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Full-Text Articles in Law

A Market Mechanism For The Creation Of A Climate-Differentiated Market In The Steel Industry, Laura Garcia Cancino, Perrine Toledano Jul 2024

A Market Mechanism For The Creation Of A Climate-Differentiated Market In The Steel Industry, Laura Garcia Cancino, Perrine Toledano

Columbia Center on Sustainable Investment

The heavy industry sector, a significant contributor to global CO2 emissions, is at a critical juncture. Accounting for 25% of total CO2 emissions annually, this sector is poised to see an increased demand for materials through 2050, particularly from developing countries focused on infrastructure expansion and transitions toward net-zero emissions. However, the sector's dependency on high-emission technologies, notably in steelmaking, underlines the pressing need for a swift and decisive shift to low-emission alternatives.

Our latest publication under the COMET initiative, A Market Mechanism for the Creation of a Climate-differentiated Market in the Steel Industry, introduces a twofold market mechanism specifically …


Removing Methane Via Atmospheric Oxidation Enhancement: The Legal Framework, Romany M. Webb, Martin Lockman, Korey Silverman-Roati Jul 2024

Removing Methane Via Atmospheric Oxidation Enhancement: The Legal Framework, Romany M. Webb, Martin Lockman, Korey Silverman-Roati

Sabin Center for Climate Change Law

To achieve the Paris Agreement’s goal of limiting the increase in global average temperatures to “well below 2 degrees Celsius,” and ideally 1.5 degrees Celsius, above pre-industrial levels, global greenhouse gas (“GHG”) emissions must reach net zero in the second half of the century. The global community is not currently on track to achieve net zero emissions. In fact, with the exception of a slight dip during the Covid-19 pandemic, emissions have risen steadily in recent years. This, together with the increasingly visible impacts of climate change, has prompted growing interest in the possibility of removing GHGs directly from the …


Green Public Procurement: How To Fulfill The Promise Of Decarbonizing The Hard-To-Abate Sectors, Laura Garcia Cancino, Perrine Toledano, Ingrid Zhou Jul 2024

Green Public Procurement: How To Fulfill The Promise Of Decarbonizing The Hard-To-Abate Sectors, Laura Garcia Cancino, Perrine Toledano, Ingrid Zhou

Columbia Center on Sustainable Investment

Public procurement represents a significant segment of the global economy, accounting for approximately 12% of the global GDP, according to a World Bank's 2020 report. Moreover, steel and cement are among the most carbon-intensive commodities, contributing about 14-16% of global energy-related CO2 emissions. Our latest publication under the COMET initiative, Green Public Procurement: How to Fulfill the Promise of Decarbonizing the Hard-to-Abate Sectors, analyzes Green Public Procurement (GPP) and its pivotal role in decarbonizing hard-to-abate sectors like steel manufacturing.

This comprehensive study delves into how governments can use their extensive purchasing power to shift market dynamics towards low-carbon alternatives, effectively …


Climate Impact Screening And Reporting: A Venture Capital Perspective, Ajay S. Jagdish, Perrine Toledano, Ana M. Camelo Vega Jul 2024

Climate Impact Screening And Reporting: A Venture Capital Perspective, Ajay S. Jagdish, Perrine Toledano, Ana M. Camelo Vega

Columbia Center on Sustainable Investment

According to the International Energy Agency’s (IEA) Net-Zero Scenario, about one-third of the emissions reductions needed by 2050 depend on technologies that are currently in development. Additionally, climate adaptation finance faces an even larger investment gap.

The Climate Venture Capital community must demonstrate tangible climate impact to truly earn its reputation.

However, accurately and reliably screening, evaluating, and monitoring climate impact is challenging, with many metrics and methods still needing to be ascertained, clarified, and standardized.

