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Climate change

Utah State University

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Articles 1 - 30 of 71

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Understanding The Effects Of Climate Change Via Disturbance On Pristine Arctic Lakes—Multitrophic Level Response And Recovery To A 12-Yr, Low-Level Fertilization Experiment, Phaedra Budy, Casey A. Pennock, Anne E. Giblin, Chris Luecke, Daniel L. White, George W. Kling Aug 2021

Understanding The Effects Of Climate Change Via Disturbance On Pristine Arctic Lakes—Multitrophic Level Response And Recovery To A 12-Yr, Low-Level Fertilization Experiment, Phaedra Budy, Casey A. Pennock, Anne E. Giblin, Chris Luecke, Daniel L. White, George W. Kling

Watershed Sciences Student Research

Effects of climate change-driven disturbance on lake ecosystems can be subtle; indirect effects include increased nutrient loading that could impact ecosystem function. We designed a low-level fertilization experiment to mimic persistent, climate change-driven disturbances (deeper thaw, greater weathering, or thermokarst failure) delivering nutrients to arctic lakes. We measured responses of pelagic trophic levels over 12 yr in a fertilized deep lake with fish and a shallow fishless lake, compared to paired reference lakes, and monitored recovery for 6 yr. Relative to prefertilization in the deep lake, we observed a maximum pelagic response in chl a (+201%), dissolved oxygen (DO, −43 ...


Susceptibility Of High-Elevation Forests To Mountain Pine Beetle (Dendroctonus Ponderosae Hopkins) Under Climate Change, David N. Soderberg Aug 2021

Susceptibility Of High-Elevation Forests To Mountain Pine Beetle (Dendroctonus Ponderosae Hopkins) Under Climate Change, David N. Soderberg

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Across western North America, pine forests are important for timber, wildlife habitat, and at high elevations are important for water retention and yield from rain and snowmelt. The mountain pine beetle (MPB) is one of the most significant disturbance agents shaping pine forests, and like all insects, temperature is a major driver of its population success and the dynamics of the landscapes that they inhabit. Changing temperature regimes can therefore directly influence MPB population persistence at a particular location, in addition to potential shifts in the range boundaries that they inhabit. MPB is currently expanding its range northward in British ...


Understanding Climate Change Impacts And Adaptation Potentials At Utah Ski Resorts, Rachel Hager Aug 2021

Understanding Climate Change Impacts And Adaptation Potentials At Utah Ski Resorts, Rachel Hager

All Graduate Plan B and other Reports

Increasing temperature and shifting precipitation regimes due to climate change are a significant threat to winter recreation. Some businesses such as high-elevation ski resorts are especially vulnerable to the impacts of climate change. However, ski resorts may be able mitigate the impacts of climate change by proactively implementing adaptation strategies. The overall goal of this study was to investigate the impact of climate change on Utah ski resorts, and to understand adaptation perception, barriers, and strategies for different resorts across the state.

To meet that goal, we used a mixed-methods approach including examining temperature shifts at all Utah ski resorts ...


Spatial And Temporal Dynamics Of Human–Wildlife Conflicts In The Kenya Greater Tsavo Ecosystem, Joseph M. Mukeka, Joseph O. Ogutu, Erustus Kanga, Eivin Røskaft Oct 2020

Spatial And Temporal Dynamics Of Human–Wildlife Conflicts In The Kenya Greater Tsavo Ecosystem, Joseph M. Mukeka, Joseph O. Ogutu, Erustus Kanga, Eivin Røskaft

Human–Wildlife Interactions

Biodiversity conservation in developing countries is faced with many and mounting challenges, including increasing human–wildlife conflicts (HWCs). In Africa and other developing countries, increasing HWCs, particularly those adjacent to protected areas, can adversely affect local stakeholder perceptions and support for conservation. We analyzed HWC reports for multiple wildlife species compiled >23 years (1995–2017) from the Greater Tsavo Ecosystem (GTE) in Kenya to determine HWC trends. The GTE is the largest protected area in Kenya, covering 22,681 km2. Overall, 39,022 HWC incidents were reported in 6 GTE regions (i.e., Taveta, Mutomo, Kibwezi, Rombo, Galana, Bachuma ...


