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International Law

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Ukraine V. Russia: A Case For Change In International Enforcement, Katy Malloy Apr 2024

Ukraine V. Russia: A Case For Change In International Enforcement, Katy Malloy

William & Mary Law Review

A scant few territorial violations have occurred in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries, and those that have occurred generally prompted quick and unequivocal condemnation, as well as efforts to return to the status quo. Notable violations—the Six-Days War, the Turkish invasion of Cyprus, the Falklands War, Iraq’s invasion of Kuwait, and Russia’s annexation of Crimea—have prompted a short menu of international responses. The Six-Days War and the invasion of Crimea both prompted years’ worth of political criticism for Israel and Russia, respectively, as both nations have held onto at least parts of the lands seized. The Falklands War prompted almost …


Holding Aggressors Responsible For International Crimes: Implementing The Unequal Enforcement Doctrine, Nancy Amoury Combs Apr 2024

Holding Aggressors Responsible For International Crimes: Implementing The Unequal Enforcement Doctrine, Nancy Amoury Combs

Faculty Publications

It is a fundamental tenet of the laws of war that they apply equally to all parties to a conflict. For this reason, a party such as Russia — that illegally launches a war — benefits from all the same rights as a party such as Ukraine — that is forced to defend against the illegal aggression. Countless philosophers have shown that this so-called equal application doctrine is morally indefensible because defenders should have more rights and fewer responsibilities than aggressors. Legal scholars continue to support the equal application doctrine, however, because they reasonably fear that applying different rules to …


Aggressor Status And Its Impact On International Criminal Law Case Selection, Nancy Amoury Combs Jan 2024

Aggressor Status And Its Impact On International Criminal Law Case Selection, Nancy Amoury Combs

Faculty Publications

The laws of war apply equally to all parties to a conflict; thus, a party that violates international law by launching a war is granted the same international humanitarian law rights as a party that is required to defend against the illegal war. This doctrine—known as the equal application doctrine—has been sharply critiqued, particularly by philosophers, who claim the doctrine to be morally indefensible. Lawyers and legal academics, by contrast, defend the equal application doctrine because they reasonably fear that applying different rules to different warring parties will sharply reduce states’ willingness to comply with the international humanitarian law system …


To Have And To Be: An International Human Right To Clean, Healthy, And Sustainable Environment, Deepa Badrinarayana Oct 2023

To Have And To Be: An International Human Right To Clean, Healthy, And Sustainable Environment, Deepa Badrinarayana

William & Mary Environmental Law and Policy Review

In July 2022, the United Nations General Assembly passed Resolution 76/300 (“the Resolution”)—affirming a human right to clean, healthy, and sustainable environment (“environmental human rights”). The Resolution essentially affirms a linkage between environmental human rights and “other rights and existing international law,” and “calls upon States, international organizations, business enterprises and other relevant stakeholders to adopt policies, to enhance international cooperation, strengthen capacity-building and continue to share good practices,” to achieve environmental human rights.

[...]

This Article offers a glass half-full perspective on the Resolution, with the caveat that the glass could rapidly become empty unless the right is internalized …


Brief Of Law Professors As Amici Curiae In Support Of Plaintiff-Appellee, Evan J. Criddle Apr 2023

Brief Of Law Professors As Amici Curiae In Support Of Plaintiff-Appellee, Evan J. Criddle

Briefs

No abstract provided.


