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Full-Text Articles in Law

The Initial Response Of Biodiversity Conventions To The Covid-19 Pandemic, Royal C. Gardner, Lauren Beames, Katherine Pratt Oct 2024

The Initial Response Of Biodiversity Conventions To The Covid-19 Pandemic, Royal C. Gardner, Lauren Beames, Katherine Pratt

William & Mary Environmental Law and Policy Review

The COVID-19 pandemic disrupted the operations of global biodiversity conventions, requiring virtual meetings in place of in-person events. Yet the pandemic also highlighted the importance of biodiversity conservation as a mechanism to reduce the risk of zoonotic diseases, as the October 2020 report issued by the Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (“IPBES”) emphasized. Now that in-person, international meetings have resumed, this Article examines the extent to which four biodiversity conventions—the Agreement on the Conservation of African-Eurasian Migratory Waterbirds, the Ramsar Convention, the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species, and the Convention on Biological Diversity—considered the nexus …


The Uncertain Future Of Restorative Justice: Anti-Woke Legislation, Retrenchment And Politics Of The Right, Thalia González, Mara Schiff Oct 2024

The Uncertain Future Of Restorative Justice: Anti-Woke Legislation, Retrenchment And Politics Of The Right, Thalia González, Mara Schiff

William & Mary Journal of Race, Gender, and Social Justice

As diverse forms of anti-democratic and anti-inclusionary politics escalate in the United States, public education is increasingly a site for retrenchment and contestation with targeted efforts to silence and erase civil rights victories for equity and access. Addressing a critical, yet unattended issue at the intersection of education law and policy and civil rights, this Article joins with the growing discourse interrogating the “parental rights” movement and racially regressive legislation. Employing a case study analysis of social movement activism and education policy legislation from 2018–2023 in Florida, it aims to provoke critical praxis emanating from essential inquiry— what is the …


Human Rights, Human Duties: Making A Rights-Based Case For Community-Based Restorative Justice, Aparna Polavarapu Oct 2024

Human Rights, Human Duties: Making A Rights-Based Case For Community-Based Restorative Justice, Aparna Polavarapu

William & Mary Journal of Race, Gender, and Social Justice

Restorative justice is often framed as an alternative to the criminal legal system, and thus justifications of restorative justice tend to be rooted in the language of the criminal system. However, this approach limits our way of thinking about the practice of restorative justice, especially non-state, community-based practices. This Article argues for an independent, rights-based justification to support these community-based practices. By offering an in-depth analysis originating from a rights-based perspective, this Article engages with two underdeveloped areas of scholarly literature and suggests a new way of thinking about the day-to-day practice of restorative justice through a human rights lens. …


The Co-Optation Of Restorative Justice And Its Consequences For An Abolitionist Future, Alicia Virani Oct 2024

The Co-Optation Of Restorative Justice And Its Consequences For An Abolitionist Future, Alicia Virani

William & Mary Journal of Race, Gender, and Social Justice

This Article explores the ways in which RJ [restorative justice] has been co-opted, argues that RJ’s core principles can never coexist with the criminal punishment system, and analyzes how RJ co-optation is a barrier to abolitionist goals. It proceeds in three parts. In Part I, I present the fundamental principles upon which RJ processes should be based. While many scholars and practitioners have identified the lack of a consistent RJ definition by which to guide the work, I propose that there are fundamental principles that serve to guide RJ, and these are in stark contrast with the principles and realities …


The Demise Of Housing First Policy: The New Missouri Policy That Criminalizes Homelessness, Kaitlyn Frerking Oct 2024

The Demise Of Housing First Policy: The New Missouri Policy That Criminalizes Homelessness, Kaitlyn Frerking

William & Mary Journal of Race, Gender, and Social Justice

This Note examines the potential negative complications of Missouri H.B. 1606. The Note also explores possible avenues for relief through litigation or policy reform. H.B. 1606 is a Missouri state bill that altered the State’s policy towards decreasing the rate of homelessness in the State of Missouri. Prior to H.B. 1606, Missouri’s homelessness policy resembled a “Housing First” approach where emphasis was placed on providing affordable permanent housing to those without homes. With the passage of H.B. 1606, the policy turned towards supporting short-term housing initiatives and abandoned the “Housing First” approach. H.B. 1606 also contains a provision that makes …


Terrorism Should Not Be A Crime: How Political Labels Are Dangerous To American Democracy, Abigail S. Grand Oct 2024

Terrorism Should Not Be A Crime: How Political Labels Are Dangerous To American Democracy, Abigail S. Grand

