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2021

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Full-Text Articles in Law

The Online Criminal Trial As A Public Trial, Stephen Smith Dec 2021

The Online Criminal Trial As A Public Trial, Stephen Smith

Faculty Publications

There are two ways of favorably conceiving online trials in Sixth Amendment terms. One is that an online trial is a public trial, by its terms. The other is that an online trial may not be public, for Sixth Amendment purposes, but may nonetheless satisfy applicable constitutional demands for trials considered “closed.” This Essay proposes both: that an online trial is fundamentally “public” for Sixth Amendment purposes and, if it is not, it may still be a constitutional accommodation of the Sixth Amendment’s public trial guarantee, in appropriate circumstances.

The constitutionality of an online trial may be largely an idle …


Moby-Dick As Corporate Catastrophe: Law, Ethics, And Redemption, David Yosifon Dec 2021

Moby-Dick As Corporate Catastrophe: Law, Ethics, And Redemption, David Yosifon

Faculty Publications

Herman Melville’s Moby-Dick serves here as a vehicle through which to interrogate core features of American corporate law and excavate some of the deeper lessons about the human soul that lurk behind the pasteboard mask of the law’s black letter. The inquiry yields an illuminating vantage on the ethical consequences of corporate capital structure, the law of corporate purpose, the meaning of voluntarism, the ethical stakes of corporate fiduciary obligations, and the role of lawyers in preventing or facilitating corporate catastrophe. No prior familiarity with the novel or corporate law is required.


Evidentiary Inequality, Sandra F. Sperino Dec 2021

Evidentiary Inequality, Sandra F. Sperino

Faculty Publications

Federal employment discrimination law is rife with evidentiary inequality. Courts allow employers to draw from a broad palette of evidence to defend against discrimination claims, while highly restricting the facts from which plaintiffs can prove their claims. This Article draws from hundreds of cases to show how judges favor the employer's evidence and disfavor the plaintiff's evidence across multiple dimensions, such as time, witnesses, documents, relevance, and reliability. Judges have created a host of named doctrines that severely restrict the evidence plaintiffs are allowed to use to prove their discrimination claims. At the same time, a host of unnamed, and …


The Charitable Continuum, Eric Kades Dec 2021

The Charitable Continuum, Eric Kades

Faculty Publications

There are powerful fairness and efficiency arguments for making charitable donations to soup kitchens 100% deductible. These arguments have no purchase for donations to fund opulent church organs, yet these too are 100% deductible under the current tax code. This stark dichotomy is only the tip of the iceberg. Looking at a wider sampling of charitable gifts reveals a charitable continuum. Based on sliding scales for efficiency, multiple theories of fairness, pluralism, institutional competence and social welfare dictate that charitable deductions should in most cases be fractions between zero and one. Moreover, the Central Limit Theorem strongly suggests that combining …


The Temptation Of Cosmic Private Law Theory, Nathan B. Oman Dec 2021

The Temptation Of Cosmic Private Law Theory, Nathan B. Oman

Faculty Publications

It’s a heady time to be a theorist of private law. After decades of vague post-Realist functionalism or reductive economic theories, the latest generation of private law theorists have provided a proliferation of new philosophies of tort, contract, and property. The result has been a tremendous burst of intellectual creativity. While Kant and Hegel have been dragooned into debates over torts and contracts and even such supposedly wooly headed thinkers as Coke and Blackstone have been rehabilitated, there have been fewer efforts to generate natural law accounts of private law than one might expect, particularly in light of the revival …


Election Observation Post-2020, Rebecca Green Nov 2021

Election Observation Post-2020, Rebecca Green

Faculty Publications

The United States is in the midst of a crisis in confidence in elections, despite the many process protections baked into every stage of election administration. Part of the problem is that few Americans know just how rigorous the protections in place are, and most Americans have no concept of how modern elections are run. Election observation statutes are intended to provide a window for members of the public to learn about and oversee the process and to satisfy themselves that elections are fair and that outcomes are reliable. Yet in 2020, in part due to unforeseen pandemic conditions, election …


"Yogi-Isms" In The Courts, Douglas E. Abrams Nov 2021

"Yogi-Isms" In The Courts, Douglas E. Abrams

Faculty Publications

The versatility of Lawrence Peter (Yogi) Berra, a native of St. Louis,5 appears unparalleled in the annals of professional sports. His stellar on-the-field performance earned him election to the Hall of Fame in 1972, and his vast collection of off-the-field sayings earned him a secure place in American folklore. Some Yogi-isms are cited and quoted in federal and state judicial opinions. Topping the judicial ledger is “It’s déjà vu all over again,” which appears in Shurtleff and a few dozen other decisions.


