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2021

Banking and Finance Law

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Full-Text Articles in Law

Mind The Gap: A Comparative Approach For Fixing Volcker, Learning From Liikanen, And Using Vickers To Repair The U.S. Banking System, Rachel Sereix Dec 2021

Mind The Gap: A Comparative Approach For Fixing Volcker, Learning From Liikanen, And Using Vickers To Repair The U.S. Banking System, Rachel Sereix

Duke Journal of Constitutional Law & Public Policy Sidebar

After the 2008 financial crisis, Congress, courts, and international banking agencies alike determined that their current banking infrastructures were inadequate to prevent such crises in the future. The Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform Acttried to solve the problem by reducing derivatives-related risk through legislative provisions that increased capital and liquidity requirements for all banks. Yet, banks continued to find means to subvert the system and Congress remained relatively silent on the issue after the passage of Dodd-Frank—failing to amend Dodd-Frank in any meaningful way. Looking towards European peers for guidance about how to reform the United States’ banking regime has often …


Spactivism, Sharon Hannes, Adi Libson, Gideon Parchomovsky Dec 2021

Spactivism, Sharon Hannes, Adi Libson, Gideon Parchomovsky

All Faculty Scholarship

In this Essay, we propose a modified version of the SPAC designed to allow the public to participate in the world of corporate activism. Unlike existing SPACs, our version is designed for investments in public companies in order to change their course of action, not in private companies in order to make them go public, and overcomes many of the problems that pertain conventional SPACs. At present, direct investment in activism is reserved to affluent individuals and other professional investors of activist hedge funds. The public at large is barred from directly entering the activist arena. The current model comes …


Modernizing Mortgage Law, Christopher K. Odinet Dec 2021

Modernizing Mortgage Law, Christopher K. Odinet

Faculty Scholarship

Modern mortgage law is designed for a world that no longer exists. The residential mortgage transaction of today looks nothing like it did during the formative period when the property laws governing mortgages were developed. What was once a local dealing between two individuals and largely for commercial or quasi-commercial purposes has now become a housing- centric financial transaction-turned-asset between multiple distant and often invisible parties that operate as part ofa national market. Yet, although the mortgage transaction has changed, mortgage law has not. Property law rules that once balanced the rights of mortgagors and mortgagees now completely fail to …


Corporate Crime And Punishment: An Empirical Study, Dorothy S. Lund, Natasha Sarin Dec 2021

Corporate Crime And Punishment: An Empirical Study, Dorothy S. Lund, Natasha Sarin

All Faculty Scholarship

For many years, law and economics scholars, as well as politicians and regulators, have debated whether corporate criminal enforcement overdeters beneficial corporate activity or in the alternative, lets corporate criminals off too easily. This debate has recently expanded in its polarization: On the one hand, academics, judges, and politicians have excoriated enforcement agencies for failing to send guilty bankers to jail in the wake of the 2008 financial crisis; on the other, the U.S. Department of Justice has since relaxed policies that encouraged individual prosecutions and reduced the size of fines and number of prosecutions. A crucial and yet understudied …


Do Esg Funds Deliver On Their Promises?, Quinn Curtis, Jill E. Fisch, Adriana Z. Robertson Dec 2021

Do Esg Funds Deliver On Their Promises?, Quinn Curtis, Jill E. Fisch, Adriana Z. Robertson

All Faculty Scholarship

Corporations have received growing criticism for their role in climate change, perpetuating racial and gender inequality, and other pressing social issues. In response to these concerns, shareholders are increasingly focusing on environmental, social, and corporate governance (ESG) criteria in selecting investments, and asset managers are responding by offering a growing number of ESG mutual funds. The flow of assets into ESG is one of the most dramatic trends in asset management.

But are these funds giving investors what they promise? This question has attracted the attention of regulators, with the Department of Labor and the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) …


Making Money From Cryptocurrency? The Taxman May Call On You, Hern Kuan Liu, Vincent Ooi Nov 2021

Making Money From Cryptocurrency? The Taxman May Call On You, Hern Kuan Liu, Vincent Ooi

Research Collection Yong Pung How School Of Law

Miners, forgers, hobbyists, traders – different rules apply. Just don’t assume crypto investment is somehow immune to taxation.