William & Mary Journal of Race, Gender, and Social Justice

This Note calls for a dismantling of the United States’ current method of prosecuting terrorism, rejecting the “terrorism” label as a mechanism for charging crimes. Prosecutors should instead charge individuals in terrorism cases for their underlying criminal actions rather than rely on material support statutes and political innuendos to secure a conviction. By examining the implications of the terrorism label in post-9/11 America, this Note addresses how a moral panic enabled the executive branch to overstep its constitutional restraints and threatened the delicate balance of powers central to American democracy. Next, it proposes, as many have before, that Article III …


Unreasonable Traffic Stops, Sam Kamin May 2024

Unreasonable Traffic Stops, Sam Kamin

William & Mary Law Review

In 1996, the Supreme Court announced in Whren v. United States that a traffic stop is constitutional if there is probable cause to believe a traffic infraction has occurred. So long as the officers who stop an individual can point—even after the fact—to any violation of the traffic laws, their actual, subjective motivations for initiating a stop are legally irrelevant. Case-by-case determination of reasonableness is unnecessary in the traffic stop context, the Court concluded, because the balancing of interests has already been done. Unlike warrantless entries into homes, the use of deadly force, or unannounced warranted entries, a traffic stop …


Section 898: Targeting The Companies Behind Gun Violence In New York With Public Nuisance Doctrine, Mara Kravitz May 2024

Section 898: Targeting The Companies Behind Gun Violence In New York With Public Nuisance Doctrine, Mara Kravitz

William & Mary Law Review

On July 6, 2021, the New York State Legislature enacted sections 898-a to -e of the New York General Business Law (section 898), creating a clear path for public entities and private gun violence victims to sue gun industry members for their role in the gun violence public nuisance in New York. This Note explores why the legislature took a public nuisance approach to curbing gun violence, framing section 898 within public nuisance doctrine’s broader common law history and legal elements.

To unpack how and why New York took this approach, the first Part of this Note traces the history …


Rage Rhetoric And The Revival Of American Sedition, Jonathan Turley May 2024

Rage Rhetoric And The Revival Of American Sedition, Jonathan Turley

William & Mary Law Review

We are living in what Professor Jonathan Turley calls an age of rage. However, it is not the first such period. Professor Turley explores how the United States was formed (and the Constitution was written) in precisely such a period. Throughout that history, sedition has been used as the vehicle for criminalizing political speech. This Article explores how seditious libel has evolved as a crime and how it is experiencing a type of American revival. The crime of sedition can be traced back to the infamous trials of the Star Chamber and the flawed view of free speech articulated by …


Afraid For The Dark: Regulating Light Pollution Under The Clean Water Act, Katrina Umstead May 2024

Afraid For The Dark: Regulating Light Pollution Under The Clean Water Act, Katrina Umstead

William & Mary Law Review

Currently, light pollution is only regulated at the state and local level. However, not all states implement legislation to mitigate the adverse effects of ALAN [Artificial light at night]. Nineteen states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico have implemented laws to reduce light pollution. In states without such laws, or in federal waters, light-intensive activities remain unchecked. The rapid increase in light pollution in recent years illustrates the inadequacies of existing state and local regulatory schemes and calls for a new understanding of ALAN as a pollutant to marine ecosystems.

This Note argues that the existing tools in the …


The Anti-Innovation Supreme Court: Major Questions, Delegation, Chevron, And More, Jack M. Beermann May 2024

The Anti-Innovation Supreme Court: Major Questions, Delegation, Chevron, And More, Jack M. Beermann

William & Mary Law Review

The Supreme Court of the United States has generally been a very aggressive enforcer of legal limitations on governmental power. In various periods in its history, the Court has gone far beyond enforcing clearly expressed and easily ascertainable constitutional and statutory provisions and has suppressed innovation by the other branches that do not necessarily transgress widely held social norms. Novel assertions of legislative power, novel interpretations of federal statutes, statutes that are in tension with well-established common law rules, and state laws adopted by only a few states are suspect simply because they are novel or rub up against tradition. …


Eliminating Rule 609 To Provide A Fair Opportunity To Defend Against Criminal Charges: A Proposal To The Advisory Committee On The Federal Rules Of Evidence, Jeffrey Bellin May 2024

Eliminating Rule 609 To Provide A Fair Opportunity To Defend Against Criminal Charges: A Proposal To The Advisory Committee On The Federal Rules Of Evidence, Jeffrey Bellin

Faculty Publications

Federal Rule of Evidence 609 authorizes the admission of prior convictions to impeach criminal defendants who testify. And in this important and uniquely damaging application, the [r]ule’s logic fails, distorting American trials and depriving defendants of a fair opportunity to defend against the charges. The Advisory Committee [on Evidence Rules (the “Advisory Committee”)] should propose the elimination of Rule 609 and prohibit cross-examination with specific instances of a criminal defendant’s past conduct when those instances are unrelated to the defendant’s testimony and unconnected to the case.