Weaponizing En Banc, Neal Devins, Allison Orr Larsen Nov 2021

Weaponizing En Banc, Neal Devins, Allison Orr Larsen

Faculty Publications

The federal courts of appeals embrace the ideal that judges are committed to rule-of-law norms, collegiality, and judicial independence. Whatever else divides them, these judges generally agree that partisan identity has no place on the bench. Consequently, when a court of appeals sits “en banc,” (i.e., collectively) the party affiliations of the three-judge panel under review should not matter. Starting in the 1980s, however, partisan ideology has grown increasingly important in the selection of federal appellate judges. It thus stands to reason—and several high-profile modern examples illustrate—that today’s en banc review could be used as a weapon by whatever party …


Democracy Avoidance In Tax Lawmaking, Clint G. Wallace Oct 2021

Democracy Avoidance In Tax Lawmaking, Clint G. Wallace

Faculty Publications

The Tax Cuts and Jobs Act was the most significant tax law in more than three decades, but the strategy for getting it enacted included a variety of maneuvers to avoid public scrutiny. As a result, many taxpayers did not know how they would be affected until they filed their own tax returns more than a year later. This Article identifies this lack of transparency as part of a persistent pathology of avoiding and constraining democratic inputs and responsiveness in U.S. federal tax lawmaking. Indeed, some scholars and policy makers have sought to channel tax lawmaking away from democratically grounded …


Declaring, Exploring, Instructing, And (Wait For It) Joking: Tonal Variation In Majority Opinions, Lisa A. Eichhorn Oct 2021

Declaring, Exploring, Instructing, And (Wait For It) Joking: Tonal Variation In Majority Opinions, Lisa A. Eichhorn

Faculty Publications

British literary critic I.A. Richards once defined “tone” as a literary speaker’s attitude toward his or her listener. Borrowing that definition, this article posits that the genre of the majority judicial opinion leaves more room for tonal variation than many scholars have previously theorized. The article first elaborates on the concept of “tone,” distinguishing it from “voice” and “style.” It then reviews the existing scholarship on tone in legal writing and describes the specific dynamics of tone in majority opinions. At that point, the article closely analyzes tonal variation in two 2020 Supreme Court opinions: the majority opinion in Chiafalo …


It's None Of Your Business: State Regulation Of Tribal Business Undermines Sovereignty And Justice, Robin M. Rotman, Sam J. Carter Oct 2021

It's None Of Your Business: State Regulation Of Tribal Business Undermines Sovereignty And Justice, Robin M. Rotman, Sam J. Carter

Faculty Publications

The U.S. Constitution grants the federal government plenary power over American Indian affairs, yet states are increasingly attempting to assert regulatory and tax jurisdiction over tribal businesses. This overreach threatens tribal sovereignty and contravenes the terms of treaties entered between the United States and American Indian tribes. This Article begins by examining the legal foundations of federal, state, and tribal relations. It then examines recent cases across four business sectors - gaming, tobacco sales, petroleum sales, and online lending - in order to illustrate the pervasive jurisdictional challenges faced by courts in cases involving tribal businesses. This Article offers three …


Federalism, Free Competition, And Sherman Act Preemption Of State Restraints, Alan J. Meese Oct 2021

Federalism, Free Competition, And Sherman Act Preemption Of State Restraints, Alan J. Meese

Faculty Publications

The Sherman Act establishes free competition as the rule governing interstate trade. Banning private restraints cannot ensure that competitive markets allocate the nation's resources. State laws can pose identical threats to free markets, posing an obstacle to achieving Congress's goal to protect free competition.

