific solutions in favor of identifying general design features that enable natural systems to function. These features are not specific to any naturally evolved solution …


Analyzing Phototaxis And Related Visual Behaviors Among Diverse Species Of Drosophila, Madeline M. Hill May 2024

Analyzing Phototaxis And Related Visual Behaviors Among Diverse Species Of Drosophila, Madeline M. Hill

Honors Theses

Phototaxis and related visual behaviors can vary between species, and thus members of the genus Drosophila make an excellent study system to examine the evolution of vision. While some existing research points to these phototactic behaviors arising due to mating requirements or due to their species-specific ecology or environmental factors, there exists a lack of understanding as to why striking behavioral differences can exist between closely related species, or between members belonging to the same genus. The present research seeks to uncover the specifics regarding these discrepancies in visual evolution and aims to provide a foundation of knowledge about visual …


Trophic Ecology Of Black Swallowers (Scombriformes: Chiasmodontidae: Chiasmodon) In The Deep-Pelagic Gulf Of Mexico, Travis J. Kirk Apr 2024

Trophic Ecology Of Black Swallowers (Scombriformes: Chiasmodontidae: Chiasmodon) In The Deep-Pelagic Gulf Of Mexico, Travis J. Kirk

All HCAS Student Capstones, Theses, and Dissertations

The ecology of deep-pelagic predatory fishes remains poorly understood despite their importance as ecosystem regulators and energy transfer vectors. This study investigated the trophic ecology of three species of the predatory fish genus Chiasmodon (“black swallowers”) in the Gulf of Mexico, a region that serves as an analog for the global low-latitude deep pelagial, the world’s largest cumulative ecosystem. Foraging habits (e.g., selectivity, chronology, daily ration) of an “advanced” evolutionary fish in a system that is otherwise dominated by basal fish taxa, were quantitatively estimated via high-resolution stomach content analysis. A quantitative dataset of both predator and prey abundance, the …


Changes In Animal Vocalizations In Response To A Total Solar Eclipse, Colton W. Morris Apr 2024

Changes In Animal Vocalizations In Response To A Total Solar Eclipse, Colton W. Morris

ATU Research Symposium

My proposed research project will study the changes in animal vocalizations in response to the total solar eclipse that will take place in Russellville, Arkansas, on April 8, 2024. I will use audio recordings before, during, and after the eclipse to quantify changes in animal vocalizations. Most recordings will be in the range of normal hearing, and will primarily detect birds, frogs, and insects. Additionally, I will deploy one ultrasonic recorder capable of detecting bats. From these recordings I will be able to quantify overall and species-specific call rates. Audio recordings will be paired with continuous measurements of light intensity …


Water Lily Leaf Beetle Ecology On Hourglass Lake In Big Lake, Alaska, Haley Lloyd, Grace Beatty Apr 2024

Water Lily Leaf Beetle Ecology On Hourglass Lake In Big Lake, Alaska, Haley Lloyd, Grace Beatty

Scholar Week 2016 - present

The Water-Lily Leaf beetle, Galerucella nymphaeae, is a beetle commonly found on Western Pond Lily pads, Nuphar lutea, in Hourglass Lake. Hourglass Lake is located in Big Lake, Alaska. This area is surrounded by boreal forest and bogs and is situated roughly twenty miles North of Anchorage. Within this ecosystem, the Water-Lily Leaf Beetle and the Western Pond Lily are intrinsically linked, as the lily pads serve as a site of feeding and reproduction for the beetles. Dr. Derek Rosenberger of Olivet Nazarene University noticed an abundance of these beetles as he was kayaking through Hourglass Lake, and a project …


Vigilance And Foraging Behaviors Of Two Sciurid Species Between College Campuses And Urban Environments, Patrick Geyer, Zoe Buffington, Lorelei E. Patrick Mar 2024

Vigilance And Foraging Behaviors Of Two Sciurid Species Between College Campuses And Urban Environments, Patrick Geyer, Zoe Buffington, Lorelei E. Patrick

SACAD: John Heinrichs Scholarly and Creative Activity Days

A comparison between the extent that sciurid specimens display vigilance and foraging behaviors on college campuses against specimens within urban environments. Observations of fox squirrels and western gray squirrels were taken from the Squirrel-Net behavioral database used for this project. We found there was a significant difference between the percent vigilance behaviors and foraging behaviors on college campuses compared to urban environments. This suggests that squirrels residing on college campuses are more desensitized to pedestrian activity and foot traffic compared to squirrels that inhabit urban areas.