Patterns For Populus Spp. Stand Biomass In Gradients Of Winter Temperature And Precipitation Of Eurasia, Vladimir Andreevich Usoltev, Baozhang Chen, Seyed Omid Reza Shobairi, Ivan Stepanovich Tsepordey, Viktor Petrovich Chasovskikh, Shoaib Ahmad Anees Aug 2020

Patterns For Populus Spp. Stand Biomass In Gradients Of Winter Temperature And Precipitation Of Eurasia, Vladimir Andreevich Usoltev, Baozhang Chen, Seyed Omid Reza Shobairi, Ivan Stepanovich Tsepordey, Viktor Petrovich Chasovskikh, Shoaib Ahmad Anees

Aspen Bibliography

Based on a generated database of 413 sample plots, with definitions of stand biomass of the genus Populus spp. in Eurasia, from France to Japan and southern China, statistically significant changes in the structure of forest stand biomass were found, with shifts in winter temperatures and average annual precipitation. When analyzing the reaction of the structure of the biomass of the genus Populus to temperature and precipitation in their transcontinental gradients, a clearly expressed positive relationship of all components of the biomass with the temperature in January is visible. Their relationship with precipitation is less clear; in warm climate zones ...


Harmful Algal Blooms: Dominance In Lakes And Risk For Cyanotoxin Exposure In Food Crops, Austin D. Bartos Aug 2020

Harmful Algal Blooms: Dominance In Lakes And Risk For Cyanotoxin Exposure In Food Crops, Austin D. Bartos

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Climate change and human activities are promoting the dominance of a photosynthetic family of aquatic bacteria, cyanobacteria. Blooms of cyanobacteria are not only a visual nuisance but can produce a variety of cyanotoxins than can harm the liver, skin, and nervous system of animals and humans. We analyzed lakes in the contiguous United States and found that between 2007 and 2012, the number of lakes that produced measurable quantities of cyanotoxins increased from 33% to 45%. Nitrogen and phosphorus pollution were the main drivers of cyanobacteria blooms and toxin production between these years. Many of these lakes and reservoirs are ...


How Climate Impacts The Composition Of Wolf-Killed Elk In Northern Yellowstone National Park, Christopher C. Wilmers, Matthew C. Metz, Daniel R. Stahler, Michel T. Kohl, Chris Geremia, Douglas W. Smith Mar 2020

How Climate Impacts The Composition Of Wolf-Killed Elk In Northern Yellowstone National Park, Christopher C. Wilmers, Matthew C. Metz, Daniel R. Stahler, Michel T. Kohl, Chris Geremia, Douglas W. Smith

Ecology Center Publications

  1. While the functional response of predators is commonly measured, recent work has revealed that the age and sex composition of prey killed is often a better predictor of prey population dynamics because the reproductive value of adult females is usually higher than that of males or juveniles.
  2. Climate is often an important mediating factor in determining the composition of predator kills, but we currently lack a mechanistic understanding of how the multiple facets of climate interact with prey abundance and demography to influence the composition of predator kills.
  3. Over 20 winters, we monitored 17 wolf packs in Yellowstone National Park ...


Food Availability Modulates Temperature-Dependent Effects On Growth, Reproduction, And Survival In Daphnia Magna, Gustavo S. Betini, Xueqi Wang, Tal Avgar, Matthew M. Guzzo, John M. Fryxell Dec 2019

Food Availability Modulates Temperature-Dependent Effects On Growth, Reproduction, And Survival In Daphnia Magna, Gustavo S. Betini, Xueqi Wang, Tal Avgar, Matthew M. Guzzo, John M. Fryxell

Wildland Resources Faculty Publications

Reduced body size and accelerated life cycle due to warming are considered major ecological responses to climate change with fitness costs at the individual level. Surprisingly, we know little about how relevant ecological factors can alter these life history trade‐offs and their consequences for individual fitness. Here, we show that food modulates temperature‐dependent effects on body size in the water flea Daphnia magna and interacts with temperature to affect life history parameters. We exposed 412 individuals to a factorial manipulation of food abundance and temperature, tracked each reproductive event, and took daily measurements of body size from each ...


