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Full-Text Articles in Law

The Law And Politics Of Ransomware, Asaf Lubin Oct 2022

The Law And Politics Of Ransomware, Asaf Lubin

Articles by Maurer Faculty

What do Lady Gaga, the Royal Zoological Society of Scotland, the city of Valdez in Alaska, and the court system of the Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul all have in common? They have all been victims of ransomware attacks, which are growing both in number and severity. In 2016, hackers perpetrated roughly four thousand ransomware attacks a day worldwide, a figure which was already alarming. By 2020, however, ransomware attacks reached a staggering number, between 20,000 and 30,000 per day in the United States alone. That is a ransomware attack every eleven seconds, each of which cost victims …


An Osm For Iot: Establishing An Office Of Special Masters To Resolve Certain Cases Involving The Internet Of Things, Abigail Perdue, Bethany Corbin Sep 2021

An Osm For Iot: Establishing An Office Of Special Masters To Resolve Certain Cases Involving The Internet Of Things, Abigail Perdue, Bethany Corbin

West Virginia Law Review

No abstract provided.


Technological 'Disruption' Of The Law's Imagined Scene: Some Lessons From Lex Informatica, Margot Kaminski Jan 2021

Technological 'Disruption' Of The Law's Imagined Scene: Some Lessons From Lex Informatica, Margot Kaminski

Publications

Joel Reidenberg in his 1998 Article Lex Informatica observed that technology can be a distinct regulatory force in its own right and claimed that law would arise in response to human needs. Today, law and technology scholarship continues to ask: does technology ever disrupt the law? This Article articulates one particular kind of “legal disruption”: how technology (or really, the social use of technology) can alter the imagined setting around which policy conversations take place—what Jack Balkin and Reva Siegal call the “imagined regulatory scene.” Sociotechnical change can alter the imagined regulatory scene’s architecture, upsetting a policy balance and undermining …


A Regulatory Roadmap For Financial Innovation, Cristie Ford Jan 2021

A Regulatory Roadmap For Financial Innovation, Cristie Ford

All Faculty Publications

Private sector innovation – whether it is fintech, biotechnology, the platformisation of the economy, or other developments – is the single most profound challenge that regulators confront today. Financial innovations, which are intangible and fast-moving, are especially challenging. Financial regulators are at the operational front line of making sense of the promise and the risks associated with fintech, and helping to ensure it operates for public benefit.

Faced with such a changeable and fast-moving problem, how can regulators “future proof” themselves?

This chapter outlines a roadmap for financial regulators who confront fast-moving and profound change in their sectors. It argues …


Insuring Evolving Technology, Asaf Lubin Jan 2021

Insuring Evolving Technology, Asaf Lubin

Articles by Maurer Faculty

The study of the interaction between law and technology is more critical today than ever before. Advancements in artificial intelligence, information communications, biological and chemical engineering, and space-faring technologies, to name but a few examples, are forcing us to reexamine our traditional understanding of basic concepts in torts and insurance law.

Yet, few insurance professionals and scholars will identify themselves as working in the field of “law-and-technology.” For many of them, technology is “just a fact about the world like any other,” as Ryan Calo once put it, not one that always merits “special care.”

This short paper is an …


Contracts Formed By Software: When Things Go Wrong, Vincent Ooi Nov 2019

Contracts Formed By Software: When Things Go Wrong, Vincent Ooi

Research Collection Yong Pung How School Of Law

The use of software in contract formation is likely to become increasingly pervasive in light of the digital economy. Consequently, software can also be expected to exhibit greater autonomy and take on increasingly complex transactions and contract negotiations. It is important that a legally coherent, fair, certain and economically justified approach be taken to regulate such contracts.A ‘contracting problem’ arises when software is used to autonomously enter into contracts without human input. The formation of a valid contract requires, inter alia, an agreement between two or more parties, where each party exhibits an objective intention to be legally bound (the …


Cryptocurrencies And Code Before The Courts, Vincent Ooi, Kian Peng Soh Nov 2019

Cryptocurrencies And Code Before The Courts, Vincent Ooi, Kian Peng Soh

Research Collection Yong Pung How School Of Law

In the rapidly developing cyber sphere dominated by cryptocurrencies and code, it is perhaps not uncommon for firms to focus on cutting-edge technological developments leaving the law behind as an afterthought. B2C2 Ltd v Quoine Pte Ltd (‘B2C2’)1 may serve as a timely reminder of the importance of the legal principles supporting e-commerce and Fintech. In the first case of its kind, B2C2 raised several key questions before the Singapore International Commercial Court (‘SICC’), seeking clarification on how the established legal concepts of breach of trust, mistake and unjust enrichment might apply in the context where an automated contract-forming software …


