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2021

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Full-Text Articles in Law

“Professional” Employers And The Transformation Of Workplace Benefits, Natalya Shnitser Dec 2021

“Professional” Employers And The Transformation Of Workplace Benefits, Natalya Shnitser

Boston College Law School Faculty Papers

Workers in the United States depend on their employers for a host of benefits beyond wages and salary. From retirement benefits to health insurance, from student loan repayment to dependent-care spending plans, from disability benefits to family and medical leave, U.S. employers play a uniquely central role in the financial lives of their employees. Yet not all employers are equally willing or capable of serving as such financial intermediaries. Larger employers commonly offer more and better benefits than smaller employers. In recent years, so-called Professional Employer Organizations (PEOs) have pitched themselves as a private-sector solution to the challenges traditionally ...


The Online Criminal Trial As A Public Trial, Stephen Smith Dec 2021

The Online Criminal Trial As A Public Trial, Stephen Smith

Faculty Publications

There are two ways of favorably conceiving online trials in Sixth Amendment terms. One is that an online trial is a public trial, by its terms. The other is that an online trial may not be public, for Sixth Amendment purposes, but may nonetheless satisfy applicable constitutional demands for trials considered “closed.” This Essay proposes both: that an online trial is fundamentally “public” for Sixth Amendment purposes and, if it is not, it may still be a constitutional accommodation of the Sixth Amendment’s public trial guarantee, in appropriate circumstances.

The constitutionality of an online trial may be largely an ...


Law School News: Rwu Law Remembers Sarah Weddington 12/30/2021, Michael M. Bowden Dec 2021

Law School News: Rwu Law Remembers Sarah Weddington 12/30/2021, Michael M. Bowden

Life of the Law School (1993- )

No abstract provided.


Fourth Amendment Limits On Extensive Quarantine Surveillance, Benjamin Wolters Dec 2021

Fourth Amendment Limits On Extensive Quarantine Surveillance, Benjamin Wolters

Duke Journal of Constitutional Law & Public Policy Sidebar

The devastation wreaked by the COVID-19 pandemic spurred innovations in technology and public policy. Many countries rushed to implement extensive quarantines, and some introduced disease surveillance, including location tracking to enforce quarantines. Though the United States has never implemented high-tech quarantine surveillance, such technology will certainly be available for the next disease outbreak.

Absent significant doctrinal change, the Fourth Amendment likely bars some, but not all, forms of quarantine surveillance. Quarantine surveillance probably constitutes a Fourth Amendment “search” that generally must be backed by probable cause. This probable cause requirement, and its subcomponent of individualized suspicion, likely applies differently to ...


Trouble With Names: Commercial Speech And A New Approach To Food Product Label Regulation, William Cusack Dec 2021

Trouble With Names: Commercial Speech And A New Approach To Food Product Label Regulation, William Cusack

Duke Journal of Constitutional Law & Public Policy Sidebar

The Supreme Court has recognized First Amendment protection for “commercial speech” since 1975. Commercial speech doctrine seeks to balance advertiser interest in speech, consumer interest in information, and society’s interest that “economic decisions in the aggregate be intelligent and well-informed.” Regulations and compulsory disclosures of commercial speech play a part in ensuring consumers are well-informed. Yet, there continues to be consumer confusion surrounding the commercial speech doctrine’s application to food labeling. Lawmakers continue to pass regulations that are unnecessary or nonsensical. Regulators continue to enforce these regulations, even if the state interest in doing so is minimal or ...


Mind The Gap: A Comparative Approach For Fixing Volcker, Learning From Liikanen, And Using Vickers To Repair The U.S. Banking System, Rachel Sereix Dec 2021

Mind The Gap: A Comparative Approach For Fixing Volcker, Learning From Liikanen, And Using Vickers To Repair The U.S. Banking System, Rachel Sereix

Duke Journal of Constitutional Law & Public Policy Sidebar

After the 2008 financial crisis, Congress, courts, and international banking agencies alike determined that their current banking infrastructures were inadequate to prevent such crises in the future. The Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform Acttried to solve the problem by reducing derivatives-related risk through legislative provisions that increased capital and liquidity requirements for all banks. Yet, banks continued to find means to subvert the system and Congress remained relatively silent on the issue after the passage of Dodd-Frank—failing to amend Dodd-Frank in any meaningful way. Looking towards European peers for guidance about how to reform the United States’ banking regime has ...