With the support of Princeville Capital, CCSI offers insights into unresolved issues:

  1. Attribution and baselining
  2. Paris-aligned thresholds for prioritization
  3. Indirect impact and tailored KPIs …


Public Health And Human Health Implications Of Climate Mobility, Julia Neusner, Ama Francis Jun 2024

Public Health And Human Health Implications Of Climate Mobility, Julia Neusner, Ama Francis

Sabin Center for Climate Change Law

Climate change poses significant challenges at the intersection of human and public health, mobility, and international law. Adverse climate impacts undermine the quality of human and public health, contributing to increasing global mobility, while climate-impacted migrants and displaced people can experience severe health challenges in transit and in their receiving communities. Moreover, the nexus between climate change, human and public health, and mobility exacerbates pre-existing vulnerabilities, undermining human rights and implicating State obligations. As international and regional courts, including the International Court of Justice (ICJ), clarify states’ duty to protect people from the adverse impacts of climate change, it is …


Catalyzing Public And Private Investments To Scale Up Socio-Bioeconomy And Nature-Based Solutions, Lara Fornabaio, Lisa E. Sachs, Meike Siegner, Vivek Pandey, Rajat Panwar Jun 2024

Catalyzing Public And Private Investments To Scale Up Socio-Bioeconomy And Nature-Based Solutions, Lara Fornabaio, Lisa E. Sachs, Meike Siegner, Vivek Pandey, Rajat Panwar

Columbia Center on Sustainable Investment

Socio-bioeconomy presents a promising approach to sustainable development by leveraging biological and social diversity to transition away from a fossil fuel dependent economy while simultaneously creating income and employment opportunities for millions of Indigenous and rural communities worldwide. Because the bioeconomy values the sustainable utilization of renewable biological resources, nature-based solutions (NbS), which are a facet of the socio-bioeconomy, gain increasing prominence. Socio-bioeconomy requires substantial investmentsfrom both public and private sectors to develop effective socio-biodiversity production systems. Socio-bioeconomy development will require improved institutional coordination, robust planning, and novel methodologies to measure trade-offs as well as promote synergies that can generate …


Climate Litigation In The Global South: Mapping Report, Maria Antonia Tigre Jun 2024

Climate Litigation In The Global South: Mapping Report, Maria Antonia Tigre

Sabin Center for Climate Change Law

In recent years, climate litigation has undergone a notable transformation globally, witnessing a surge in cases across diverse jurisdictions. While scholarly interest has predominantly focused on cases from the Global North, attention to litigation originating in the Global South has been more limited. Nonetheless, understanding the distinct legal grounds, remedies sought, and objectives of plaintiffs in the Global South is crucial. This report addresses this gap by providing a comprehensive insight into the current landscape of climate litigation in the Global South.

The report utilizes data from the Sabin Center’s Global Climate Change Litigation databases, which has seen an influx …


Cities, E-Commerce & Public Health: 3 Legal Pathways To Limiting Freight Vehicle Emissions, Amy E. Turner Jun 2024

Cities, E-Commerce & Public Health: 3 Legal Pathways To Limiting Freight Vehicle Emissions, Amy E. Turner

Sabin Center for Climate Change Law

In recent years, cities have become increasingly defined by e-commerce – the sprawling network of goods delivery from central warehouses to neighborhood distribution centers to residents’ front doors. This growing network of warehouses and the freight vehicles that serve them contribute significantly to a community’s greenhouse gas emissions and exposure to harmful pollutants like nitrogen oxides (NOx), carbon monoxide and particulate matter. Moreover, so-called last-mile delivery warehouses (or distribution centers) are proliferating, largely in low-income communities and communities of color, where residents are exposed to increasing traffic, pollution, and harmful health impacts.

While a handful of cities have pursued approaches …


Opposition To Renewable Energy Facilities In The United States: June 2024 Edition, Matthew Eisenson, Jacob Elkin, Harmukh Singh, Noah Schaffir Jun 2024

Opposition To Renewable Energy Facilities In The United States: June 2024 Edition, Matthew Eisenson, Jacob Elkin, Harmukh Singh, Noah Schaffir

Sabin Center for Climate Change Law

Achieving lower carbon emissions in the United States will require developing a massive number renewable energy facilities at an unprecedented scale and pace. Although many renewable energy facilities are sited without any problem, local opposition often arises. This report updates and considerably expands three previous Sabin Center reports, published in September 2021, March 2022, and May 2023, which document local and state restrictions against, and opposition to, siting renewable energy projects, as well as energy storage and transmission projects that are closely tied to renewable energy generation. The time period covered by this report ranges from as early as 1995 …


Reforming International Investment Law To Advance Tax Justice, Madeleine Songy May 2024