It Takes Two: Cites, Illegal Wildlife Trade, And Importing Country Accountability, Erica Lyman Apr 2023

It Takes Two: Cites, Illegal Wildlife Trade, And Importing Country Accountability, Erica Lyman

William & Mary Environmental Law and Policy Review

This Article proposes that the CITES [Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora] compliance mechanism is fit-for-purpose in its design but its application is biased against source countries and ignores consumer countries both as drivers of illegal wildlife trade and as noncompliant actors. Bringing a justice-based sensibility to the application of the CITES compliance process requires a whole-of-supply-chain analysis and, drawing on the core relational foundations of the treaty, an international perspective, to identity the root causes of non-compliance that allow illegal trade to fester. Ultimately, the compliance mechanism must gel with the machinery and …


Foreword To International Environmentalism: A Global Approach To Global Challenges, Cameron Krause Apr 2023

Foreword To International Environmentalism: A Global Approach To Global Challenges, Cameron Krause

William & Mary Environmental Law and Policy Review

As the effects of climate change progress, people and governments in every country are left grappling with how to combat the consequences. Recognizing that such global challenges necessitate an international approach, this Symposium was convened to critically examine the domestic application of international law, the role of non-governmental organizations (“NGOs”), transnational ecological harms, and international environmental agreements. Articles and contributions from panelists in the Symposium contemplated the best paths forward in the face of an ever-changing international landscape.

This abstract has been taken from the author's opening paragraphs.


Turning Sanctions Into Reparations: Lessons For Russia/Ukraine, Evan J. Criddle Jan 2023

Turning Sanctions Into Reparations: Lessons For Russia/Ukraine, Evan J. Criddle

Faculty Publications

Within the past year, members of Congress have introduced nearly a dozen bills to make Russia pay for its military aggression against Ukraine. This Essay argues that none of the bills are satisfactory because they would either violate international law or fail to deliver meaningful compensation to Ukraine. Instead, the Essay urges policymakers to use economic sanctions as leverage to compel Russia to make reparations through an international claims-settlement process.


Advances In Patent Rights Acquisition In International Patent Law, Sarah R. Wasserman Rajec Jan 2023

Advances In Patent Rights Acquisition In International Patent Law, Sarah R. Wasserman Rajec

Faculty Publications

At this centennial event, we have been asked to reflect on the most consequential developments in international intellectual property law of the last 100 years, with an eye towards important future developments as well. This is no small task, given the proliferation of intellectual property-related treaties and the profound changes in business structures, manufacturing, and trade that the last century has seen. The rise of the multinational corporation has been fueled in part by changes to trade laws, and the inclusion of intellectual property in trade-related treaties has facilitated cross-border research and development, manufacturing, and distribution of goods subject to …


Rebuilding Ukraine Will Be Costly. Here's How To Make Putin Pay., Evan Criddle Mar 2022

Rebuilding Ukraine Will Be Costly. Here's How To Make Putin Pay., Evan Criddle

Popular Media

No abstract provided.


Dissent And Legitimacy In International Criminal Law, Nancy Armoury Combs Jan 2022

Dissent And Legitimacy In International Criminal Law, Nancy Armoury Combs

Faculty Publications

Throughout history, dissenting opinions have been subject to soaring praise as well as vitriolic criticism. Although some commentators nominally acknowledge that the normative value of dissenting opinions necessarily varies depending on the unique context in which the relevant court operates, in fact, we see the same arguments advanced to support or oppose dissenting opinions, regardless of the court in which those opinions appear. Dissents are particularly prevalent in international criminal courts--those courts established to prosecute the worst crimes known to humankind: genocide, war crimes, and crimes against humanity. Although dissents in these courts have garnered little scholarly attention, the few …


Human Rights Due Diligence, Joanna Kulesza Dec 2021

Human Rights Due Diligence, Joanna Kulesza

William & Mary Bill of Rights Journal

Due diligence is a well-recognized, deliberately flexible standard in international law. It has been introduced to complement the system of state responsibility and the international liability framework of commitments. The latter has provided more detail to the understanding of due diligence. Together, these two systems allow for a comprehensive reading and implementation of due diligence in international law.