Contracts Formed By Software: An Approach From The Law Of Mistake, Vincent Ooi Feb 2019

Contracts Formed By Software: An Approach From The Law Of Mistake, Vincent Ooi

Centre for AI & Data Governance

A ‘Contracting Problem’ arises when software is used to autonomously enter into contracts without human input. Questions arise as to how and whether there can be an expression of an objective intention to be legally bound. This article considers three leading solutions to the Contracting Problem. The ‘Mere Tools Theory’, which views software as ‘mere tools’ of communication, is too harsh as it binds users to any software malfunction. The Agency Approach, which treats software as Electronic Agents, capable of contracting on behalf of their users, is untenable as it ascribes unrealistic characteristics to software. The article submits that the …


הורות משפטית מן הדין ומן הצדק - Legal Parenthood - Law And Justice, Yehezkel Margalit Aug 2018

הורות משפטית מן הדין ומן הצדק - Legal Parenthood - Law And Justice, Yehezkel Margalit

Hezi Margalit

מן המפורסמות שאינן צריכות לראיה היא הקביעה שלפיה הכרה בהורות משפטית בישראל של פרט מסוים אפשרית אך ורק מכוח זיקה ביולוגית, גנטית או פיזיולוגית; מכוח צו אימוץ או לחלופין מכוח קבלת צו הורות בסיומו של הליך לנשיאת עוברים. אולם זעיר פה זעיר שם, הלכה למעשה, מתקבלות החלטות שיפוטיות שאינן עולות בקנה אחד עם תפיסת עולם קוהרנטית ומקיפה לכאורה זו, הסודקות עוד ועוד תובנה זו. ללא כל ספק, דרך המלך בקעקועה של הנחת העבודה המקובלת היא השימוש ההולך וגובר בצו הורות פסיקתי. בהליך בתולי זה במשפט הישראלי החלו בתי המשפט לענייני משפחה להשתמש במחצית הראשונה של שנת 2012 בהקניית אימהות משפטית …


The Rise And Fall Of Private Sector Unionism: What Next For The Nlra?, Jeffrey M. Hirsch, Barry T. Hirsch Jun 2018

The Rise And Fall Of Private Sector Unionism: What Next For The Nlra?, Jeffrey M. Hirsch, Barry T. Hirsch

Jeffrey M. Hirsch

No abstract provided.


Survey Of (Mostly Outdated And Often Ineffective) Laws Affecting Work-Related Monitoring, Robert Sprague Mar 2018

Survey Of (Mostly Outdated And Often Ineffective) Laws Affecting Work-Related Monitoring, Robert Sprague

Chicago-Kent Law Review

This article reviews various laws that affect work-related monitoring. It reveals that most of our privacy laws were adopted well before smartphones and the Internet became ubiquitous; they still hunt for physical secluded locations; and, because they are based on reasonable expectations of privacy, they can easily be circumvented by employer policies that eliminate that expectation by informing workers they have no right to privacy in the workplace. This article concludes that the future—indeed the present—does not bode well for worker privacy.


2016-2017 Oxford Business Law Blog Round-Up: Most Read Opinion Pieces, Maurice Stucke Jan 2017

2016-2017 Oxford Business Law Blog Round-Up: Most Read Opinion Pieces, Maurice Stucke

Scholarly Works

On 14 March 2017, the Oxford Business Law Blog (OBLB) marked its first anniversary. One year ago, we set out to create a leading and truly international forum for the exchange of ideas and reporting of new developments in business law. Since then, we have published over 530 posts from academics and practitioners from across the world and have reached readers from over 150 countries.

The OBLB is now a firmly entrenched part of the Oxford Law Faculty’s Business Law Hub. The purpose of this collection is to celebrate submissions created especially for publication on the OBLB. As such, this …


3d Printing And Healthcare: Will Laws, Lawyers, And Companies Stand In The Way Of Patient Care?, Evan R. Youngstrom Apr 2016

3d Printing And Healthcare: Will Laws, Lawyers, And Companies Stand In The Way Of Patient Care?, Evan R. Youngstrom

Evan R. Youngstrom

Today, our society is on a precipice of significant advancement in healthcare because 3D printing will usher in the next generation of medicine. The next generation will be driven by customization, which will allow doctors to replace limbs and individualize drugs. However, the next generation will be without large pharmaceutical companies and their justifications for strong intellectual property rights. However, the current patent system (which is underpinned by a social tradeoff made from property incentives) is not flexible enough to cope with 3D printing’s rapid development. Very soon, the social tradeoff will no longer benefit society, so it must be …