The Sherman Act would thus override anticompetitive state laws under ordinary preemption standards. Nonetheless, the Supreme Court rejected such preemption in Parker v. Brown, creating the "state action doctrine." Parker and its progeny hold that state-imposed restraints are immune from Sherman Act preemption, even if they impose significant harm on out-of-state consumers. Parker's progeny …


How Analogizing Socio-Legal Responses To Organ Transplantation Can Further The Legalization Of Reproductive Genetic Innovation, Myrisha S. Lewis Oct 2021

How Analogizing Socio-Legal Responses To Organ Transplantation Can Further The Legalization Of Reproductive Genetic Innovation, Myrisha S. Lewis

Faculty Publications

The Nobel Foundation emphasized the significance of genetic innovation to society, science, and medicine by awarding the 2020 Nobel Prize in Chemistry to “the CRISPR/Cas9 genetic scissors.” This Article focuses on “reproductive genetic innovation,” a term that includes cytoplasmic transfer, mitochondrial transfer, and germline or heritable gene editing techniques that are all categorized as “experimental” in the United States. These techniques all use in vitro fertilization, a legal and widely available practice. Yet reproductive genetic innovation has resulted in controversy and numerous barriers including a recurring federal budget rider, threats of federal enforcement action, and the unavailability of federal funding. …


The Impact Of Separate Opinions On International Criminal Law, Nancy Amoury Combs Oct 2021

The Impact Of Separate Opinions On International Criminal Law, Nancy Amoury Combs

Faculty Publications

Dissents have had a tumultuous history in national and international courts throughout the world. Initially reviled, dissents have come to be a well-accepted, even praiseworthy, component of the American judicial system, and they have traversed the same trajectory in other countries as well as in international courts and tribunals. Particularly noteworthy among international courts are those created to prosecute perpetrators of mass atrocities, such as genocide, crimes against humanity, and war crimes. And nowhere are dissents more common than in these mass atrocity courts. Yet, as prevalent as these dissents are, they have received virtually no scholarly or practical attention. …


Marginal Benefits Of The Core Securities Laws, Kevin S. Haeberle Oct 2021

Marginal Benefits Of The Core Securities Laws, Kevin S. Haeberle

Faculty Publications

To every thing there is a season. In the area of securities regulation in the United States, it is the season for expansion. This article shows why such expansion should not involve use of the core issuer disclosure, fraud, and insider trading laws to reduce information asymmetry in the stock market in the name of investor protection. I argue that any expansion of these laws focused on this secondary market should therefore be justified by distinct concerns (namely, efficiency ones). Moreover, any push to better serve and protect investors should be focused on other areas of securities law (such as …


Corporate Venture Capital, Darian M. Ibrahim Oct 2021

Corporate Venture Capital, Darian M. Ibrahim

Faculty Publications

This Article makes the case for corporate venture capital as a potentially game-changing entrant into entrepreneurial finance. Part II begins by retracing the ancillary players in entrepreneurial finance and their roles in the startup ecosystem. After finding each of them incapable of denting the venture capitalist’s current dominance, Part III introduces the large corporation as venture capitalist. Part III discusses the growing scale of corporate venture capital and why it may be desirable for startups, innovation, and society as a whole. Part IV looks at legal differences that may become important for corporate venture capitalists to consider, including securities, antitrust, …


Exploring Performance In Air Force Science And Technology Programs, Eric A. Plack, Jonathan D. Ritschel, Edward D. White, Clay M. Koschnick Oct 2021

Exploring Performance In Air Force Science And Technology Programs, Eric A. Plack, Jonathan D. Ritschel, Edward D. White, Clay M. Koschnick

Faculty Publications

Science and technology (S&T) programs serve an important function in the defense acquisition process as the initial phase leading to discovery and development of warfighting technology. The results of these programs impact the larger major defense acquisition programs, which integrate the technologies in subsequent phases of the life cycle. Despite this important role, little prior research has examined the performance of S&T programs. In this study, the authors investigate the impact of technological maturation as a critical success factor in Air Force S&T programs. The results suggest that S&T programs with mature technologies are more likely to experience above average …


We Have To Tell Them What?: The New Corporate Transparency Act And Forming Business Entities In Massachusetts, James J. Wheaton, Gustavo De La Cruz Reynozo Oct 2021

We Have To Tell Them What?: The New Corporate Transparency Act And Forming Business Entities In Massachusetts, James J. Wheaton, Gustavo De La Cruz Reynozo

Faculty Publications

The details and requirements of business entity formation have traditionally been the sole province of state law. Most states, like Massachusetts, maintain corporate annual report filing requirements that involve the public disclosure of corporate officers and directors, and some impose similar requirements for LLCs or other business entities. Those requirements focus on active managers of the entities, not information about the beneficial ownership of entities formed under their laws. However, the recently enacted federal Corporate Transparency Act (CTA) will fundamentally change entity disclosure.