Future Climate Change Will Have A Positive Effect On Populus Davidiana In China, Jie Li, Guan Liu, Qi Lu, Yanru Zhang, Guoqing Li, Sheng Du Dec 2019

Future Climate Change Will Have A Positive Effect On Populus Davidiana In China, Jie Li, Guan Liu, Qi Lu, Yanru Zhang, Guoqing Li, Sheng Du

Aspen Bibliography

Since climate change significantly affects global biodiversity, a reasonable assessment of the vulnerability of species in response to climate change is crucial for conservation. Most existing methods estimate the impact of climate change on the vulnerability of species by projecting the change of a species’ distribution range. This single-component evaluation ignores the impact of other components on vulnerability. In this study, Populus davidiana (David’s aspen), a tree species widely used in afforestation projects, was selected as the research subject under four future climate change scenarios (representative concentration pathway (RCP)2.6, RCP4.5, RCP6.0, and RCP8.5). Exposure ...


Epidemic Spruce Beetle Outbreak Changes Drivers Of Engelmann Spruce Regeneration, Jessika M. Pettit, Julia I. Burton, R. Justin Derose, James N. Long, Steve L. Voelker Nov 2019

Epidemic Spruce Beetle Outbreak Changes Drivers Of Engelmann Spruce Regeneration, Jessika M. Pettit, Julia I. Burton, R. Justin Derose, James N. Long, Steve L. Voelker

Ecology Center Publications

Climate‐mediated disturbances outside the range of historical variability can have severe consequences on vital, post‐disturbance regeneration processes. High‐elevation forests of the Rocky Mountains that are dominated by Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii) and subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa) are expected to be sensitive to climate change. Additionally, these forests have experienced recent epidemic spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis) outbreaks that have often resulted in >95% mortality of overstory Engelmann spruce. Therefore, the future distribution of Engelmann spruce forests depends largely on natural regeneration processes. We examined Engelmann spruce seedlings across gradients in soil moisture and stand structural conditions 20 yr ...


Importance Of Tree-And Species-Level Interactions With Wildfire, Climate, And Soils In Interior Alaska: Implications For Forest Change Under A Warming Climate, Adrianna C. Foster, Amanda H. Armstrong, Jacquelyn K. Shuman, Herman H. Shugart, Brendan M. Rogers, Michelle C. Mack, Scott J. Goetz, K. Jon Ranson Oct 2019

Importance Of Tree-And Species-Level Interactions With Wildfire, Climate, And Soils In Interior Alaska: Implications For Forest Change Under A Warming Climate, Adrianna C. Foster, Amanda H. Armstrong, Jacquelyn K. Shuman, Herman H. Shugart, Brendan M. Rogers, Michelle C. Mack, Scott J. Goetz, K. Jon Ranson

Aspen Bibliography

The boreal zone of Alaska is dominated by interactions between disturbances, vegetation, and soils. These interactions are likely to change in the future through increasing permafrost thaw, more frequent and intense wildfires, and vegetation change from drought and competition. We utilize an individual tree-based vegetation model, the University of Virginia Forest Model Enhanced (UVAFME), to estimate current and future forest conditions across sites within interior Alaska. We updated UVAFME for application within interior Alaska, including improved simulation of permafrost dynamics, litter decay, nutrient dynamics, fire mortality, and postfire regrowth. Following these updates, UVAFME output on species-specific biomass and stem density ...


The Missing Angle: Ecosystem Consequences Of Phenological Mismatch, Karen H. Beard, Katharine C. Kelsey, A. Joshua Leffler, Jeffrey M. Welker Aug 2019

The Missing Angle: Ecosystem Consequences Of Phenological Mismatch, Karen H. Beard, Katharine C. Kelsey, A. Joshua Leffler, Jeffrey M. Welker

Ecology Center Publications

Climate change leads to unequal shifts in the phenology of interacting species, such as consumers and their resources, leading to potential phenological mismatches. While studies have investigated how phenological mismatch affects wild populations, we still lack studies and a framework for investigating how phenological mismatch affects ecosystems, particularly nutrient cycling.


The Vulnerability Of Littoral Structures Under Multiyear Drought Conditions, Jenna M. Keeton Aug 2019

The Vulnerability Of Littoral Structures Under Multiyear Drought Conditions, Jenna M. Keeton

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Climate change is associated with altered environmental conditions and shifting mosaics of suitable habitats for organisms. Climate change in the form of drought can shift important lake shoreline habitats downslope, altering the lakes chemistry and habitat availability. Additionally, negative biological consequences can occur after a loss of submerged habitat along shorelines, hereafter littoral habitat. The objective of this study is to evaluate whether littoral habitat is lost (cobble, coarse woody habitat (fallen trees; CWH), and aquatic vegetation) under drought conditions across the United States. I used the National Lakes Assessment physical habitat data collected in summer 2012, when 75% of ...