Two international legal regimes dictate due diligence requirements: the law on international liability and that of the law of state responsibility. These two regimes have been the focus of the United Nations' (UN) International Law Commission (ILC) since 1947, resulting in two …


The Impact Of Separate Opinions On International Criminal Law, Nancy Amoury Combs Oct 2021

The Impact Of Separate Opinions On International Criminal Law, Nancy Amoury Combs

Faculty Publications

Dissents have had a tumultuous history in national and international courts throughout the world. Initially reviled, dissents have come to be a well-accepted, even praiseworthy, component of the American judicial system, and they have traversed the same trajectory in other countries as well as in international courts and tribunals. Particularly noteworthy among international courts are those created to prosecute perpetrators of mass atrocities, such as genocide, crimes against humanity, and war crimes. And nowhere are dissents more common than in these mass atrocity courts. Yet, as prevalent as these dissents are, they have received virtually no scholarly or practical attention. …


Gender-Based Violence In International Human Rights Law: Evolution Towards A Binding Post-Binary Framework, Tatsiana Ziniakova Jun 2021

Gender-Based Violence In International Human Rights Law: Evolution Towards A Binding Post-Binary Framework, Tatsiana Ziniakova

William & Mary Journal of Race, Gender, and Social Justice

The present Article seeks to analyze the notion of gender-based violence, in light of the evolving gender discourse, and identify the problems associated with effectively addressing it in international human rights law. It analyzes the definitions of gender, enshrined in various human rights documents, and suggests using performative theory of gender to form a comprehensive view on gender-based violence. It also critically addresses three aspects of regulating gender-based violence: inclusivity, patriarchy, and normativity. It concludes that, in the long term, the commitment to eradicate gender-based violence should be strengthened by framing it as a binding treaty obligation on the universal …


Shelter From The Storm: Human Rights Protections For Single-Mother Families In The Time Of Covid-19, Theresa Glennon, Alexis Fennell, Kaylin Hawkins, Madison Mcnulty Jun 2021

Shelter From The Storm: Human Rights Protections For Single-Mother Families In The Time Of Covid-19, Theresa Glennon, Alexis Fennell, Kaylin Hawkins, Madison Mcnulty

William & Mary Journal of Race, Gender, and Social Justice

COVID-19’s arrival, and the changes it has unleashed, reveal how longstanding legal and policy decisions produced structural inequalities that have left so many families, and especially single-parent families with children, all too insecure. The fragility of single-mother families is amplified by the multifaceted discrimination they face. While all single parents, including single fathers and other single relatives who are raising children, share many of these burdens, this Article focuses on the challenges confronting single mothers.

Federal policy choices stand in sharp contrast to the political rhetoric of government support for families. Social and economic policy in the twentieth century developed …


Legal Liability For Corporations Doing Business In The West Bank: An Analysis Of Corporate Liability And A Shareholder Proposal Solution For Mitigating Risky Business Activity, Mila Kelly Jun 2021

Legal Liability For Corporations Doing Business In The West Bank: An Analysis Of Corporate Liability And A Shareholder Proposal Solution For Mitigating Risky Business Activity, Mila Kelly

William & Mary Business Law Review

For over half a century, Israeli Settlements in the occupied West Bank have expanded significantly in both land and economic activity. While this expansion has not been without criticism from the international community over fear of humanitarian law violations, global businesses have not shied away from the profitability of this region. This engagement in corporate activity within any disputed territory comes with its fair share of business risk, including legal liability for complicity in purported human rights violations.

This Note will examine the hypothetical liability for corporations doing business in the West Bank and explain how international law and the …


Rehabilitating Charge Bargaining, Nancy Amoury Combs Apr 2021

Rehabilitating Charge Bargaining, Nancy Amoury Combs

Faculty Publications

Nobody likes plea bargaining. Scholars worldwide have excoriated the practice, calling it coercive and unjust, among other pejorative adjectives. Despite its unpopularity, plea bargaining constitutes a central component of the American criminal justice system, and the United States has exported the practice to a host of countries worldwide. Indeed, plea bargaining has even appeared at international criminal tribunals, created to prosecute genocide and crimes against humanity--the gravest crimes known to humankind. Although all forms of plea bargaining are unpopular, commentators reserve their harshest criticism for charge bargaining because charge bargaining is said to distort the factual basis of the defendant's …


Amplifying Voices And Fighting Impunity: A Case For Incorporating Victim Impact Into Early Release Decisions At The International Residual Mechanism For Criminal Tribunals, Yasmine Palmer Mar 2021

Amplifying Voices And Fighting Impunity: A Case For Incorporating Victim Impact Into Early Release Decisions At The International Residual Mechanism For Criminal Tribunals, Yasmine Palmer

William & Mary Journal of Race, Gender, and Social Justice

No abstract provided.