Spactivism, Sharon Hannes, Adi Libson, Gideon Parchomovsky Dec 2021

Spactivism, Sharon Hannes, Adi Libson, Gideon Parchomovsky

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

In this Essay, we propose a modified version of the SPAC designed to allow the public to participate in the world of corporate activism. Unlike existing SPACs, our version is designed for investments in public companies in order to change their course of action, not in private companies in order to make them go public, and overcomes many of the problems that pertain conventional SPACs. At present, direct investment in activism is reserved to affluent individuals and other professional investors of activist hedge funds. The public at large is barred from directly entering the activist arena. The current model comes ...


Submission Of Amicus Curiae Observations In The Case Of The Prosecutor V. Dominic Ongwen, Erin Baines, Kamari M. Clarke, Mark A. Drumbl Dec 2021

Submission Of Amicus Curiae Observations In The Case Of The Prosecutor V. Dominic Ongwen, Erin Baines, Kamari M. Clarke, Mark A. Drumbl

Scholarly Articles

The important questions laid out by the Appeals Chamber in this case highlight the need for the proper delineation and interplay between mental illness and criminal responsibility under international law. Specifically, this case represents a watershed moment for the Appeals Chamber to set a framework for adjudicating mental illness in the context of collectivized child abuse and trauma. This is especially true for former child soldiers who occupy both a victim and alleged perpetrator status.


Amicus Curiae Observations By Public International Law & Policy Group, Milena Sterio, Michael P. Scharf, Paul R. Williams Dec 2021

Amicus Curiae Observations By Public International Law & Policy Group, Milena Sterio, Michael P. Scharf, Paul R. Williams

Law Faculty Briefs and Court Documents

The amicus brief argues that in a case where the defendant alleges a ground excluding criminal responsibility (an affirmative defense), such as mental illness or duress, the defendant has an evidentiary burden to produce some evidence to support his/her claim of mental illness or duress, but that the prosecution retains the legal burden of proof to establish the defendant's responsibility beyond reasonable doubt.

“This ruling will have repercussions for future cases where the defendant asserts a mental illness or duress affirmative defense. Depending on how the ICC decides, future defendants will have to meet a specific evidentiary (or ...


A Modest Proposal: Leveraging Private Enforcement Mechanisms And The Bayh-Dole Act To Reduce Drug Prices In The U.S. Healthcare Industry, Brittany Day Dec 2021

A Modest Proposal: Leveraging Private Enforcement Mechanisms And The Bayh-Dole Act To Reduce Drug Prices In The U.S. Healthcare Industry, Brittany Day

Duke Journal of Constitutional Law & Public Policy Sidebar

The United States healthcare system is one of the most expensive in the world. Unlike other products, when drug prices skyrocket, people may die. While advocating for various solutions, both the Biden and Trump administrations have recognized the importance of halting the rise of prescription drug prices. Most of the solutions advanced are focused on government-side initiatives, such as allowing Medicare to directly negotiate with pharmaceutical companies. Yet, the "march-in rights" built into the Bayh-Dole Act create an opportunity to set up a mechanism that would invite private actors to sue pharmaceutical companies for unconscionable drug pricing. The Bayh-Dole Act ...


Ferpa And State Open Records Laws: What The North Carolina Supreme Court Got Wrong In Dth Media Corp. V. Folt, And How Courts & Congress Can Take Measures To Reconcile Privacy And Access Interests, Danielle Siegel Dec 2021

Ferpa And State Open Records Laws: What The North Carolina Supreme Court Got Wrong In Dth Media Corp. V. Folt, And How Courts & Congress Can Take Measures To Reconcile Privacy And Access Interests, Danielle Siegel

Duke Journal of Constitutional Law & Public Policy Sidebar

Over the past few years, courts across the country have confronted a common scenario. Members of the public and media request records from a public university pertaining to its investigations of sexual assault and misconduct on campus. Then, media outlets contend they have a right to access these records under state open records laws. But the university claims that it cannot, or will not, disclose the records under the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act of 1974 ("FERPA").