Linkage Of Climate Diagnostics In Predictions For Crop Production: Cold Impacts In Taiwan And Thailand, Parichart Promchote Aug 2019

Linkage Of Climate Diagnostics In Predictions For Crop Production: Cold Impacts In Taiwan And Thailand, Parichart Promchote

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This research presents three case studies of low temperature anomalies that occurred during the winter–spring seasons and their influence on extreme events and crop production. We investigate causes and effects of each climate event and developed prediction methods for crops based on the climate diagnostic information. The first study diagnosed the driven environmental-factors, including climate pattern, climate change, soils moisture, and sea level height, associated with the 2011 great flood in Thailand and resulting total crop loss. The second study investigated climate circulation and indices that contributed to wet-and-cold (WC) events leading to significant crop damage in Taiwan. We ...


Guidelines For Aspen Restoration In Utah With Applicability To The Intermountain West, Stanley G. Kitchen, Patrick N. Behrens, Sherel K. Goodrich, Ashley Green, John Guyon, Mary O'Brien, David Tart Jul 2019

Guidelines For Aspen Restoration In Utah With Applicability To The Intermountain West, Stanley G. Kitchen, Patrick N. Behrens, Sherel K. Goodrich, Ashley Green, John Guyon, Mary O'Brien, David Tart

Aspen Bibliography

As highly productive and biologically diverse communities, healthy quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides; hereafter aspen) forests provide a wide range of ecosystem services across western North America. Western aspen decline during the last century has been attributed to several causes and their interactions, including altered fire regimes, drought, excessive use by domestic and wild ungulates, and conifer encroachment. Today’s managers need science-based guidance to develop and implement strategies and practices to restore structure, processes, and resilience to the full range of aspen functional types across multiple spatial scales. In these guidelines, we detail a process for making step-by-step decisions about ...


Determining The Sensitivity Of Grassland Area Burned To Climate Variation In Xilingol, China, With An Autoregressive Distributed Lag Approach, Ali Hassan Shabbir, Jiquan Zhang, Xingpeng Liu, James A. Lutz, Carlos Valencia, James D. Johnston Jul 2019

Determining The Sensitivity Of Grassland Area Burned To Climate Variation In Xilingol, China, With An Autoregressive Distributed Lag Approach, Ali Hassan Shabbir, Jiquan Zhang, Xingpeng Liu, James A. Lutz, Carlos Valencia, James D. Johnston

Wildland Resources Faculty Publications

We examined the relationship between climate variables and grassland area burned in Xilingol, China, from 2001 to 2014 using an autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) model, and describe the application of this econometric method to studies of climate influences on wildland fire. We show that there is a stationary linear combination of non-stationary climate time series (cointegration) that can be used to reliably estimate the influence of different climate signals on area burned. Our model shows a strong relationship between maximum temperature and grassland area burned. Mean monthly wind speed and monthly hours of sunlight were also strongly associated with area ...


Drought And Freezing Vulnerability Of The Isolated Hybrid Aspen Populus X Smithii Relative To Its Parental Species, P. Tremuloides And P. Grandidentata, Nicholas J. Deacon, Jake J. Grossman, Jeannine Cavender-Bares Jun 2019

Drought And Freezing Vulnerability Of The Isolated Hybrid Aspen Populus X Smithii Relative To Its Parental Species, P. Tremuloides And P. Grandidentata, Nicholas J. Deacon, Jake J. Grossman, Jeannine Cavender-Bares

Aspen Bibliography

Aim

We assessed the vulnerability of an isolated, relictual Pleistocene hybrid aspen population of conservation interest (Populus x. smithii ) and the nearest populations of its parent species (Populus grandidentata and Populus tremuloides ) to springtime post‐bud break freezing and growing season drought stress. Response to these stressors in the three taxa was compared in terms of avoidance and tolerance.

Location

North American Midwest; USA.

Methods

Unique genets from the hybrid Niobrara River population and from the two parental populations were propagated in a common garden from rhizome cuttings. We tracked their phenology before and after bud break and measured their ...