Reforming International Investment Law To Advance Tax Justice, Madeleine Songy

Columbia Center on Sustainable Investment

Reforming International Investment Law to Advance Tax Justice" highlights the detrimental impact of current international investment treaties on tax justice and sustainable development objectives. It argues that Investor-State Dispute Settlement (ISDS) mechanisms often impede states' ability to implement effective tax policies by allowing foreign investors to challenge tax measures. The brief recommends a comprehensive reform of international investment law to ensure that investment treaties support rather than undermine tax justice. This can include eliminating ISDS provisions, drafting new treaties that safeguard the sovereign right of states to regulate taxation, and facilitating cooperation among states to reform tax systems at national, …


Circular Economy In The Industrial Goods Sector: A Framework For Understanding Private Sector Progress And Innovation, Chris Albin-Lackey, Madeleine Songy May 2024

Circular Economy In The Industrial Goods Sector: A Framework For Understanding Private Sector Progress And Innovation, Chris Albin-Lackey, Madeleine Songy

Columbia Center on Sustainable Investment

A “circular economy” is an economic system that creates a closed loop, allowing for the reuse of resources and minimization of waste. How are circularity principles implemented in the business practices of private companies? “Circular Economy in the Industrial Goods Sector: A Framework for Understanding Private Sector Progress And Innovation” analyzes a diverse cross-section of industrial goods companies and develops a five pillar framework to characterize what good circularity practices look like in practice.

This report was commissioned by Stewart Investors, a long-term investor that looks to drive sustainable development progress through its portfolio. Stewart Investors' approach to stewardship includes …


Government Procurement, Financial Services, And Environment: Linkages And Implications For The Eu And Brazil, Adeet Dobhal, Lucas Moreira Jiminez May 2024

Government Procurement, Financial Services, And Environment: Linkages And Implications For The Eu And Brazil, Adeet Dobhal, Lucas Moreira Jiminez

Columbia Center on Sustainable Investment

The relationship between trade and the environment is increasingly a priority for policymakers and civil society. However, some of the disciplines covered by modern trade agreements have not received enough attention when it comes to their potential impact on the environment. Financial services and government procurement are two such areas, even though they are increasingly consequential topics for international trade policy and negotiations. This blind spot merits greater consideration as the connections definitely exist: the regulation of government procurement and financial services can have positive or negative implications for environmental outcomes on the ground, which makes understanding these links a …


Climate Change And Human Health: A Synthesis Of Scientific Research And State Obligations Under International Law, Jessica A. Wentz May 2024

Climate Change And Human Health: A Synthesis Of Scientific Research And State Obligations Under International Law, Jessica A. Wentz

Sabin Center for Climate Change Law

This report synthesizes the latest scientific research on the human health effects of climate change and discusses the legal implications of this research, specifically with regards to State obligations under international law. In doing so, the report seeks to provide insights on issues to be analyzed by the International Court of Justice (ICJ) in its upcoming advisory opinion on the legal obligations of States with respect to climate change. It also seeks to enhance the capacity of judges, advocates, and governments to understand these issues in the context of current and future proceedings involving international law obligations related to climate …


Recommendations To Update The Ftc & Doj’S Guidelines For Collaborations Among Competitors, Cynthia Hanawalt, Denise Hearn, Chloe Field May 2024

Recommendations To Update The Ftc & Doj’S Guidelines For Collaborations Among Competitors, Cynthia Hanawalt, Denise Hearn, Chloe Field

Sabin Center for Climate Change Law

Existing joint agency guidance from the FTC and DOJ, “Antitrust Guidelines for Collaborations Among Competitors” was written in 2000 and is misaligned with the agencies’ focus on market power considerations and protecting the competitive process. This white paper seeks to provide a rationale and suggestions for revising the collaboration guidelines. We look to examples in other jurisdictions, with an eye to their treatment of sustainability-related collaborations, as many were updated with these considerations in mind. Importantly, we do not recommend that updated guidelines follow international examples in creating explicit sustainability-related carve outs, safe harbors, or exemptions. Due to the complex …


Shocking Financed Emissions: The Effect Of Economic Volatility On The Portfolio Footprinting Of Financial Institutions, Ilmi Granoff, Tonya Lee May 2024