This short essay begins by setting out the proposed rule change alongside a proposed …


Constitutional Rights And Remedial Consistency, Katherine Mims Crocker May 2024

Constitutional Rights And Remedial Consistency, Katherine Mims Crocker

Faculty Publications

When the Supreme Court declined definitively to block Texas’s S.B. 8, which effectively eliminated pre-enforcement federal remedies for what was then a plainly unconstitutional restriction on abortion rights, a prominent criticism was that the majority would have never tolerated the similar treatment of preferred legal protections—like gun rights. This refrain reemerged when California enacted a copycat regime for firearms regulation. This theme sounds in the deep-rooted idea that judge-made law should adhere to generality and neutrality values requiring doctrines to derive justification from controlling a meaningful class of cases ascertained by objective legal criteria.

This Article is about consistency, and …


Are Employee Noncompete Agreements Coercive? Why The Ftc's Wrong Answer Disqualifies It From Rulemaking (For Now), Alan J. Meese Apr 2024

Are Employee Noncompete Agreements Coercive? Why The Ftc's Wrong Answer Disqualifies It From Rulemaking (For Now), Alan J. Meese

Faculty Publications

The Federal Trade Commission recently proposed a rule banning nearly all employee noncompete agreements (“NCAs”) as unfair methods of competition under Section 5 of the Federal Trade Commission Act. The proposed rule reflects two complementary pillars of an aggressive new enforcement agenda championed by Commission Chair Lina Khan, a leading voice in the Neo-Brandeisian antitrust movement. First, such a rule depends on the assumption, rejected by most prior Commissions, that the Act empowers the Commission to issue legislative rules. Proceeding by rulemaking is essential, the Commission has said, to fight a “hyperconcentrated economy” that injures employees and consumers alike. Second, …


Ukraine V. Russia: A Case For Change In International Enforcement, Katy Malloy Apr 2024

Ukraine V. Russia: A Case For Change In International Enforcement, Katy Malloy

William & Mary Law Review

A scant few territorial violations have occurred in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries, and those that have occurred generally prompted quick and unequivocal condemnation, as well as efforts to return to the status quo. Notable violations—the Six-Days War, the Turkish invasion of Cyprus, the Falklands War, Iraq’s invasion of Kuwait, and Russia’s annexation of Crimea—have prompted a short menu of international responses. The Six-Days War and the invasion of Crimea both prompted years’ worth of political criticism for Israel and Russia, respectively, as both nations have held onto at least parts of the lands seized. The Falklands War prompted almost …


The Real Wrongs Of Icwa, James G. Dwyer Apr 2024

The Real Wrongs Of Icwa, James G. Dwyer

Faculty Publications

Haaland v. Brackeen rejected federalism-based challenges to the Indian Child Welfare Act (ICWA) but signaled receptivity to future challenges based on individual rights. The adult-focused rights claims presented in Haaland, however, miss the mark of what is truly problematic about ICWA. This Article presents an in-depth, children’s-rights based critique of the Act, explaining how it violates a fundamental right against state exertion of power over central aspects of persons’ private lives to their detriment for illicit purposes. In fact, the Act’s defenders are complicit in the same sort of government violence that motivated ICWA’s enactment—erasing aspects of children’s heritage …


Issues, Evan C. Zoldan Apr 2024

Issues, Evan C. Zoldan

William & Mary Law Review

The Federal Rules of Civil Procedure have issues—148 issues to be exact. Although the Rules use the term “issue” throughout their text, they do not use it in the same way each time. In some circumstances, the meaning of “issue” is made clear by surrounding context, minimizing any interpretive difficulty. But sometimes context does not clarify the term’s meaning, creating interpretive challenges. This Article argues that the ambiguous term “issue” found in Federal Rules of Civil Procedure 50 and 52 is best read to mean a “dispute of fact.” This reading best comports with judicial interpretations of Rules 50 and …


The "Free White Person" Clause Of The Naturalization Act Of 1790 As Super-Statute, Gabriel J. Chin, Paul Finkelman Apr 2024