Attendance Trends Threaten Future Operations Of America’S State Park Systems, Jordan Smith, Emily J. Wilkins, Yu-Fai Leung Jun 2019

Attendance Trends Threaten Future Operations Of America’S State Park Systems, Jordan Smith, Emily J. Wilkins, Yu-Fai Leung

Environment and Society Faculty Publications

This research examines how the operating expenditures of America’s state park systems will be affected by a continued growth in attendance consistent with observed trends as well as potential climate futures. We construct a longitudinal panel dataset (1984–2017) describing the operations and characteristics of all 50 state park systems. These data are analyzed with a time-varying stochastic frontier model. Estimates from the model are used to forecast operating expenditures to midcentury under four different scenarios. The first scenario assumes annual attendance within each state park system will continue to grow (or decline) at the same average annual rate ...


Beaver And Aspen: Synergy Among Keystone Species, Stephen N. Bennett, Nicolaas Bouwes, Paul C. Rogers May 2019

Beaver And Aspen: Synergy Among Keystone Species, Stephen N. Bennett, Nicolaas Bouwes, Paul C. Rogers

Aspen Bibliography

In the West, climate change is likely to increase the frequency, intensity, and duration of drought. Restoration of soils and water storage capacity can help create resilient uplands and riverscapes (i.e., streams and the valley bottoms). Over the past two centuries, common land uses, the removal of beaver and wood, straightening of streams, and damage to riparian areas have created simplified, structurally starved, riverscapes. Degraded streams are very efficient at transporting water, sediment, and nutrients downstream. Aspen forests are also biological hotspots that have been degraded by past land uses such as overbrowsing ungulates, land clearing, fire suppression, and ...


Mountain Lakes: Eyes On Global Environmental Change, K. A. Moser, J. S. Baron, Janice Brahney, I. A. Oleksy, J. E. Saros, E. J. Hundey, S. A. Sadro, J. Kopáček, R. Sommaruga, M. J. Kainz, A. L. Strecker, S. Chandra, D. M. Walters, D. L. Preston, Et Al. Apr 2019

Mountain Lakes: Eyes On Global Environmental Change, K. A. Moser, J. S. Baron, Janice Brahney, I. A. Oleksy, J. E. Saros, E. J. Hundey, S. A. Sadro, J. Kopáček, R. Sommaruga, M. J. Kainz, A. L. Strecker, S. Chandra, D. M. Walters, D. L. Preston, Et Al.

Watershed Sciences Faculty Publications

Mountain lakes are often situated in protected natural areas, a feature that leads to their role as sentinels of global environmental change. Despite variations in latitude, mountain lakes share many features, including their location in catchments with steep topographic gradients, cold temperatures, high incident solar and ultraviolet radiation (UVR), and prolonged ice and snow cover. These characteristics, in turn, affect mountain lake ecosystem structure, diversity, and productivity. The lakes themselves are mostly small, and up until recently, have been characterized as oligotrophic. This paper provides a review and update of the growing body of research that shows that sediments in ...


Radiometric Method For Determining Canopy Stomatal Conductance In Controlled Environments, Oscar Monje, Bruce Bugbee Feb 2019

Radiometric Method For Determining Canopy Stomatal Conductance In Controlled Environments, Oscar Monje, Bruce Bugbee

Plants, Soils, and Climate Faculty Publications

Canopy stomatal conductance is a key physiological factor controlling transpiration from plant canopies, but it is extremely difficult to determine in field environments. The objective of this study was to develop a radiometric method for calculating canopy stomatal conductance for two plant species—wheat and soybean from direct measurements of bulk surface conductance to water vapor and the canopy aerodynamic conductance in controlled-environment chambers. The chamber provides constant net radiation, temperature, humidity, and ventilation rate to the plant canopy. In this method, stepwise changes in chamber CO2 alter canopy temperature, latent heat, and sensible heat fluxes simultaneously. Sensible heat ...


Climate Change, Woodpeckers, And Forests: Current Trends And Future Modeling Needs, Eric S. Walsh, Kerri T. Vierling, Eva Strand, Kristina Bartowitz, Tara W. Hudiburg Feb 2019

Climate Change, Woodpeckers, And Forests: Current Trends And Future Modeling Needs, Eric S. Walsh, Kerri T. Vierling, Eva Strand, Kristina Bartowitz, Tara W. Hudiburg

Aspen Bibliography

The structure and composition of forest ecosystems are expected to shift with climate‐induced changes in precipitation, temperature, fire, carbon mitigation strategies, and biological disturbance. These factors are likely to have biodiversity implications. However, climate‐driven forest ecosystem models used to predict changes to forest structure and composition are not coupled to models used to predict changes to biodiversity. We proposed integrating woodpecker response (biodiversity indicator) with forest ecosystem models. Woodpeckers are a good indicator species of forest ecosystem dynamics, because they are ecologically constrained by landscape‐scale forest components, such as composition, structure, disturbance regimes, and management activities. In ...