Shocking Financed Emissions: The Effect Of Economic Volatility On The Portfolio Footprinting Of Financial Institutions, Ilmi Granoff, Tonya Lee

Sabin Center for Climate Change Law

Many financial institutions are now calculating and disclosing their financed emissions, a class of metrics enabling these institutions to calculate the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with investment and lending activities. These institutions have widely adopted the metric to estimate exposure to climate-related financial risk associated with GHG-emitting activities and to provide shareholders and investors a picture of how their financial activity impacts global climate change. Financed emissions metrics, despite widespread adoption, face two key methodological challenges: lack of comparability of outputs within and between portfolios, and vulnerability of calculations to portfolio volatility. Markets are naturally volatile, but the economic …


The Private Litigation Impact Of New York’S Green Amendment, Evan Bianchi, Sean Di Luccio, Martin Lockman, Vincent Nolette May 2024

The Private Litigation Impact Of New York’S Green Amendment, Evan Bianchi, Sean Di Luccio, Martin Lockman, Vincent Nolette

Sabin Center for Climate Change Law

The increasing urgency of climate change, combined with federal environmental inaction under the Trump Administration, inspired a wave of environmental action at the state and local level. Building on the environmental movement of the 1970s, activists have pushed to amend more than a dozen state constitutions to include “green amendments” — self-executing individual rights to a clean environment. In 2022, New York activists succeeded, and New York’s Green Amendment (the NYGA) now provides that “Each person shall have a right to clean air and water, and a healthful environment.”

However, the power of the NYGA and similar green amendments turns …


Rebutting 33 False Claims About Solar, Wind, And Electric Vehicles, Matthew Eisenson, Jacob Elkin, Andy Fitch, Matthew Ard, Kaya Sittinger, Samuel Lavine Apr 2024

Rebutting 33 False Claims About Solar, Wind, And Electric Vehicles, Matthew Eisenson, Jacob Elkin, Andy Fitch, Matthew Ard, Kaya Sittinger, Samuel Lavine

Sabin Center for Climate Change Law

Achieving the United States’ ambitious emissions reduction goals depends in large part on the rapid adoption of wind and solar energy and the electrification of consumer vehicles. However, misinformation and coordinated disinformation about renewable energy is widespread and threatens to undermine the transition. In this report, the Sabin Center identifies and examines 33 of the most pervasive false claims about solar energy, wind energy, and electric vehicles, with the aim of promoting a more informed discussion.


Executive Actions To Ensure Safe And Responsible Ocean Carbon Dioxide Removal Research In The United States, Romany M. Webb, Korey Silverman-Roati Apr 2024

Executive Actions To Ensure Safe And Responsible Ocean Carbon Dioxide Removal Research In The United States, Romany M. Webb, Korey Silverman-Roati

Sabin Center for Climate Change Law

This paper presents recommended actions that federal agencies could take, under existing law, to ensure safe and responsible permitting and regulation of ocean carbon dioxide removal (CDR) research in U.S. waters. Controlled field trials and other in-ocean research is critical to improve scientific and societal understanding of ocean CDR techniques that could help the U.S. reach its climate goals. That could raise a host of legal issues, however. Existing legal frameworks were not designed to regulate ocean CDR, and federal agencies have yet to fully explain how decades-old environmental laws will be applied to a new set of activities. This …


International Governance Of Ocean-Based Carbon Dioxide Removal: Recent Developments And Future Directions, Romany M. Webb Apr 2024

International Governance Of Ocean-Based Carbon Dioxide Removal: Recent Developments And Future Directions, Romany M. Webb

Sabin Center for Climate Change Law

With the impacts of climate change intensifying, and progress in reducing the greenhouse gas emissions that cause it continuing to lag, the parties to the Paris Climate Agreement have emphasized the need to accelerate efforts to remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, while simultaneously curbing emissions. As the parties have recognized, the ocean is already a major carbon sink, and could play an important role in future carbon dioxide removal (“CDR”) efforts. Scientists have proposed a variety of ocean-based CDR approaches, but most require further research to fully evaluate their efficacy, benefits, and risks. In-ocean testing of the approaches, and …


Building A Cleaner, More Resilient Energy System In Cuba: Opportunities And Challenges, Korey Silverman-Roati, Daniel Whittle, Romany M. Webb, Jeffrey P. Fralick, Lila Harmar Apr 2024