Checking For Ticks: Analyzing The Efficiency Of Different Tick Collection Methods, Peter Briggs, Lawson Trimmell, Javier Monzón Mar 2024

Checking For Ticks: Analyzing The Efficiency Of Different Tick Collection Methods, Peter Briggs, Lawson Trimmell, Javier Monzón

Seaver College Research And Scholarly Achievement Symposium

Ticks are the most important arthropod disease vectors in both North America and Europe. Field collection of wild ticks is vital for research on the ecology of vector-borne diseases. Dragging and trapping are the two most common methods for collecting wild ticks. Dragging involves a researcher pulling a canvas through a field to collect ticks searching for a host, while trapping exploits ticks’ natural attraction to carbon dioxide to lure them onto a canvas where they get caught on tape. Our study aimed to evaluate which of these two methods is more effective. We chose six sites across three states, …


Materials And Methods Developed For The Recording And Analysis Of Behavior In The Common Marmoset (Callithrix Jacchus)., Christian Wintle Mar 2024

Materials And Methods Developed For The Recording And Analysis Of Behavior In The Common Marmoset (Callithrix Jacchus)., Christian Wintle

UNO Student Research and Creative Activity Fair

Materials and methods developed for the recording and analysis of behavior in the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus).

Christian J. Wintlea, Jordan B. Hernandeza,b,c, Dobromir Dotovd, and Jonathan B. Claytona,b,e,f,g

aDepartment of Biology, University of Nebraska at Omaha, Omaha, NE, USA

bNebraska Food for Health Center, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE, USA

cDepartment of Genetics, Cell Biology, and Anatomy, University of Nebraska Medical Center, NE, USA

dDepartment of Biomechanics, University of Nebraska at Omaha, Omaha, NE, USA

eDepartment of Food Science and Technology, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, …


Effects Of Anthropogenic Noise On The Provisioning Behavior Of Western Bluebirds And Artificial Light At Night On Nestling Development, Kerstin H. Ozkan Mar 2024

Effects Of Anthropogenic Noise On The Provisioning Behavior Of Western Bluebirds And Artificial Light At Night On Nestling Development, Kerstin H. Ozkan

Master's Theses

Sensory environments are rapidly changing due to increased human activity in urban and non-urban areas alike. For instance, background sounds can interfere with parent-offspring communication and mask cues reflective of predation risk, resulting in elevated vigilance at the cost of provisioning. In chapter 1, we studied nestling provisioning behavior among Western Bluebirds (Sialia mexicana) in response to short-term (1 hr) and long-term (continuous exposure throughout nesting period) noise exposure. Provisioning rates were lower at nests exposed to short-term experimental traffic noise compared to exposure to ambient background sounds. Trial order strongly influenced provisioning behavior, with the decline in …


Comparing Sucrose Preference Between Colonies Of Bombus Impatiens, Kevin R. Corrigan, Becky Hansis-O'Niell, Aimee Sue Dunlap Jan 2024

Comparing Sucrose Preference Between Colonies Of Bombus Impatiens, Kevin R. Corrigan, Becky Hansis-O'Niell, Aimee Sue Dunlap

Undergraduate Research Symposium

Current studies in nectar concentration preference generally take the form of a static laboratory experiment in which a multitude of feeders provide a constant source of nectar in differing concentrations and data is collected on which one is preferred most by bees. Studies like these are important because they seek to gain an understanding of bee foraging patterns. Having a strong biological understanding of these organisms better prepares us to combat issues regarding conservation should they occur. Here, we conduct an analysis on the foraging patterns of two colonies of Bombus impatiens (B. Impatiens) with data gathered from fixed ratio …