A Roundtable Discussion With Lawrence Lessig, David G. Post & Jeffrey Rosen, Thomas E. Baker Feb 2016

A Roundtable Discussion With Lawrence Lessig, David G. Post & Jeffrey Rosen, Thomas E. Baker

Thomas E. Baker

This article is a transcript of a discussion between Lawrence Lessig, David G. Post and Jeffrey Rosen on a variety of issues surrounding law, technology and the Internet. The moderator was Thomas E. Baker and the discussion was part of a Drake University Law School symposium in February of 2001.


New Kids On The Blockchain: How Bitcoin's Technology Could Reinvent The Stock Market, Larissa Lee Jan 2016

New Kids On The Blockchain: How Bitcoin's Technology Could Reinvent The Stock Market, Larissa Lee

Larissa Lee

Bitcoin is the first and most successful digital currency in the world. It is polarized in the news almost daily, with either glowing reviews of the many benefits of an alternative and international currency, or doomsday predictions of anarchy, deflation, and another tulip bubble.This Article focuses on the truly innovative aspect of Bitcoin—and that which has gone mostly unnoticed since its inception—the technological platform used to transfer Bitcoin from one party to another. This technology is called the Blockchain. The Blockchain eschews a bank or other middleman and allows parties to transfer funds directly to one another, using a peer-to-peer …


Machine Learning, Automated Suspicion Algorithms, And The Fourth Amendment, Michael L. Rich Jan 2016

Machine Learning, Automated Suspicion Algorithms, And The Fourth Amendment, Michael L. Rich

Michael L Rich

At the conceptual intersection of machine learning and government data collection lie Automated Suspicion Algorithms, or ASAs, algorithms created through the application of machine learning methods to collections of government data with the purpose of identifying individuals likely to be engaged in criminal activity. The novel promise of ASAs is that they can identify data-supported correlations between innocent conduct and criminal activity and help police prevent crime. ASAs present a novel doctrinal challenge, as well, as they intrude on a step of the Fourth Amendment’s individualized suspicion analysis previously the sole province of human actors: the determination of when reasonable …


Bridging The Gap Between Intent And Status: A New Framework For Modern Parentage, Yehezkel Margalit Jan 2016

Bridging The Gap Between Intent And Status: A New Framework For Modern Parentage, Yehezkel Margalit

Hezi Margalit

The last few decades have witnessed dramatic changes in the conceptualization and methodologies of determining legal parentage in the U.S. and other countries in the western world. Through various sociological shifts, growing social openness and bio-medical innovations, the traditional definitions of family and parenthood have been dramatically transformed. This transformation has led to an acute and urgent need for legal and social frameworks to regulate the process of determining legal parentage. Moreover, instead of progressing in a piecemeal, ad-hoc manner, the framework for determining legal parentage should be comprehensive. Only a comprehensive solution will address the differing needs of today’s …


From Baby M To Baby M(Anji): Regulating International Surrogacy Agreements, Yehezkel Margalit Jan 2016

From Baby M To Baby M(Anji): Regulating International Surrogacy Agreements, Yehezkel Margalit

Hezi Margalit

In 1985, when Kim Cotton became Britain’s first commercial surrogate mother, Europe was exposed to the issue of surrogacy for the first time on a large scale. Three years later, in 1988, the famous case of Baby M drew the attention of the American public to surrogacy as well. These two cases implicated fundamental ethical and legal issues regarding domestic surrogacy and triggered a fierce debate about motherhood, child-bearing, and the relationship between procreation, science and commerce. These two cases exemplified the debate regarding domestic surrogacy - a debate that has now been raging for decades. Contrary to the well-known …


Modularity Theory And Internet Regulation, Christopher S. Yoo Jan 2016

Modularity Theory And Internet Regulation, Christopher S. Yoo

All Faculty Scholarship

Modularity is often cited as one of the foundations for the Internet’s success. Unfortunately, academic discussions about modularity appearing in the literature on Internet policy are undertheorized. The persistence of nonmodular architectures for some technologies underscores the need for some theoretical basis for determining when modularity is the preferred approach. Even when modularity is desirable, theory must provide some basis for making key design decisions, such as the number of modules, the location of the interfaces between the modules, and the information included in those interfaces.