The Multimodal Electronic Transferable Transport Record (Ettr) : A Survey Of Laws And Basic Concepts, Benjamin Geva Oct 2021

The Multimodal Electronic Transferable Transport Record (Ettr) : A Survey Of Laws And Basic Concepts, Benjamin Geva

Articles & Book Chapters

A transport document is a receipt issued by the carrier of goods upon taking possession of them under a contract for their carriage. It is a document of title when its transfer may facilitate not only the transfer of the right to claim the goods from the carrier but also the transfer of title to the goods. Particularly in relation to the carriage of goods other than by sea, and by reference to banking and commercial practices, this study surveys the current legal position of both digitization and negotiability of transport documents. This is done with a view to preparing …


The Breakdown Of The Public–Private Divide In Securities Law: Causes, Consequences, And Reforms, George S. Georgiev Oct 2021

The Breakdown Of The Public–Private Divide In Securities Law: Causes, Consequences, And Reforms, George S. Georgiev

Faculty Articles

As a regulatory scheme, U.S. securities law has traditionally been designed around a set of lines—the “public–private divide”—which separate public companies, public capital, and public markets, from private companies, private capital, and private markets. Until the early 2000s, the lines were successful in establishing two largely coherent legal realms—a highly regulated public realm and a lightly regulated private realm. A series of bold and often-inconsistent reforms between 2002 and 2020, however, have transformed this longstanding regime into a low-friction system wherein public capital flows to both public and private companies, private capital is ever more abundant, and firms can effectively …


Rebuilding Trust: Regulation Of Financial Advisers In The Uk, Weiping He, Han-Wei Liu Oct 2021

Rebuilding Trust: Regulation Of Financial Advisers In The Uk, Weiping He, Han-Wei Liu

Research Collection Yong Pung How School Of Law

Key pointsThe 2006 UK Retail Distribution Review identified much-needed reforms to the retail investment markets. It suffered chronic problems arising from the provision of conflicted advice by financial advisers to their clients. The global financial crisis (GFC) added intense urgency to the need for reforms.As a result, commission-based charging for financial advisers were banned in 2012, and the requirements under the suitability rule were more sharply defined.This article traces the trajectory of the pre- and post-GFC reforms and the ways in which the judicial interpretations of the legislative reforms played an important role in regulating the retail investment markets.The article …


Corporate Venture Capital, Darian M. Ibrahim Oct 2021

Corporate Venture Capital, Darian M. Ibrahim

Faculty Publications

This Article makes the case for corporate venture capital as a potentially game-changing entrant into entrepreneurial finance. Part II begins by retracing the ancillary players in entrepreneurial finance and their roles in the startup ecosystem. After finding each of them incapable of denting the venture capitalist’s current dominance, Part III introduces the large corporation as venture capitalist. Part III discusses the growing scale of corporate venture capital and why it may be desirable for startups, innovation, and society as a whole. Part IV looks at legal differences that may become important for corporate venture capitalists to consider, including securities, antitrust, …


Do Lenders Still Monitor? Leveraged Lending And The Search For Covenants, Frederick Tung Oct 2021

Do Lenders Still Monitor? Leveraged Lending And The Search For Covenants, Frederick Tung

Faculty Scholarship

It was once conventional wisdom that lenders routinely influenced corporate managers’ decision making. Covenants constrained borrower risk taking and compelled specific affirmative obligations to protect lenders. Recent policy discussion, however, laments loan markets’ turn to various forms of high-risk lending. So-called leveraged loans — relatively risky, below-investment-grade loans — more than doubled in outstanding dollar terms, growing from about $550 billion in 2010 to $1.2 trillion by 2019. These risky loans have taken up a larger and larger share of the loan markets over time. More leveraged loans are also “covenant-lite,” issued without traditional financial maintenance covenants. And regulators worry …


Reallocating Redevelopment Risk, Michael C. Pollack Sep 2021

Reallocating Redevelopment Risk, Michael C. Pollack

Faculty Articles

Scores of cities across the country face devastating financial crises, and the COVID-19 pandemic has brought even more to the brink. But economically distressed municipalities have few places to turn for help. Saddled by rising unemployment, weak tax bases, and state law limitations on deficit spending and debt assumption, they generally cannot spend their way out. And as conditions deteriorate, mobile capital and labor move to greener pastures, further hollowing out the cities they leave behind. With state and federal lifelines tenuous at best, offers by large developers to redevelop an area of the city can thus appear to be …