Eristalis Tenax Movement Behavior In Response To Light, Temperature, And Food, Jeffery J. Zheng, Zdena M. Janderova, Jason D. Lang Jan 2024

Eristalis Tenax Movement Behavior In Response To Light, Temperature, And Food, Jeffery J. Zheng, Zdena M. Janderova, Jason D. Lang

Georgia Journal of Science

Drone flies, Eristalis tenax (Diptera: Syrphidae), are important generalist pollinators and visit flowers globally that range widely in color. The flies’ photoreceptors allow them to sense light wavelengths between 300-600 nm and E. tenax exhibit a positive phototactic response. To understand the effects of light on E. tenax movement, we conducted two-choice behavioral tests to determine their phototactic response to different wavelengths of light across the spectrum (ultraviolet to red light, plus full spectrum white light). The drone flies moved most and quickest toward sunlight, with almost twice the percentage of flies moving toward sunlight than toward black and …


Dataset For: “Shifts In Habitat, Habitat Use, And Demography Of American Lobsters In Coastal Maine Over The Past Quarter Century.”, Robert Jarrett Ii, Damian Brady, Richard Wahle, Robert Steneck Jan 2024

Dataset For: “Shifts In Habitat, Habitat Use, And Demography Of American Lobsters In Coastal Maine Over The Past Quarter Century.”, Robert Jarrett Ii, Damian Brady, Richard Wahle, Robert Steneck

Non-Thesis Student Work

This is the dataset for the manuscript "Shifts in habitat, habitat use, and demography of American lobsters in coastal Maine over the past quarter century." Our study revisited 20 long-term monitored sites at 10 m depth along more than 320 km of the Gulf of Maine. Sampling used quadrat sampling via scuba divers. We recorded fundamental changes in lobster habitat use and distribution. The data include count, size, sex, number of claws, and shelter use of lobster in addition to substrate type, percent cover of kelp and other macroalgae. The data are included in six .csv format files: (1) data …


Stable Isotope Analysis Of Manatee Vibrissae To Investigate Individual Patterns Of Resource Use In The Northern Gulf Of Mexico, Levette Tucker, Mackenzie L. Russell, Elizabeth E. Hieb, Ruth H. Carmichael, Carl S. Cloyed Jan 2024

Stable Isotope Analysis Of Manatee Vibrissae To Investigate Individual Patterns Of Resource Use In The Northern Gulf Of Mexico, Levette Tucker, Mackenzie L. Russell, Elizabeth E. Hieb, Ruth H. Carmichael, Carl S. Cloyed

Gulf and Caribbean Research

No abstract provided.


Estimation Of Probability Of Habitat Use Of Roosevelt Elk On The Olympic Peninsula, Vincent Michael Gugliotti Jan 2024

Estimation Of Probability Of Habitat Use Of Roosevelt Elk On The Olympic Peninsula, Vincent Michael Gugliotti

Undergraduate Theses, Professional Papers, and Capstone Artifacts

Estimating the probability of habitat use for a particular species is crucial to the direct management and conservation of that species. Without knowledge of habitat preferences, managers cannot effectively focus efforts on vital resources or landscape types. However, modelling probability of habitat use can be done in several ways which leaves room for variation and uncertainty in the estimates produced by each method. This study is an examination of the variation between two estimates of probability of habitat use while focusing on a particular subspecies of elk that inhabits a unique ecosystem relative to other elk subspecies. I modeled elk …


Factors Associated With Acoustic Bat Presence During Spring Emergence In The Appalachian Mountains Of Western Virginia, Emily Kirk Pody Jan 2024

Factors Associated With Acoustic Bat Presence During Spring Emergence In The Appalachian Mountains Of Western Virginia, Emily Kirk Pody

Theses, Dissertations and Capstones

Studies of threats that bats face during hibernation have increased in response to white-nose syndrome (WNS), a fungal disease that has ravaged North American bat populations. However, impacts of WNS on bat ecology during spring emergence, when bats are potentially recovering from infection and allocating resources for reproduction, is relatively understudied. As more bat species become listed at the federal and state level, the need to understand the factors associated with spring emergence is critical for improving conservation guidelines and habitat management practices. Acoustic monitoring is an efficient method for monitoring bat presence for prolonged periods of time, giving biologists …