The literature on innovation indicates that modules should be determined by the nature of …


Friends, Followers, Connections, Lend Me Your Ears: A New Test For Determining The Sufficiency Of Service Of Process Via Social Media, Christopher M. Finke Jan 2016

Friends, Followers, Connections, Lend Me Your Ears: A New Test For Determining The Sufficiency Of Service Of Process Via Social Media, Christopher M. Finke

University of Baltimore Law Review

The emergence of social media as a driving force in modern society has brought it to the forefront of legal discussion in all areas of law. Fields of study such as evidence, ethics, and constitutional law are all currently wrestling with how social media ought to be handled. In particular, courts have attempted to determine whether service of process (or simply “service”) should be satisfied by the use of communication through social media. Since 1950, courts have relied upon the same test, regardless of the method used, to determine the sufficiency of service: the Mullane test. Mullane as currently applied, …


Moving Beyond Bitcoin To An Endogenous Theory Of Decentralized Ledger Technology Regulation: An Initial Proposal, Carla L. Reyes Jan 2016

Moving Beyond Bitcoin To An Endogenous Theory Of Decentralized Ledger Technology Regulation: An Initial Proposal, Carla L. Reyes

Faculty Journal Articles and Book Chapters

Current regulation of decentralized ledger technology leaves industry actors in confusion, facing high risk, and confronting significant disincentives to innovate. This Article argues that an endogenous regulatory approach offers an avenue for alleviating these obstacles while still providing sufficient tools for government oversight. In particular, this Article proposes regulation that is endogenous at two levels: first, in that it is created through an iterative, cooperative process involving both regulators and industry actors, and second, that it is implemented as regulation-through-code, that is, regulation written into the code itself. In so doing, this Article also investigates whether successful implementation of such …


Employee Electronic Communications In A Boundaryless World, Robert Sprague Dec 2015

Employee Electronic Communications In A Boundaryless World, Robert Sprague

Robert Sprague

In 2007, the National Labor Relations Board decided that an employer could maintain an email communications policy that prohibits nonwork-related messages, even if those messages involved communications otherwise protected under the National Labor Relations Act. In December 2014, the National Labor Relations Board reversed this holding, but in doing so, limited its decision to just workplace email. This article argues that such a prescription is outdated and archaic in light of today’s modern workplace filled with communications devices and systems that blur the distinction between work and personal life. This article explains that such a prescription can cause employees to …


Just Cause Discipline For Social Networking In The New Gilded Age: Will The Law Look The Other Way?, William A. Herbert, Alicia Mcnally Dec 2015

Just Cause Discipline For Social Networking In The New Gilded Age: Will The Law Look The Other Way?, William A. Herbert, Alicia Mcnally

William A. Herbert

We live and work in an era with the moniker of the New Gilded Age to describe the growth in societal income inequality. The designation is not limited to evidence of the growing gap in wealth distribution, but also the sharp rise in employment without security, including contingent and part-time work. This article examines the state of workplace procedural protections against discipline as they relate to employee use of social media in the New Gilded Age. In our times, reactions to the rapid distribution of troublesome electronic communications through social networking tend to eclipse patience for enforceable workplace procedures. The …


Can Dna Be Speech?, Jorge R. Roig Dec 2015

Can Dna Be Speech?, Jorge R. Roig

Jorge R Roig

DNA is generally regarded as the basic building block of life itself. In the most fundamental sense, DNA is nothing more than a chemical compound, albeit a very complex and peculiar one. DNA is an information-carrying molecule. The specific sequence of base pairs contained in a DNA molecule carries with it genetic information, and encodes for the creation of particular proteins. When taken as a whole, the DNA contained in a single human cell is a complete blueprint and instruction manual for the creation of that human being.
In this article we discuss myriad current and developing ways in which …


Internet Governance Is Our Shared Responsibility, Vinton Cerf, Patrick Ryan, Max Senges Dec 2015

Internet Governance Is Our Shared Responsibility, Vinton Cerf, Patrick Ryan, Max Senges

Patrick T. Ryan

This essay looks at the the different roles that institutions play in the Internet governance ecosystem. We propose a model for thinking of Internet governance within the context of the layered model of the Internet. We use the example of the negotiations in Dubai in 2102 at the World Conference on International Telecommunications to show why it is important for different institutions within the governance system to focus on their areas of expertise (e.g., the ITU, ICANN, and IGF). Several areas of conflict are reviewed, such as the desire to promote more broadband infrastructure (a topic that is in the …