The media outlet then files suit to compel disclosure. This Note explores the competing privacy and access interests at stake in this ...


Paving The Way For Mind-Reading: Reinterpreting "Coercion" In Article 17 Of The Third Geneva Convention, John Zarrilli Dec 2021

Paving The Way For Mind-Reading: Reinterpreting "Coercion" In Article 17 Of The Third Geneva Convention, John Zarrilli

Duke Journal of Constitutional Law & Public Policy Sidebar

Mind-reading is no longer a concept confined to the world of science-fiction: "Brain reading technologies are rapidly being developed in a number of neuroscience fields." One obvious application is to the field of criminal justice: Mind-reading technology can potentially aid investigators in assessing critical legal questions such as guilt, legal insanity, and the risk of recidivism. Two current techniques have received the most scholarly attention for their potential in aiding interrogators in determining guilt: brain-based lie detection and brain-based memory detection. The growing ability to peer inside someone's mind raises significant legal issues. A number of American scholars, especially ...


Greensky, Llc V. Wellness Program Services Llc Et Al., Order On Plaintiff Greensky Llc's Motion For Reconsideration, John J. Goger Dec 2021

Greensky, Llc V. Wellness Program Services Llc Et Al., Order On Plaintiff Greensky Llc's Motion For Reconsideration, John J. Goger

Georgia Business Court Opinions

No abstract provided.


Greensky, Llc V. Wellness Program Services Llc Et Al., Order On Planitiff's Motion For Summary Judgment On Defendants' Amended Counterclaim, John J. Goger Dec 2021

Greensky, Llc V. Wellness Program Services Llc Et Al., Order On Planitiff's Motion For Summary Judgment On Defendants' Amended Counterclaim, John J. Goger

Georgia Business Court Opinions

No abstract provided.


What History Can Tell Us About The Future Of Insurance And Litigation After Covid-19, Kenneth S. Abraham, Tom Baker Dec 2021

What History Can Tell Us About The Future Of Insurance And Litigation After Covid-19, Kenneth S. Abraham, Tom Baker

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

This Article, written for the annual Clifford Symposium on Tort Law and Social Policy, chronicles a series of developments in American history that profoundly influenced the course of insurance and insurance law, in order to predict the post-COVID-19 future of these fields. In each instance, there was a direct and decided cause-and-effect relationship between these developments and subsequent change in the world of insurance and insurance law. As important as the influence of COVID-19 is at present and probably will be in the future, in our view the COVID-19 pandemic will not be as significant an influence on insurance and ...


Leases As Forms, David A. Hoffman, Anton Strezhnev Dec 2021

Leases As Forms, David A. Hoffman, Anton Strezhnev

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

We offer the first large scale descriptive study of residential leases, based on a dataset of ~170,000 residential leases filed in support of over ~200,000 Philadelphia eviction proceedings from 2005 through 2019. These leases are highly likely to contain unenforceable terms, and their pro-landlord tilt has increased sharply over time. Matching leases with individual tenant characteristics, we show that unlawful terms are surprisingly likely to be associated with more expensive leaseholds in richer, whiter parts of the city. This result is linked to landlords' growing adoption of shared forms, originally created by non-profit landlord associations, and more recently ...


An Analysis Of University Students’ Self-Labeling And Perception Of Feminism, Emilie Seibert Dec 2021

An Analysis Of University Students’ Self-Labeling And Perception Of Feminism, Emilie Seibert

Honors Projects

This project investigates students’ perceptions of feminism, whether or not they identify as feminist, and how closely their ideals align with basic feminist ideals. There is currently no research that investigates self-labeling as a feminist among the current generation of college students in the United States. Despite the immense benefits to holding a feminist identification, it is estimated that only about 21% of the United States population identifies as feminist (Swirsky & Angelone, 2014, p. 230). Understanding the perspectives of current students is important as they have the potential to become activists and impact the future of the feminist movement. To ...