The Mysterious Market For Post-Settlement Litigant Finance, Ronen Avraham, Lynn A. Baker, Anthony J. Sebok Sep 2021

The Mysterious Market For Post-Settlement Litigant Finance, Ronen Avraham, Lynn A. Baker, Anthony J. Sebok

Faculty Articles

Litigant finance is a growing and increasingly controversial industry in which financial firms advance a plaintiff money in exchange for ownership rights in the proceeds of the legal claim on a nonrecourse basis: A plaintiff must repay the advance only if compensation is ultimately received for the legal claim. The nonrecourse nature of this funding exempts it from most states’ consumer credit laws, enabling funders to charge higher interest and fees than would otherwise be permitted. When this funding involves ordinary consumers, critics of the industry contend that the uncapped interest rates exploit vulnerable litigants, while its defenders argue that …


Theory, Evidence, And Policy On Dual-Class Shares: A Country-Specific Response To A Global Debate, Aurelio Gurrea-Martinez Sep 2021

Theory, Evidence, And Policy On Dual-Class Shares: A Country-Specific Response To A Global Debate, Aurelio Gurrea-Martinez

Research Collection Yong Pung How School Of Law

Dual-class shares have become one of the most controversial issues in today´s capital markets and corporate governance debates around the world. Namely, it is not clear whether companies should be allowed to go public with dual-class shares and, if so, which restrictions (if any) should be imposed. Three primary regulatory models have been adopted to deal with dual-class shares: (i) prohibitions, existing in countries like the United Kingdom, Germany, Spain, Colombia, or Argentina; (ii) the permissive model adopted in several jurisdictions, including Canada, Sweden, the Netherlands, and particularly the United States; and (iii) the restrictive approach recently implemented in Hong …


Digital Euro And Ecb Powers, Seraina Neva Grünewald, Corinne Zellweger-Gutknecht, Benjamin Geva Aug 2021

Digital Euro And Ecb Powers, Seraina Neva Grünewald, Corinne Zellweger-Gutknecht, Benjamin Geva

Articles & Book Chapters

The use of cash in the euro area is declining. Accordingly, the EuropeanCentral Bank is exploring options for the design of a digital euro as a form of central bank money available to the public. This article addresses the key question of whether the Eurosystem is empowered to issue a digital euro and, if so, in what form. Based on a historical, teleological, and systematic interpretation, it argues that Article 128(1) TFEU serves as both a source of competence for the Eurosystem to issue a digital euro and a limitation to that competence. The Eurosystem’s powers are necessarily exclusive and …


Climate Change As Systemic Risk, Barnali Choudhury Jul 2021

Climate Change As Systemic Risk, Barnali Choudhury

Articles & Book Chapters

Hindsight tells us that COVID-19, thought by former President Trump and others to have come out of nowhere, is more aptly labelled a “gray rhino” event, one that was highly probable and preventable. Indeed, despite considerable evidence of the impending threats of pandemics, for the most part, governments failed to prepare for the pandemic, resulting in wide-scale social and economic losses.

The lessons from COVID-19, however, should remind us of the perils of ignoring gray rhino risks. Nowhere is this more apparent than with climate change, a highly probable, high impact threat that has largely been ignored to date. Despite …


The Growth & Regulatory Challenges Of Decentralized Finance, Aaron J. Wright Jul 2021

The Growth & Regulatory Challenges Of Decentralized Finance, Aaron J. Wright

Faculty Articles

Proceedings of the 2021 Spring Conference: The Impact of Blockchain on the Practice of Law Panel 1: The Growth & Regulatory Challenges of Decentralized Finance


Bursting The Auto Loan Bubble In The Wake Of Covid-19, Pamela Foohey Jul 2021

Bursting The Auto Loan Bubble In The Wake Of Covid-19, Pamela Foohey

Faculty Articles

Before the COVID-19 pandemic, auto loans outstanding in the United States had soared to record highs. The boom in lending spanned new and used cars and traditional and subprime loans. With loan delinquencies also hitting new highs almost every quarter, predictions that the auto lending market could burst soon abounded. When the economy came to a grinding halt and unemployment skyrocketed in the wake of the pandemic, auto lenders knew they were facing a crisis. Throughout 2020, auto lenders granted more payment forbearances to consumers, while slashing interest rates on new loans. Auto manufacturers similarly made promises to buyers, such …


Testimony Before The U.S. House Of Representatives Committee On Financial Services On “Addressing Climate As A Systemic Risk: The Need To Build Resilience Within Our Banking And Financial System” In June 2021, Hilary J. Allen Jun 2021

Testimony Before The U.S. House Of Representatives Committee On Financial Services On “Addressing Climate As A Systemic Risk: The Need To Build Resilience Within Our Banking And Financial System” In June 2021, Hilary J. Allen

Congressional and Other Testimony

No abstract provided.