The "Free White Person" Clause Of The Naturalization Act Of 1790 As Super-Statute, Gabriel J. Chin, Paul Finkelman

William & Mary Law Review

A body of legal scholarship persuasively contends that some judicial decisions are so important that they should be considered part of the canon of constitutional law including, unquestionably, Marbury v. Madison and Brown v. Board of Education. Some decisions, while blunders, were nevertheless profoundly influential in undermining justice and the public good. Scholars call cases such as Dred Scott v. Sandford and Plessy v. Ferguson the anticanon. Recognizing the contemporary centrality of statutes, Professors William Eskridge and John Ferejohn propose that certain federal laws should be recognized as part of legal canon because of their extraordinary influence and duration. These …


Creating A Racialized Liminal Status: The 1790 Act And Interstitial Citizenship, Rose Cuison-Villazor Apr 2024

Creating A Racialized Liminal Status: The 1790 Act And Interstitial Citizenship, Rose Cuison-Villazor

William & Mary Law Review

This Comment began with De La Ysla’s case to highlight the political status that Filipinos held when the Philippines was a U.S. territory. This Comment argues that this status, which a court would later describe as a “hybrid status ... the so-called ‘non-citizen national,’” was a racialized liminal political status with roots in the 1790 Naturalization Act (1790 Act). Professors Jack Chin and Paul Finkelman claim that the 1790 Act played a critical role in shaping “the very composition of the people of the United States” by including the “free white person” clause in the country’s first naturalization law. One …


Afterward: A Reply To Commentators, Gabriel J. Chin, Paul Finkelman Apr 2024

Afterward: A Reply To Commentators, Gabriel J. Chin, Paul Finkelman

William & Mary Law Review

Authors Gabriel J. Chin and Paul Finkelman respond to the comments on their article, The "Free White Person" Clause of the Naturalization Act of 1790 as Super-Statute.


Separate, Sovereign, And Subjugated: Native Citizenship And The 1790 Trade And Intercourse Act, Bethany Berger Apr 2024

Separate, Sovereign, And Subjugated: Native Citizenship And The 1790 Trade And Intercourse Act, Bethany Berger

William & Mary Law Review

In 1790, the same year Congress limited naturalization to “free white persons,” it also enacted the first Indian Trade and Intercourse Act. The Trade and Intercourse Act may have even stronger claims to “super statute” status than the Naturalization Act. Key provisions of the Trade and Intercourse Act remain in effect today, and the Act enshrined a tribal, federal, and state relationship that profoundly shapes modern law. Unlike the Naturalization Act, the Trade and Intercourse Act reflected the input of people of color: it responded to the demands of tribal nations and—to a degree—reflected tribal sovereignty. While Indigenous people could …


The Road Not Taken: A Critical Juncture In Racial Preferences For Naturalized Citizenship, Ming Hsu Chen Apr 2024

The Road Not Taken: A Critical Juncture In Racial Preferences For Naturalized Citizenship, Ming Hsu Chen

William & Mary Law Review

In The “Free White Person” Clause of the Naturalization Act of 1790 as Super-Statute, Gabriel Jack Chin and Paul Finkelman argue that racist results in naturalization have arisen despite, or maybe because of, the race neutral interpretation. This happened in a manner that could have been predicted by the federal government’s attitudes toward non-White persons in the Naturalization Act of 1790 and the nearly unbroken chain of legal developments. This leads them to think of the law as a “super-statute.” While I agree that this is the path actually taken in history, I view the mid-1960s civil rights era …


Paradoxical Citizenship, Amanda Frost Apr 2024

Paradoxical Citizenship, Amanda Frost

William & Mary Law Review

In their article, The “Free White Person” Clause of the Naturalization Act of 1790 as Super-Statute, Gabriel J. Chin and Paul Finkelman make a powerful case that the Naturalization Act of 1790 is a “super-statute” that has shaped not only U.S. immigration law and policy, but also America’s conception of itself as a “White nation.”

[...]