Relieved Of All Punishment By Human Hands: The Status Of International Criminal Convictions, Dorothy M. Canevari Mar 2021

Relieved Of All Punishment By Human Hands: The Status Of International Criminal Convictions, Dorothy M. Canevari

William & Mary Journal of Race, Gender, and Social Justice

No abstract provided.


Family In The Balance: Barton V. Barr And The Systematic Violation Of The Right To Family Life In U.S. Immigration Enforcement, David Baluarte Mar 2021

Family In The Balance: Barton V. Barr And The Systematic Violation Of The Right To Family Life In U.S. Immigration Enforcement, David Baluarte

William & Mary Journal of Race, Gender, and Social Justice

The United States systematically violates the international human right to family life in its system of removal of noncitizens. Cancellation of removal provides a means for noncitizens to challenge their removal based on family ties in the United States, but Congress has placed draconian limits on the discretion of immigration courts to cancel removal where noncitizens have committed certain crimes. The recently issued U.S. Supreme Court decision in Barton v. Barr illustrates the troubling trend of affording less discretion for immigration courts to balance family life in removal decisions that involve underlying criminal conduct. At issue was the “stop-time rule” …


The Authority Of International Refugee Law, Evan J. Criddle, Evan Fox-Decent Mar 2021

The Authority Of International Refugee Law, Evan J. Criddle, Evan Fox-Decent

William & Mary Law Review

As COVID-19 has spread around the world, many states have suspended their compliance with a core requirement of international refugee law: the duty to refrain from returning refugees to territories where they face a serious risk of persecution (the duty of non-refoulement). These measures have prompted some observers to question whether non-refoulement will survive the pandemic as a nonderogable legal duty. This Article explains why the international community should embrace non-refoulement as a peremptory norm of general international law (jus cogens) that applies even during public emergencies, such as the coronavirus pandemic. Viewed from a global justice perspective, the …


On Trust: The U.N. Security Council As Fiduciary, Devika Hovell Mar 2021

On Trust: The U.N. Security Council As Fiduciary, Devika Hovell

William & Mary Law Review

Perceived failures by the U.N. Security Council have been characterized as “betrayals of trust,” which threaten to impact the strength of the Council’s authority. In certain legal cultures, fiduciary law has been recognized as an effective legal mechanism to underwrite trust in the exercise of authority. This Article considers the potential value in applying the fiduciary construct to the Security Council setting as a way to consolidate trust. In doing so, it is necessary to unpack two different conceptions of the fiduciary construct: the precept of law (derived from domestic private law) and the precept of authority (sometimes described as …


Climate Change's Free Rider Problem: Why We Must Relinquish Freedom To Become Free, Natalie M. Roy Jan 2021

Climate Change's Free Rider Problem: Why We Must Relinquish Freedom To Become Free, Natalie M. Roy

William & Mary Environmental Law and Policy Review

Despite the increasing urgency of climate change, countries continue to struggle to cooperate on even modest solutions. Of international accords that are successfully ratified, agreed-upon commitments are mostly hortatory and vague, succeeding only in engendering a fragmented, voluntary compliance scheme. Unsurprisingly, decades of tepid climate action and procrastination have begotten a staggering emissions gap for the world to close by 2030—requiring a collective greenhouse gas reduction of about fifty percent to limit global warming to the 1.5°C benchmark. Yet, global greenhouse emissions have generally risen, not fallen in the last decade, with 2018 marking a record high despite pledges made …


Corporate Commitment To International Law, Jay Butler Jan 2021

Corporate Commitment To International Law, Jay Butler

Faculty Publications

Corporations are increasingly important actors in international law. But vital questions underlying this development have long gone unanswered: How and why do corporations commit to international law?