Cryptoassets And Their Regulation Under Uk And Eu Law In The Post-Brexit Uk, Sarah Jane Hughes, Sara Kobal Jun 2021

Cryptoassets And Their Regulation Under Uk And Eu Law In The Post-Brexit Uk, Sarah Jane Hughes, Sara Kobal

Articles by Maurer Faculty

Cryptoassets are used increasingly as stores of value, means of making payments in domestic and cross-border transactions(including person-to-person (“P2P”) payments), and as enterprise solutions for speedier execution of trades in financial instruments or other commerce. Their emergence from the work of Satoshi Nakamoto to real-world applications has prompted attention from legislatures, regulators including law enforcement agencies, service providers and adopters.

The UK, as well as other nations, has used its legislative and regulatory authority to attract crypto-businesses and other financial-services innovators to its shores. Because some nations seek to entice financial innovations and others remain sceptical, tensions will arise between …


Dozens Of Groups Brought To Market Via Spacs To Enter Key Russell Index, Usha Rodrigues Jun 2021

Dozens Of Groups Brought To Market Via Spacs To Enter Key Russell Index, Usha Rodrigues

Popular Media

Dozens of companies that entered US markets through deals with blank-cheque vehicles in the past year are set to graduate into the Russell 3000 index on Friday evening, giving a potential boost to the fortunes of electric vehicle developers and other speculative ventures.

FTSE Russell, which maintains the popular benchmark, is conducting the annual refresh of its indices this month, adding and removing companies based on their market capitalisations and other factors.


A-Void-Able Consequences: Void Sales & Subsequent Purchasers Under Arkansas’S Statutory Foreclosure Act, Hannah Hungate Jun 2021

A-Void-Able Consequences: Void Sales & Subsequent Purchasers Under Arkansas’S Statutory Foreclosure Act, Hannah Hungate

Arkansas Law Notes

This Comment explores Arkansas’s Statutory Foreclosure Act and addresses the question of whether there can be a “subsequent purchaser for value” when a foreclosure sale is void from the outset. After a review of the Act itself, distinction between void and voidable foreclosures of property, findings of other state courts, and proper application of the Act, the author urges the Arkansas Supreme Court to make a formal declaration finding that purchasers of property foreclosed upon in a void sale are not “subsequent purchasers for value” under the meaning of the statute.


Predatory Fintech And The Politics Of Banking, Christopher K. Odinet Jun 2021

Predatory Fintech And The Politics Of Banking, Christopher K. Odinet

Faculty Scholarship

With American families living on the financial edge and seeking out high-cost loans even before COVID-19, the term financial technology or “fintech” has been used like an incantation aimed at remedying everything that’s wrong with America’s financial system. Scholars and supporters from both the public and private sector proclaim that innovations in financial technology will “bank the unbanked” and open new channels to affordable credit. This exuberance for all things tech in finance has led to a quiet yet aggressive deregulatory agenda, including, as of late, a federal assault via rulemaking on the ability of states to police the cost …


Measurement And Predictors Of Mental Health Among Parents Of Children With Intellectual And Developmental Disabilities, Rumi Agarwal May 2021

Measurement And Predictors Of Mental Health Among Parents Of Children With Intellectual And Developmental Disabilities, Rumi Agarwal

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Parents of children with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) experience elevated levels of stress, anxiety, and other adverse mental health conditions. Despite extensive literature on parental mental health, this research addressed three gaps. First, a systematic review identified the interventions and respective scales used to address and assess stress and anxiety among parents of transition-aged children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This was necessary given that the stressors parents experience vary with the age of the child. Of the 11 studies included in the final review, it was evident that most interventions and scales were not aligned with the unique …


The E-Banknote As A ‘Banknote’: A Monetary Law Interpreted, Benjamin Geva, Seraina Neva Grünewald, Corinne Zellweger-Gutknecht May 2021