This Comment explores the conflict between the Naturalization Act’s racial restrictions on citizenship (and its proponents’ vision of the United States as a White nation) and the Fourteenth Amendment’s Citizenship Clause (and its proponents’ vision of the United States as a multiracial …


Decommodifying Cultural Heritage: A Linguistic Unpacking Of "Cultural Property", Zoe Creamer Apr 2024

Decommodifying Cultural Heritage: A Linguistic Unpacking Of "Cultural Property", Zoe Creamer

William & Mary Law Review

The complex history of cultural property regulation in the United States, discussed below, suggests a lack of consensus regarding the definition of the legislation’s target. However, as this Note argues, it is futile to attempt crafting a precise definition of the objects qualifying for protection under such legislation without first addressing the dueling interests inherent in the operative words. An examination of the various aims of cultural property legislation reveals two competing goals. On one side exists the desire to protect cultural heritage for the world’s enrichment, and on the other is the desire to protect private ownership rights. These …


Agency Self-Funding In The Antinovelty Age, Zois Manaris Mar 2024

Agency Self-Funding In The Antinovelty Age, Zois Manaris

William & Mary Law Review Online

This Article demonstrates that CFSA's [Community Financial Services Association of American v. CFPB] introduction of antinovelty into the self-funding space, including its particular antinovelty approach, poses an existential threat to any and all agency self-funding. On its face, this may seem like something that will only worry the more functionalist or more liberal crowd—likely because so much of the recent discussion surrounding agency self-funding has revolved around the polarizing CFPB. But even those who might want the CFPB struck down and those who subscribe to the antinovelty rationale as a general matter (between those two camps there …


The Private Abridgment Of Free Speech, Erin L. Miller Mar 2024

The Private Abridgment Of Free Speech, Erin L. Miller

William & Mary Bill of Rights Journal

This Article challenges the orthodoxy that First Amendment speech rights can bind only the state. I argue that the primary justification for the freedom of speech is to protect fundamental interests like autonomy, democracy, and knowledge from the kind of extraordinary power over speech available to the state. If so, this justification applies with nearly equal force to any private agents with power over speech rivaling that of the state. Such a class of private agents, which I call quasi-state agents, turns out to be a live possibility once we recognize that state power is more limited than it seems …


Fourteen Going On Forty: Challenging Sex Offender Registration For Juveniles Under The Fourteenth Amendment Equal Protection Clause, Emily Baker Mar 2024

Fourteen Going On Forty: Challenging Sex Offender Registration For Juveniles Under The Fourteenth Amendment Equal Protection Clause, Emily Baker

William & Mary Bill of Rights Journal

Part I of this Note reviews the historical background leading to the development of sex offender registration laws and examines relevant Supreme Court precedent. Part II analyzes the principles of juvenile justice, the application of juvenile sex offender registration policies, and the collateral consequences of youth sex offender registration. Part III argues that registered juvenile offenders should be considered a quasi-suspect class and thus receive intermediate scrutiny in equal protection analysis, and challenges the constitutionality of juvenile sex offender registries, particularly the South Carolina statutory scheme. Part IV examines the turning legal tide against juvenile registration through the recent Model …


Appendix B - Tax Funds For Religious Schools, Allan Walker Vestal Mar 2024

Appendix B - Tax Funds For Religious Schools, Allan Walker Vestal

William & Mary Bill of Rights Journal

No abstract provided.


The Uncertain Future Of Tourism On Migrating Barrier Islands: How And Why The Outer Banks Of North Carolina Should Adjust To Growing Threats, Lillian Coward Mar 2024

The Uncertain Future Of Tourism On Migrating Barrier Islands: How And Why The Outer Banks Of North Carolina Should Adjust To Growing Threats, Lillian Coward

William & Mary Law Review

Erosion, storms, and the migration of the barrier islands that comprise the Outer Banks themselves are not new. The rising seas that have resulted from climate change have merely exacerbated what has always occurred. What is new, however, is the economic havoc that natural processes and disasters alike can wreak on the islands. Today, because climate change has accelerated natural island migration, individuals, local governments, and the federal government alike have a lot to lose in the fight against the tides.

[...]

This Note will evaluate a variety of potential solutions to the problems that pose nearly existential threats to …


Bottom-Up Federal Sentencing Reform, Andrew W. Grindrod Mar 2024

Bottom-Up Federal Sentencing Reform, Andrew W. Grindrod

William & Mary Law Review

Today, about 160,000 people live behind the bars of a federal prison. That is roughly the population of Alexandria, Virginia. Starting from the premise that the federal system’s contribution to mass incarceration should be curbed and recognizing that broad legislative reform seems unlikely, this Article considers the federal judiciary’s potential role in sentencing reform.

Bottom-up sentencing reform consists of federal trial judges exercising their decisional authority in individual cases to engage with the fundamental premises and assumptions that underlie traditional sentencing decisions, categorically rejecting them when appropriate. This approach to reform is available under current law. In fact, a few …