A Conservation Model: Costa Rican Conservation Strategies Effectively Preserve Their Threatened Primates, Ryan Belmont Jan 2024

A Conservation Model: Costa Rican Conservation Strategies Effectively Preserve Their Threatened Primates, Ryan Belmont

Regis University Student Publications (comprehensive collection)

The wildlife of Costa Rica has experienced various anthropogenic threats over the last century including climate change and agricultural expansion. The mantled howler monkey (Alloutta palliata), Central American spider monkey (Ateles geoffroyi), white-faced capuchin (Cebus imitator), and the Central American squirrel monkey (Saimiri oerstedii) are Costa Rica’s native primates that face several anthropogenic threats such as deforestation for agriculture and climate change. In response to increased threats to its four native species of non-human primates, Costa Rica has implemented effective governmental conservation tactics such as the Payments for Environmental Services program, ecotourism …


Movement Behavior And Metapopulation Connectivity Of Stream Salamanders In Response To Disturbance Events, Kathryn M. Greene Jan 2024

Movement Behavior And Metapopulation Connectivity Of Stream Salamanders In Response To Disturbance Events, Kathryn M. Greene

Theses and Dissertations--Biology

Metapopulations are shaped by the dispersal between populations in a landscape. Disturbance events can disrupt this connectivity resulting in local population extinction. For my dissertation, I used a combination of empirical and theoretical techniques to examine dispersal in response to disturbance and assessed it’s population-level consequences. My research used capture-mark-recapture sampling techniques to evaluate stream salamander movement in response to (1) a supraseasonal drought and (2) mountaintop-removal-mining (MTR) and valley-filling (VF) and (3) agent-based simulation modeling to evaluate population extinction risk in response to varying dispersal and mortality rates.

First, I evaluated the effects of a supraseasonal drought, a severe …


Reducing Food Scarcity: The Benefits Of Urban Farming, S.A. Claudell, Emilio Mejia Dec 2023

Reducing Food Scarcity: The Benefits Of Urban Farming, S.A. Claudell, Emilio Mejia

Journal of Nonprofit Innovation

Urban farming can enhance the lives of communities and help reduce food scarcity. This paper presents a conceptual prototype of an efficient urban farming community that can be scaled for a single apartment building or an entire community across all global geoeconomics regions, including densely populated cities and rural, developing towns and communities. When deployed in coordination with smart crop choices, local farm support, and efficient transportation then the result isn’t just sustainability, but also increasing fresh produce accessibility, optimizing nutritional value, eliminating the use of ‘forever chemicals’, reducing transportation costs, and fostering global environmental benefits.

Imagine Doris, who is …


Towards Understanding The Interactions Between Ospreys And Human-Made Structures In The Tennessee River Valley, Natasha Karina Murphy Dec 2023

Towards Understanding The Interactions Between Ospreys And Human-Made Structures In The Tennessee River Valley, Natasha Karina Murphy

Theses and Dissertations

Raptor nests on human-built structures represent a significant source of conflict as they can result in bird mortality, fires, structure damage, service distribution, or power outages when falling nest materials or animals connect with energized conductors. Power companies, such as the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), wish to mitigate these conflicts to avoid service disruptions. In this dissertation, I present my work towards understanding and mitigating the interactions between Ospreys (Pandion haliaetus) and human-made structures. To achieve this, I explored multiple elements of conflict identification, monitoring, and basic ecology of the target species to better inform conflict mitigation. In Chapter I, …


Human-Bat Interactions In A Disease Emergence Hotspot: Implications For Human Health And Bat Conservation, Reilly Tempest Jackson Dec 2023

Human-Bat Interactions In A Disease Emergence Hotspot: Implications For Human Health And Bat Conservation, Reilly Tempest Jackson