The E-Banknote As A ‘Banknote’: A Monetary Law Interpreted, Benjamin Geva, Seraina Neva Grünewald, Corinne Zellweger-Gutknecht

Articles & Book Chapters

This article discusses whether electronic banknotes can properly be characterised as ‘banknotes’, their design as such and what architectural models are available for their issuance by central banks. Issues are addressed under general principles governing the interpretation of monetary laws in the context of evolving technologies and institutional arrangements. The article proposes a clear terminology to address the concepts underlying digital currencies and access to central bank money, and argues that a banknote may be ‘written’ electronically. The stance adopted in the article is critical of both account-based retail central bank digital currency and cryptocurrencies, and highlights the salient features …


A New Structuring Option For Funds: The Singapore Variable Capital Company, Vincent Ooi Apr 2021

A New Structuring Option For Funds: The Singapore Variable Capital Company, Vincent Ooi

Research Collection Yong Pung How School Of Law

The Singapore Variable Capital Company (“VCC”) offers a new structuring option for funds. This article considers the features of the VCC in terms of structure, operational aspects and commercial considerations, against the backdrop of similar structures in the BVI and Labuan. It submits that, with statutory modifications, opportunities exist to use the VCC for insurance, captive insurance and family offices.


Bargaining In The Shadow Of Investor-State Mediation: How The Threat Of Mediation Will Improve Parties' Conflict Management, Andrea Kupfer Schneider, Nancy A. Welsh Apr 2021

Bargaining In The Shadow Of Investor-State Mediation: How The Threat Of Mediation Will Improve Parties' Conflict Management, Andrea Kupfer Schneider, Nancy A. Welsh

Faculty Scholarship

Issues of access to justice, threats to national sovereignty, and perceptions of inconsistency and arbitrariness have led to a crisis of confidence in the investor-state arbitration system. In response, there has been a successful push for the inclusion of mediation in treaty provisions and arbitration rules, as well as ratification of the Singapore Convention for the expedited enforcement of mediated agreements. Nonetheless, very little mediation is actually occurring on the ground. Efforts to increase the use of mediation have failed to address concerns such as the political costs of settling cases, the lack of coordination between state agencies with different …


Regulating Financial Advisers In The Uk: Lessons For Australia, Weiping He, Han-Wei Liu Apr 2021

Regulating Financial Advisers In The Uk: Lessons For Australia, Weiping He, Han-Wei Liu

Research Collection Yong Pung How School Of Law

Prompted by the 2008 Global Financial Crisis, the Australian government introduced the Future of Financial Advice reforms in 2013. It aimed to improve the quality of financial advice by virtue of a best interests duty and a ban on conflicted remuneration, inter alia. Despite the reforms, public trust in financial advisers remains unacceptably low. Adviser misconduct, driven by conflicted selfinterest, remains prevalent. By contrast, there is relatively greater trust in financial advisers in the United Kingdom (‘UK’). This article focuses on how the UK regulates financial advisers, where the best interests duty and suitability rule also apply. The analysis that …


Index Funds And Millennial Assets, Christopher Bruner Mar 2021

Index Funds And Millennial Assets, Christopher Bruner

Popular Media

This piece is a review of a forthcoming article titled “Shareholder Value(s): Index Fund ESG Activism and the New Millennial Corporate Governance” (in the Southern California Law Review by M. Barzuza, Q. Curtis and D. Webber). Bruner is a contributing editor to JOTWELL’s Corporate Law section.


Supreme Court Clarifies Risk Of Loss Due To Fraudulent Efts, Christopher Richter, Benjamin Geva, Matthew Angelus, Eli Monas Feb 2021

Supreme Court Clarifies Risk Of Loss Due To Fraudulent Efts, Christopher Richter, Benjamin Geva, Matthew Angelus, Eli Monas

Articles & Book Chapters

The Supreme Court of Canada released a short

decision on December 10 confirming unanimously that

it is the bank’s customer who bears the risk of loss of an

amount that the bank transferred by electronic payment

order from the customer’s account to a third party as

a result of a phishing scam. The decision adopts the

reasoning of the Québec Court of Appeal and specifies

that it would not have been different if the customer’s

account had been in positive balance. In this case, the

customer’s account was in a debit position.