By January 1, 2022, the Treasury Department will be promulgating regulations that will require every state filing …


The Modest Impact Of The Modern Confrontation Clause, Jeffrey Bellin, Diana Bibb Oct 2021

The Modest Impact Of The Modern Confrontation Clause, Jeffrey Bellin, Diana Bibb

Faculty Publications

The Sixth Amendment's Confrontation Clause grants criminal defendants the right "to be confronted with the witnesses against" them. A strict reading of this text would transform the criminal justice landscape by prohibiting the prosecution's use of hearsay at trial. But until recently, the Supreme Court's interpretation of the Clause was closer to the opposite. By tying the confrontation right to traditional hearsay exceptions, the Court's longstanding precedents granted prosecutors broad freedom to use out-of-court statements to convict criminal defendants.

The Supreme Court's 2004 decision in Crawford v. Washington was supposed to change all that. By severing the link between the …


Diversity In Innovation Best Practices Guide, Laura Norris, Mary Fuller, Joy Peacock, Sydney Yazzolino Sep 2021

Diversity In Innovation Best Practices Guide, Laura Norris, Mary Fuller, Joy Peacock, Sydney Yazzolino

Faculty Publications

In 2020, the USPTO collaborated with the HTLI to propose a study designed to increase diversity in the patenting process, specifically targeted to in-house legal / IP department and their practices. The goal of the study was simple - harvesting the collective knowledge of nationwide IP professionals and producing an “insanely practical” guide to expand inventorship to a more diverse inventor population. By “diverse” we mean underrepresented or historically marginalized groups in the United States patent system. The term "diversity" can be interpreted differently in different countries. The HTLI research team collected this extensive list of over 90 best practice …


Dreams Interrupted: A Mixed-Methods Research Project Exploring Latino College Completion, Kate Sablosky Elengold, Jess Dorrance, Amanda Martinez, Patricia Foxen, Paul Mihas Sep 2021

Dreams Interrupted: A Mixed-Methods Research Project Exploring Latino College Completion, Kate Sablosky Elengold, Jess Dorrance, Amanda Martinez, Patricia Foxen, Paul Mihas

Faculty Publications

Latino students are entering college at record numbers; Today, almost 3.8 million Latinos are enrolled in colleges and universities across the United States. Yet Latino students trail their White and Asian peers in attaining college degrees. The overall completion gap exceeds ten percentage points.

Although scholars and advocates have pointed to several different barriers facing Latino college students, a persistent narrative focuses on Latino students’ aversion to taking on student debt. In response, researchers at the University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill and UnidosUS undertook a multi-year mixed-method study to test and interrogate whether and how debt aversion affects Latino college …


Eleven Observations About Legal Writing, Douglas E. Abrams Sep 2021

Eleven Observations About Legal Writing, Douglas E. Abrams

Faculty Publications

This Article collects 11 observations about legal writing that I have shared with law students since I began teaching in the late 1970s.


Realigning The Clean Water Act: Comprehensive Treatment Of Nonpoint Source Pollution, Robin M. Rotman, Ashley A. Hollis, Kathleen M. Trauth Sep 2021

Realigning The Clean Water Act: Comprehensive Treatment Of Nonpoint Source Pollution, Robin M. Rotman, Ashley A. Hollis, Kathleen M. Trauth

Faculty Publications

Nonpoint source pollution is the biggest threat to water quality in the United States today. This Article argues for stronger federal controls over nonpoint source pollution. It begins by examining the history of water quality regulation in the United States, including the passage and amendment of the Clean Water Act and the evolving definition of “navigable waters” over time. The Article then discusses recent rulemaking and litigation developments, including the Clean Water Rule, the Navigable Waters Protection Rule, and the County of Maui, Hawaii v. Hawaii Wildlife Fund case. It offers three recommendations. First, the Article calls for a congressional …


An Extended Essay On Church Autonomy, Carl H. Esbeck Sep 2021

An Extended Essay On Church Autonomy, Carl H. Esbeck

Faculty Publications

The doctrine of church autonomy has its own exclusive line of precedent running from Watson v. Jones (1872) through Kedroff v. St. Nicholas Cathedral (1952) - where the doctrine was first recognized as having First Amendment stature - and culminating with renewed vigor for religious institutional autonomy in the unanimous decision of Hosanna-Tabor Evangelical Lutheran Church and School v. EEOC (2012). Attention to church autonomy has expanded rapidly since the Supreme Court’s decision in Hosanna-Tabor, and its scope is much disputed as it pushes aside other claims and interests. In its most familiar form—the “ministerial exception” - it is …