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Bats are an ecologically important taxon that can host zoonotic pathogens. Globally, many bat species are synanthropic and live closely with humans, often roosting in man-made structures. The spatial overlap between humans and bats creates opportunities for human-bat contact, which can lead to human exposure to bat-borne pathogens and conflicts that cause bat mortality. Despite this risk, little is known about the drivers and characteristics of these human-bat interactions in buildings and work is needed to understand this aspect of the wildlife-urban interface. In Chapter I, I present a literature review that identifies the geographic and taxonomic trends in reported …


Msis-Udiani: Tactics And Trade-Offs: The Evolution Of Host Resource Provisioning In Microbiome Management, Oyita Udiani, Nina Fefferman Nov 2023

Msis-Udiani: Tactics And Trade-Offs: The Evolution Of Host Resource Provisioning In Microbiome Management, Oyita Udiani, Nina Fefferman

Annual Symposium on Biomathematics and Ecology Education and Research

No abstract provided.


Peace Cafe, Ana Cynthia Saenz Jaimes Nov 2023

Peace Cafe, Ana Cynthia Saenz Jaimes

Peace and Conflict Studies Journal Conference

GAMIP Latin America presents Peace Cafe, a participatory and dialogued meeting space, virtual, face-to-face or hybrid, for critical reflection, study, promotion, and practices of Cultures of Peace. We want the exchange and respect of opinions and ideas without polarization.

Peace Cafe is for all GAMIP members and civil society actors, researchers, educational institutions, activists, business people, and governments. We hope to share a good coffee, listen and learning common issues and problems in the region.

This project is organized by GAMIP ALC and is supported for its execution by a registered member, by someone from an organization whose objectives are …


Book Review: Habitantes De La Obscuridad (Fauna Ibero-Balear De Las Cuevas) – Inhabitants Of The Darkness (Ibero-Baleric Fauna Of Caves), Oana Teodora Moldovan Oct 2023

Book Review: Habitantes De La Obscuridad (Fauna Ibero-Balear De Las Cuevas) – Inhabitants Of The Darkness (Ibero-Baleric Fauna Of Caves), Oana Teodora Moldovan

International Journal of Speleology

NA


Observations On A 40-Year January Bird Census In Boone County, Nebraska, 1978–2017, Wayne Mollhoff Sep 2023

Observations On A 40-Year January Bird Census In Boone County, Nebraska, 1978–2017, Wayne Mollhoff

Zea E-Books Collection

For 40 years Wayne Mollhoff conducted a personal bird census every January. He explains: "After having run several Breeding Bird Survey routes, and participated in several Christmas Bird Counts, I became curious to see what might be found on a winter count under the more tightly controlled parameters of a census, as contrasted with Christmas counts done with variable numbers of observers."

The count was set up similarly to the USGS Breeding Bird Survey routes with 50 stops, one-half mile (800 meters) apart, all birds counted for 3 minutes, with birds counted at one stop not counted again at following …


Parasites Versus Predation: The Role Of Chronic And Acute Parasite Exposure In Infection Risk And Anti-Predator Behavior, Delaney Farrell Aug 2023

Parasites Versus Predation: The Role Of Chronic And Acute Parasite Exposure In Infection Risk And Anti-Predator Behavior, Delaney Farrell

All HCAS Student Capstones, Theses, and Dissertations

Parasites with complex, multi-host lifecycles often engage in host behavior manipulation to increase transmission between successive hosts. In intermediate fish hosts, previous research has measured increased frequency of conspicuous behaviors, decreased swimming performance, and reduced antipredator behavior, which would collectively increase the fish’s risk of predation. In ecosystems where this type of parasite increased trophic transmission (PITT) occurs, parasites can play a substantial role in food webs. In this study, I investigate how chronic versus acute exposure to the trematode Euhaplorchis sp. A. affects the antipredator behavior of the Gulf killifish Fundulus grandis. Using a fully crossed design, I …


Tropical Understory And Canopy Twig Ants (Pseudomyrmex): Natural History, Sensory Homing, And Neuroecology., Daniella Prince Aug 2023

Tropical Understory And Canopy Twig Ants (Pseudomyrmex): Natural History, Sensory Homing, And Neuroecology., Daniella Prince