Moby-Dick As Corporate Catastrophe: Law, Ethics, And Redemption, David Yosifon Dec 2021

Moby-Dick As Corporate Catastrophe: Law, Ethics, And Redemption, David Yosifon

Faculty Publications

Herman Melville’s Moby-Dick serves here as a vehicle through which to interrogate core features of American corporate law and excavate some of the deeper lessons about the human soul that lurk behind the pasteboard mask of the law’s black letter. The inquiry yields an illuminating vantage on the ethical consequences of corporate capital structure, the law of corporate purpose, the meaning of voluntarism, the ethical stakes of corporate fiduciary obligations, and the role of lawyers in preventing or facilitating corporate catastrophe. No prior familiarity with the novel or corporate law is required.


Current Complications In The Law On Myths And Stereotypes, Lisa Dufraimont Dec 2021

Current Complications In The Law On Myths And Stereotypes, Lisa Dufraimont

Articles & Book Chapters

Myths and stereotypes represent an ongoing problem in Canadian sexual assault trials. Often, and paradigmatically, defence lawyers and trial judges rely on discredited sexist assumptions to the prejudice of female sexual assault complainants. However, a review of the recent appellate case law reveals many cases that do not fit this paradigm. Complications that have arisen include stereotypes about men or accused persons, legitimate defence arguments misidentified as stereotypes, close cases where reasonable people disagree about whether stereotypes have been invoked, and prejudicial forms of reasoning based other axes of discrimination. This paper surveys these developments and assesses an attempt by ...


Hearing On “Stablecoins: How Do They Work, How Are They Used, And What Are Their Risks?” Before The U.S. Senate Committee On Banking, Housing, And Urban Affairs, Hilary J. Allen Dec 2021

Hearing On “Stablecoins: How Do They Work, How Are They Used, And What Are Their Risks?” Before The U.S. Senate Committee On Banking, Housing, And Urban Affairs, Hilary J. Allen

Congressional and Other Testimony

THE COMMITTEE ON BANKING, HOUSING, AND URBAN AFFAIRS will meet in OPEN SESSION, HYBRID FORMAT to conduct a hearing entitled “Stablecoins: How Do They Work, How Are They Used, and What Are Their Risks?” The witnesses will be: Ms. Alexis Goldstein, Director of Financial Policy, Open Markets Institute; Mr. Dante Disparte, Chief Strategy Officer and Head of Global Policy, Circle; Ms. Jai Massari, Partner, Davis Polk & Wardwell, LLP; and Professor Hilary J. Allen, American University Washington College of Law


Undersea Cables: The Ultimate Geopolitical Chokepoint, Bert Chapman Dec 2021

Undersea Cables: The Ultimate Geopolitical Chokepoint, Bert Chapman

FORCES Initiative: Strategy, Security, and Social Systems

This work provides historical and contemporary overviews of this critical geopolitical problem, describes the policy actors addressing this in the U.S. and selected other countries, and provides maps and information on many undersea cable work routes. These cables are chokepoints with one dictionary defining chokepoints as “a strategic narrow route providing passage through or to another region."


Comment On Proposed Regulation: Prudence And Loyalty In Selecting Plan Investments And Exercising Shareholder Rights, David Webber Dec 2021

Comment On Proposed Regulation: Prudence And Loyalty In Selecting Plan Investments And Exercising Shareholder Rights, David Webber

Shorter Faculty Works

In my view, while it is a significant improvement over its predecessor, the proposed rule’s persistent relegation of job creation/preservation to the status of mere “collateral benefit” is a mistake and undermines ERISA’s duty of loyalty. In reality, job creation and preservation are inextricably linked to fund financial health. Relegating that fact to a mere collateral benefit means trustees fail to consider the effect on a pension of investing in projects that eliminate the jobs of the fund’s own participants, or ignore the benefit of creating new jobs and thereby new pension contributors. This runs counter ...


Gamage, Lederman Sign Letter Of Support For Billionaires Income Tax, James Owsley Boyd Dec 2021

Gamage, Lederman Sign Letter Of Support For Billionaires Income Tax, James Owsley Boyd

Keep Up With the Latest News from the Law School (blog)

No abstract provided.