The Supreme Court's Reticent Qualified Immunity Retreat, Katherine Mims Crocker Sep 2021

The Supreme Court's Reticent Qualified Immunity Retreat, Katherine Mims Crocker

Faculty Publications

The recent outcry against qualified immunity, a doctrine that disallows damages actions against government officials for a wide swath of constitutional claims, has been deafening. But when the Supreme Court in November 2020 and February 2021 invalidated grants of qualified immunity based on reasoning at the heart of the doctrine for the first time since John Roberts became Chief Justice, the response was muted. With initial evaluations and competing understandings coming from legal commentators in the months since, this Essay explores what these cases appear to say about qualified immunity for today and tomorrow.

The Essay traces idealistic, pessimistic, and …


Pl On The Dl: Domestic Violence Courts’ “Quiet Partnership” With Nonlawyer Advocates, Elizabeth Chambliss Jul 2021

Pl On The Dl: Domestic Violence Courts’ “Quiet Partnership” With Nonlawyer Advocates, Elizabeth Chambliss

Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Deference Is Dead, Long Live Chevron, Nathan D. Richardson Jul 2021

Deference Is Dead, Long Live Chevron, Nathan D. Richardson

Faculty Publications

Chevron v. NRDC has stood for more than 35 years as the central case on judicial review of administrative agencies’ interpretations of statutes. Its contours have long been debated, but more recently it has come under increasing scrutiny, with some—including two sitting Supreme Court Justices—calling for the case to be overturned. Others praise Chevron, calling deference necessary or even inevitable. All seem to agree the doctrine is powerful and important.

This standard account is wrong, however. Chevron is not the influential doctrine it once was and has not been for a long time. It has been eroded from the outside …


Modernizing Capacity Doctrine, Lisa V. Martin Jul 2021

Modernizing Capacity Doctrine, Lisa V. Martin

Faculty Publications

Federal capacity doctrine—or the rules establishing whether and how children’s civil litigation proceeds—has largely remained the same for more than a century. It continues to presume that all children are incapable of directing their own cases, and that adults must litigate on children’s behalf. But since that time, our understanding of children, and of adolescents in particular, has significantly evolved. This Article contends that it is well beyond time to modernize the capacity doctrine to better account for the capabilities of adolescents and support their transition to adulthood.


Will The Supreme Court Recover Its Own Fumble? How Alston Can Repair The Damage Resulting From Ncaa's Sports League Exemption, Alan J. Meese Jun 2021

Will The Supreme Court Recover Its Own Fumble? How Alston Can Repair The Damage Resulting From Ncaa's Sports League Exemption, Alan J. Meese

Faculty Publications

Horizontal restraints are unlawful per se unless a court can identify some redeeming virtue that such restraints may create. In National Collegiate Athletic Association v. Board of Regents of the University of Oklahoma (“NCAA”), the Supreme Court rejected this standard, refusing to condemn horizontal restraints on price and output imposed by the NCAA without specifying any possible redeeming virtues. The Court emphasized that other restraints not before the Court were necessary to create and maintain athletic competition like that supervised by the NCAA. This exemption for sports leagues ensures that all restraints imposed by such entities merit Rule …


Analysis Of Administrative Agency Adjudicatory Hearing Use Of Remote Appearances And Virtual Hearings, Fredric I. Lederer, Center For Legal & Court Technology Jun 2021

Analysis Of Administrative Agency Adjudicatory Hearing Use Of Remote Appearances And Virtual Hearings, Fredric I. Lederer, Center For Legal & Court Technology

Faculty Publications

With the advent of the COVID-19 pandemic, federal and state courts and federal adjudicatory agencies suspended most trials and hearings. Faced with the requirement to fulfill their basic mission, many resumed partial operations using computer-based video conferencing,especially for preliminary legal and procedural matters. As time passed, the use of that videoconferencing extended to bench trials in courts and to adjudicatory hearings and proceedings such as settlement meetings, mediations, arbitrations, and status conferences in federal agencies. As of this writing, there have also been a small number of remote or virtual jury trials in state and federal courts.

The Administrative Conference …