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

In this dissertation, I examined the behavior of foraging twig ants, explored the sensory profile of their homing behavior, and investigated the role of habitat use in shaping the sensory neurobiology of species within the genus Pseudomyrmex (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). In chapter one, I reviewed the ecology of Pseudomyrmex, and introduced the focal species, P. boopis, a neotropical understory-dwelling twig ant. In chapter two, I described the natural history of P. boopis on Barro Colorado Island, Panama—specifically, their nesting habits, activity rhythm, and foraging behavior on understory surfaces. Pseudomyrmex boopis colonies were diurnal and nested in dead twigs in …


Characterization Of Antimicrobial Properties Of Excrement And Functional Microbiome Of Black Vultures (Coragyps Atratus), Bridgette Gray Jul 2023

Characterization Of Antimicrobial Properties Of Excrement And Functional Microbiome Of Black Vultures (Coragyps Atratus), Bridgette Gray

Theses

Black vultures, Coragyps atratus, are obligate scavenging birds that consume and dispose of decaying carcasses and carrion. They fulfill a key ecological niche in the environments in which they live. It has been observed that these vultures sometimes excrete bodily waste onto their legs. This adaptive behavior could help aid them in controlling bacteria and other microbes they encounter while stepping into a carcass to eat. This study directly examined the antimicrobial properties of the excrement of black vultures across various bacterial species utilizing a zone of inhibition test and a nematode species utilizing a survival assay. The black vulture …


Westward Expansion Of The Evening Bat (Nycticeius Humeralis) Into Dawson And Lincoln Counties Of Central Nebraska, Jamila Bajelan, Keith Geluso Jun 2023

Westward Expansion Of The Evening Bat (Nycticeius Humeralis) Into Dawson And Lincoln Counties Of Central Nebraska, Jamila Bajelan, Keith Geluso

Transactions of the Nebraska Academy of Sciences and Affiliated Societies

The Evening Bat (Nycticeius humeralis) is a small, migratory species of temperate woodlands in the eastern United States. Along its western distributional edge in the Great Plains, this species resides in wooded riverine corridors. In recent decades, the distribution of Evening Bats has expanded westward throughout the Great Plains. Herein, we report on two county records that further document the distributional expansion of Evening Bats into central Nebraska. In 2019 and 2022, Evening Bats were collected in Lincoln and Dawson counties, respectively, in woodlands adjacent to the Platte River. Increases in wooded habitats along prairie waterways likely has …


Effects Of 11-Kt And Prolactin On Gene Expression, Parental Care Behaviour And Immune Response In Male Bluegill Sunfish., Adriano A P Da Cunha Jun 2023

Effects Of 11-Kt And Prolactin On Gene Expression, Parental Care Behaviour And Immune Response In Male Bluegill Sunfish., Adriano A P Da Cunha

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Parental care is very critical for reproduction in species that provide it. Hormones such as prolactin and androgens play a crucial role in parenting and reproductive behaviours. In mammals and birds, prolactin’s role in parental care is well-established; it stimulates milk production and stimulates attachment to newborns by its release in the preoptic area of the hypothalamus (POA), among other functions. Androgens, on the other hand, are commonly associated with male secondary sex characteristics, territoriality, and aggressiveness in mammals and birds. There are similar reports of prolactin and androgen effects in fish, but there are fewer studies. I investigated if …


Social Tolerance, Cooperation, And Constraint Shape Differentiated Social Relationships In Female Chimpanzees, Stephanie Fox Jun 2023

Social Tolerance, Cooperation, And Constraint Shape Differentiated Social Relationships In Female Chimpanzees, Stephanie Fox

Anthropology ETDs

In this dissertation, I investigate variables that promote and constrain female-female social relationships in chimpanzees, a species where females disperse at sexual maturity, reside primarily among non-kin as adults, and where fission fusion social structure can reveal how female social behavior responds to different social contexts. I conducted my research using a combination of detailed behavioural data that I collected during a one-year field season (2019-2020) and long-term data (2010-2019) collected by the Kibale Chimpanzee Project. I show that female chimpanzees form stable, differentiated social relationships, which reflect active preferences and variation in social tolerance (Chapter 2); females leverage these …