Ecological Consequences Of Anomalies In Atmospheric Moisture And Snowpack, Aaron N. Johnston, Jason E. Bruggeman, Aidan T. Beers, Erik A. Beever, Roger G. Christophersen, Jason I. Ransom Feb 2019

Ecological Consequences Of Anomalies In Atmospheric Moisture And Snowpack, Aaron N. Johnston, Jason E. Bruggeman, Aidan T. Beers, Erik A. Beever, Roger G. Christophersen, Jason I. Ransom

Wildland Resources Faculty Publications

Although increased frequency of extreme‐weather events is one of the most secure predictions associated with contemporary climate change, effects of such events on distribution and abundance of climate‐sensitive species remain poorly understood. Montane ecosystems may be especially sensitive to extreme weather because of complex abiotic and biotic interactions that propagate from climate‐driven reductions in snowpack. Snowpack not only protects subnivean biotas from extreme cold, but also influences forage availability through timing of melt‐off and water availability. We related relative abundances of an alpine mammal, the American pika (Ochotona princeps), to measures of weather and snowpack dynamics ...


Back To The Future: Conserving Functional And Phylogenetic Diversity In The Amphibian-Climate Refuges, Ricardo Lourenço-De-Moraes, Felipe S. Campos, Rodrigo B. Ferreira, Mirco Solé, Karen H. Beard, Rogério P. Bastos Jan 2019

Back To The Future: Conserving Functional And Phylogenetic Diversity In The Amphibian-Climate Refuges, Ricardo Lourenço-De-Moraes, Felipe S. Campos, Rodrigo B. Ferreira, Mirco Solé, Karen H. Beard, Rogério P. Bastos

Ecology Center Publications

Climate refuges have been used by several species over historical climate change. Ectothermic species often display good models for climate change studies because they are highly sensitive to temperature. Analysis of species loss with ecosystem and evolutionary values helps to understand environmental processes and climate change consequences. We determined the functional and phylogenetic diversity of amphibians in the Atlantic Forest hotspot, using multiple models representing present and future conditions. Through a novel approach, we predict species’ threat status by 2080, following the IUCN’s criterion B1. Our results estimate a drastic reduction in species richness, ecosystem functioning and evolutionary history ...


Climate Change Adaptation In The Delta Nile Region Of Egypt: Implications For Agricultural Extension, Hazem S. Kassem, Abdel Raouf Suleiman Bello, Bader M. Alotaibi, Fahd O. Aldosri, Gary S. Straquadine Jan 2019

Climate Change Adaptation In The Delta Nile Region Of Egypt: Implications For Agricultural Extension, Hazem S. Kassem, Abdel Raouf Suleiman Bello, Bader M. Alotaibi, Fahd O. Aldosri, Gary S. Straquadine

Extension Research

This study used quantitative and qualitative methods to collect data, using questionnaires and interviews, from 792 randomly-selected farmers in two of the governorates in the Nile Delta Region, Egypt. A workshop was organized for 59 extension professionals working in the two governorates, looking at how the adaptive capacity of the agricultural sector towards climate change was being guided by policy-makers. Two focus groups were used: one with senior officials from the regional governorates and the other with central government administrators from the Ministry of Agriculture and Land Reclamation. The study findings suggested that 51.9% of the investigated farmers at ...


Creative Citizen Science Illuminates Complex Ecological Responses To Climate Change, Abraham J. Miller-Rushing, Amanda S. Gallinat, Richard B. Primack Jan 2019

Creative Citizen Science Illuminates Complex Ecological Responses To Climate Change, Abraham J. Miller-Rushing, Amanda S. Gallinat, Richard B. Primack

Biology Faculty Publications

Climate change is causing the timing of key behaviors (i.e., phenology) to shift differently across trophic levels and among some interacting organisms (e.g., plants and pollinators, predators and prey), suggesting that interactions among species are being disrupted (1, 2). Studying the phenology of interactions, however, is difficult, which has limited researchers’ ability to zero in on changes in specific interactions or on the consequences of mismatches. In PNAS, Hassall et al. (3) use a combination of citizen science techniques to investigate the effects of climate change on dozens of specific interactions. They focus on a Batesian mimicry complex ...