Audiovisual Metadata Platform Pilot Development (Amppd), Final Project Report, Jon W. Dunn, Ying Feng, Juliet L. Hardesty, Brian Wheeler, Maria Whitaker, Thomas Whittaker, Shawn Averkamp, Bertram Lyons, Amy Rudersdorf, Tanya Clement, Liz Fischer Dec 2021

Audiovisual Metadata Platform Pilot Development (Amppd), Final Project Report, Jon W. Dunn, Ying Feng, Juliet L. Hardesty, Brian Wheeler, Maria Whitaker, Thomas Whittaker, Shawn Averkamp, Bertram Lyons, Amy Rudersdorf, Tanya Clement, Liz Fischer

Copyright, Fair Use, Scholarly Communication, etc.

This report documents the experience and findings of the Audiovisual Metadata Platform Pilot Development (AMPPD) project, which has worked to enable more efficient generation of metadata to support discovery and use of digitized and born-digital audio and moving image collections. The AMPPD project was carried out by partners Indiana University Libraries, AVP, University of Texas at Austin, and New York Public Library between 2018-2021.


Antitrust Liability For False Advertising: A Response To Carrier & Tushnet, Susannah Gagnon, Herbert J. Hovenkamp Dec 2021

Antitrust Liability For False Advertising: A Response To Carrier & Tushnet, Susannah Gagnon, Herbert J. Hovenkamp

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

This reply briefly considers when false advertising can give rise to antitrust liability. The biggest difference between tort and antitrust liability is that the latter requires harm to the market, which is critically dependent on actual consumer response. As a result, the biggest hurdle a private plaintiff faces in turning an act of false advertising into an antitrust offense is proof of causation – to what extent can a decline in purchase volume or other market rejection be specifically attributed to the defendant’s false claims? That requirement dooms the great majority of false advertising claims attacked as violations of the ...


The Responsibility To Protect And Syria- Looking At The Future Of Humanitarian Intervention, Nikola Jana Trahan Dec 2021

The Responsibility To Protect And Syria- Looking At The Future Of Humanitarian Intervention, Nikola Jana Trahan

Honors Projects Overview

This thesis assesses the legality of humanitarian intervention in the context of the Syrian Civil War. It specifically investigates the international legal principle the Responsibility to Protect (R2P)" and critiques it. "


Comparing Experiences Of Constitutional Reforms To Enshrine The Right To Water In Brazil, Colombia, And Peru: Opportunities And Limitations, Lara Côrtes, Camila Gianella, Angela M. Páez, Catalina Vallejo Piedrahíta Dec 2021

Comparing Experiences Of Constitutional Reforms To Enshrine The Right To Water In Brazil, Colombia, And Peru: Opportunities And Limitations, Lara Côrtes, Camila Gianella, Angela M. Páez, Catalina Vallejo Piedrahíta

Public Administration Faculty Research

In this paper we compare recent efforts towards the constitutionalization of the right to water in Brazil, Colombia, and Peru to understand the opportunities and limitations related to the attempts to enhance access to piped water to the highest normative level. Peru passed a constitutional amendment in 2017 while Brazil and Colombia have seen much right-to-water activism but have not succeeded in passing such reforms. We explore the role of the existing domestic legal frameworks on drinkable water provision and water management towards the approval of constitutional amendments. We find that all three countries have specialized laws, water governing institutions ...


User Rights In Canadian Copyright Law, David Vaver Dec 2021

User Rights In Canadian Copyright Law, David Vaver

Conference Papers

It is very kind of you to invite me to talk about User Rights at the Association’s Copyright Symposium. In ancient times, symposia were occasions to discuss and debate matters of great moment, to the accompaniment of copious food, wine, and revelry. Zoom of course limits the conduct of this symposium but I hope participants will take the ancient precedent to heart at their end of their internet connection. Sometimes a symposium would wait until the hunt for a wild boar was over before starting. I hope that was not the motive behind your organizers hunting me down for ...


Raybon Et Al., Order On Motion For Protective Order, John J. Goger Dec 2021

Raybon Et Al., Order On Motion For Protective Order, John J. Goger

Georgia Business Court Opinions

No abstract provided.


Indiana Law’S Lubin, Sun Help Advise Kosovo Government On Country’S Cybersecurity Act, James Owsley Boyd Dec 2021

Indiana Law’S Lubin, Sun Help Advise Kosovo Government On Country’S Cybersecurity Act, James Owsley Boyd

Keep Up With the Latest News from the Law School (blog)

No abstract provided.