Admissibility Of Scientific Evidence Under Daubert: The Fatal Flaws Of ‘Falsifiability’ And ‘Falsification’, Barbara P. Billauer Esq Dec 2015

Admissibility Of Scientific Evidence Under Daubert: The Fatal Flaws Of ‘Falsifiability’ And ‘Falsification’, Barbara P. Billauer Esq

barbara p billauer esq

Abstract: The Daubert mantra demands that judges, acting as gatekeepers, prevent para, pseudo or ‘bad’ science from infiltrating the courtroom. To do so, the Judges must first determine what “science” is? And then, what ‘good science’ is? It is submitted that Daubert is seriously polluted with the notions of Karl Popper who sets ‘falsifiability’ and ‘falsification’ as the demarcation line for that determination. This inapt philosophy has intractably infected case law, leading to bad decisions immortalized as stare decisis. Among other problems, is the intolerance of Popper’s system for multiple causation, a key component of toxic- torts. Thus, the primary …


Gandhi’S Prophecy: Corporate Violence And A Mindful Law For Bhopal, Nehal A. Patel Dec 2015

Gandhi’S Prophecy: Corporate Violence And A Mindful Law For Bhopal, Nehal A. Patel

Nehal A. Patel

AbstractOver thirty years have passed since the Bhopal chemical disaster began,and in that time scholars of corporate social responsibility (CSR) havediscussed and debated several frameworks for improving corporate responseto social and environmental problems. However, CSR discourse rarelydelves into the fundamental architecture of legal thought that oftenbuttresses corporate dominance in the global economy. Moreover, CSRdiscourse does little to challenge the ontological and epistemologicalassumptions that form the foundation for modern economics and the role ofcorporations in the world.I explore methods of transforming CSR by employing the thought ofMohandas Gandhi. I pay particular attention to Gandhi’s critique ofindustrialization and principle of swadeshi (self-sufficiency) …


One Centimeter Over My Back Yard: Where Does Federal Preemption Of State Drone Regulation Start? (With Albert J. Plawinski", Henry H. Perritt Jr. Nov 2015

One Centimeter Over My Back Yard: Where Does Federal Preemption Of State Drone Regulation Start? (With Albert J. Plawinski", Henry H. Perritt Jr.

Henry H. Perritt, Jr.

The proliferation of cheap civilian drones and their obvious utility for precision agriculture, motion picture and television production, aerial surveying, newsgathering, utility infrastructure inspection, and disaster relief has accelerated the FAA’s sluggish effort to develop a proposal for generally applicable rules and caused it to grant more than 600 “section 333 exemptions” permitting commercial drone flight before its rules are finalized.
Federal preemption in the field of aviation safety regulation is generally assumed, but political pressure on states and municipalities to regulate drones and the ability of this revolutionary aviation technology to open up space close to the ground for …


One Centimeter Over My Back Yard: Where Does Federal Preemption Of State Drone Regulation Start?, Henry H. Perritt Jr. Oct 2015

One Centimeter Over My Back Yard: Where Does Federal Preemption Of State Drone Regulation Start?, Henry H. Perritt Jr.

All Faculty Scholarship

The proliferation of cheap civilian drones and their obvious utility for precision agriculture, motion picture and television production, aerial surveying, newsgathering, utility infrastructure inspection, and disaster relief has accelerated the FAA’s sluggish effort to develop a proposal for generally applicable rules and caused it to grant more than 600 “section 333 exemptions” permitting commercial drone flight before its rules are finalized.

Federal preemption in the field of aviation safety regulation is generally assumed, but political pressure on states and municipalities to regulate drones and the ability of this revolutionary aviation technology to open up space close to the ground for …


Some Key Things Entrepreneurs Need To Know About The Law And Lawyers, Lawrence J. Trautman, Anthony Luppino, Malika S. Simmons Sep 2015

Some Key Things Entrepreneurs Need To Know About The Law And Lawyers, Lawrence J. Trautman, Anthony Luppino, Malika S. Simmons

Lawrence J. Trautman Sr.

New business formation is a powerful economic engine that creates jobs. Diverse legal issues are encountered as a start-up entity approaches formation, initial capitalization and fundraising, arrangements with employees and independent contractors, and relationships with other third parties. The endeavors of a typical start-up in the United States will likely implicate many of the following areas of law: intellectual property; business organizations; tax laws; employment and labor laws; securities regulation; contracts and licensing agreements; commercial sales; debtor-creditor relations; real estate law; health and safety laws/codes; permits and licenses; environmental protection; industry specific regulatory laws and approval processes; tort/personal injury, products …