Managing Urban Crow Populations In Japan, Tsuyoshi Yoda Jan 2019

Managing Urban Crow Populations In Japan, Tsuyoshi Yoda

Human–Wildlife Interactions

Crow (Corvus spp.) populations are increasing globally. This is cause for concern because overabundant crow populations can damage agricultural crops, harm native wildlife, and become a nuisance in urban areas. In Japan, the carrion (C. corone) and large-billed crow (C. macrorhynchos) can cause damage to crops and livestock. This damage is predicted to increase in Japan with climate change, especially when precipitation increases, inducing landscape changes that may favor crow populations and activities. In Japan, the primary control method used to manage crow damage is the destruction of nests by a crow control officer who is employed by local municipalities ...


Dependence Of Aspen Stands On A Subsurface Water Subsidy: Implications For Climate Change Impacts, D. M. Love, M. D. Venturas, J. S. Sperry, P. D. Brooks, Joseph L. Pettit, Y. Wang, W. R.L. Anderegg, X. Tai, D. S. Mackay Dec 2018

Dependence Of Aspen Stands On A Subsurface Water Subsidy: Implications For Climate Change Impacts, D. M. Love, M. D. Venturas, J. S. Sperry, P. D. Brooks, Joseph L. Pettit, Y. Wang, W. R.L. Anderegg, X. Tai, D. S. Mackay

Wildland Resources Faculty Publications

The reliance of 10 Utah (USA) aspen forests on direct infiltration of growing season rain versus an additional subsurface water subsidy was determined from a trait‐ and process‐based model of stomatal control. The model simulated the relationship between water supply to the root zone versus canopy transpiration and assimilation over a growing season. Canopy flux thresholds were identified that distinguished nonstressed, stressed, and dying stands. We found growing season rain and local soil moisture were insufficient for the survival of 5 of 10 stands. Six stands required a substantial subsidy (31–80% of potential seasonal transpiration) to avoid water ...


Quantifying The Impact Of Climate Change And Human Activities On Streamflow In A Semi-Arid Watershed With The Budyko Equation Incorporating Dynamic Vegetation Information, Lei Tian, Jiming Jin, Pute Wu, Guo-Yue Niu Dec 2018

Quantifying The Impact Of Climate Change And Human Activities On Streamflow In A Semi-Arid Watershed With The Budyko Equation Incorporating Dynamic Vegetation Information, Lei Tian, Jiming Jin, Pute Wu, Guo-Yue Niu

Watershed Sciences Faculty Publications

Understanding hydrological responses to climate change and land use and land cover change (LULCC) is important for water resource planning and management, especially for water-limited areas. The annual streamflow of the Wuding River Watershed (WRW), the largest sediment source of the Yellow River in China, has decreased significantly over the past 50 years at a rate of 5.2 mm/decade. Using the Budyko equation, this study investigated this decrease with the contributions from climate change and LULCC caused by human activities, which have intensified since 1999 due to China’s Grain for Green Project (GFGP). The Budyko parameter that ...


Assessment Of The Effects Of Climate Change On Evapotranspiration With An Improved Elasticity Method In A Nonhumid Area, Lei Tian, Jiming Jin, Pute Wu, Guo-Yue Niu Dec 2018

Assessment Of The Effects Of Climate Change On Evapotranspiration With An Improved Elasticity Method In A Nonhumid Area, Lei Tian, Jiming Jin, Pute Wu, Guo-Yue Niu

Watershed Sciences Faculty Publications

Climatic elasticity is a crucial metric to assess the hydrological influence of climate change. Based on the Budyko equation, this study performed an analytical derivation of the climatic elasticity of evapotranspiration (ET). With this derived elasticity, it is possible to quantitatively separate the impacts of precipitation, air temperature, net radiation, relative humidity, and wind speed on ET in a watershed. This method was applied in the Wuding River Watershed (WRW), located in the center of the Yellow River Watershed of China. The estimated rate of change in ET caused by climatic variables is −10.69 mm/decade, which is close ...