This article constructs a general account of business interaction with international legal obligation and suggests that a gateway to demystifying this persistent puzzle lies in corporate opinio juris.

Corporate opinio juris describes a company's subscription to a rule of international law, even though the company is not technically bound by that rule. This subscription functions as a kind of pledge that, once made, has sway over the company and its peers and symbiotically …


The Case Against Prosecuting Refugees, Evan J. Criddle Nov 2020

The Case Against Prosecuting Refugees, Evan J. Criddle

Faculty Publications

Within the past several years, the U.S. Department of Justice has pledged to prosecute asylum-seekers who enter the United States outside an official port of entry without inspection. This practice has contributed to mass incarceration and family separation at the U.S.–Mexico border, and it has prevented bona fide refugees from accessing relief in immigration court. Yet, federal judges have taken refugee prosecution in stride, assuming that refugees, like other foreign migrants, are subject to the full force of American criminal justice if they skirt domestic border controls. This assumption is gravely mistaken.

This Article shows that Congress has not authorized …


Updating The Liability Regime In Outer Space: Why Spacefaring Companies Should Be Internationally Liable For Their Space Objects, Alexander P. Reinert Oct 2020

Updating The Liability Regime In Outer Space: Why Spacefaring Companies Should Be Internationally Liable For Their Space Objects, Alexander P. Reinert

William & Mary Law Review

Nothing inspires the human imagination quite like outer space. How many people have laid on their backs on a dark, clear night and gazed up at the stars above? The vast expanse of outer space seems endless. But satellite operators are increasingly realizing that space is not endless. Indeed, space is becoming more crowded with space objects, and the threat of these objects causing damage is rapidly growing. The space industry has changed dramatically in recent years, and the threats facing the industry have concurrently evolved.

The world is experiencing the dawn of a new space race—only this time, private …


Revisiting Individual Rights And Personal Responsibilities Amid Covid-19, Christie Warren Aug 2020

Revisiting Individual Rights And Personal Responsibilities Amid Covid-19, Christie Warren

Popular Media

No abstract provided.


Puerto Rico Post-Hurricane Maria: Reconstruction And The Pathway To Self-Determination, Ameya A. Lele Jul 2020

Puerto Rico Post-Hurricane Maria: Reconstruction And The Pathway To Self-Determination, Ameya A. Lele

William & Mary Journal of Race, Gender, and Social Justice

No abstract provided.


Toolkit Or Tinderbox? When Legal Systems Interface Conflict, Christie S. Warren Jul 2020

Toolkit Or Tinderbox? When Legal Systems Interface Conflict, Christie S. Warren

Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Reintegration Of Female Rape Survivors: The Overlooked Priority Of Transitional Justice In The Face Of Mass Wartime Rape, Layla Abi-Falah Apr 2020

Reintegration Of Female Rape Survivors: The Overlooked Priority Of Transitional Justice In The Face Of Mass Wartime Rape, Layla Abi-Falah

William & Mary Journal of Race, Gender, and Social Justice

While mass wartime rape has become a core characteristic of modern armed conflict, transitional justice mechanisms have continuously failed to bring about successful achievement of justice, reconciliation, and truth for female survivors. The abuse, exile, and humiliation of large numbers of female rape survivors by their families and communities leaves entire societies destabilized and susceptible to prolonged instability and state failure, thus obstructing attempts by transitional justice mechanisms to usher in long-lasting peace and stability. To achieve more successful post-conflict reconstruction, transitional justice mechanisms situated in the aftermath of wars marked by mass rape must first focus on the reintegration …