Building A Cleaner, More Resilient Energy System In Cuba: Opportunities And Challenges, Korey Silverman-Roati, Daniel Whittle, Romany M. Webb, Jeffrey P. Fralick, Lila Harmar

Sabin Center for Climate Change Law

Cuba’s energy sector is at a crossroads. The country’s mostly fossil fuel-fired energy system faces a number of longstanding and serious challenges, including breakdowns at aging power plants, decreasing fuel imports and fuel shortages, and the growing threat of climate change-related disruptions. In recent years, Cuba has seen frequent electric blackouts and brownouts that have affected residents, businesses, and government institutions island wide.

Compounding these problems, Cuba is facing a severe economic crisis. In 2022, year-on-year inflation was 39% (down from 77% in 2021). While inflation is estimated to have dropped to 30% in 2023, the price of food increased …


Advisory Opinion On Climate Change: Summary Of Written Observations Submitted To The Inter-American Court Of Human Rights (Part 1), Maria Antonia Tigre Apr 2024

Advisory Opinion On Climate Change: Summary Of Written Observations Submitted To The Inter-American Court Of Human Rights (Part 1), Maria Antonia Tigre

Sabin Center for Climate Change Law

On January 9, 2023, the Foreign Ministers of Chile and Colombia requested an advisory opinion from the Inter-American Court of Human Rights (IACtHR) on the scope of state obligations for responding to the climate emergency under the frame of international human rights law and, specifically, under the American Convention on Human Rights. Within this context, the IACtHR received a total of 255 amicus brief submissions.

This report includes summaries of the amicus briefs submitted to the Court. Due to the number of submissions received and the short timeframe prior to the hearings, the report is divided into parts. This first …


Incorporating Climate Considerations Into Investment Assessment Processes: Guidance For National And Local Governments, Esther Akwii, Grace Brennan, Leslie Hannay, Martin Dietrich Brauch, Nora Mardirossian Apr 2024

Incorporating Climate Considerations Into Investment Assessment Processes: Guidance For National And Local Governments, Esther Akwii, Grace Brennan, Leslie Hannay, Martin Dietrich Brauch, Nora Mardirossian

Columbia Center on Sustainable Investment

Global climate change impacts pose complex, dynamic challenges to the success of land-based investments — such as agriculture, forestry, and wind and solar energy — which can further exacerbate detrimental climate change impacts if they are not sustainably implemented. Countries outline in their Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) their goals and plans to reduce GHG emissions and adapt to climate change impacts. To ensure their success, governments must fully integrate their NDCs into national climate strategies, plans, and policies that drive government action and decisions. Improved land-based investment decision-making through the incorporation of climate considerations in investment assessment processes (IAPs) can …


Sabin Center For Climate Change Law Annual Report 2023, Sabin Center For Climate Change Law Mar 2024

Sabin Center For Climate Change Law Annual Report 2023, Sabin Center For Climate Change Law

Sabin Center for Climate Change Law

This year the Sabin Center for Climate Change introduces its first annual report, which highlights and synthesizes our cutting-edge research and innovative engagements in 2023.


It Is (Finally) Time For And Advisory Opinion On Climate Change: Challenges And Opportunities On A Trio Of Initiatives, Maria Antonia Tigre Mar 2024

It Is (Finally) Time For And Advisory Opinion On Climate Change: Challenges And Opportunities On A Trio Of Initiatives, Maria Antonia Tigre

Sabin Center for Climate Change Law

In recent years, the number and diversity of climate-related lawsuits have increased, with courts in over seventy jurisdictions now handling such cases. After the expansion through domestic courts, stakeholders worldwide are turning to international courts and tribunals to help define the responsibilities of states in light of the climate crisis. Three initiatives requesting advisory opinions to international courts or tribunals have been announced within six months. These advisory opinions could have significant implications for international climate change law, defining the human rights obligations of states (and potentially corporations) in light of the climate crisis. It is expected the International Court …


Common But Differentiated Constitutionalisms: Does ‘Environmental Constitutionalism’ Offer Realistic Policy Options For Improving Un Environmental Law And Governance? Us And Latin American Perspectives, Erin Daly, Maria Antonia Tigre, Natalia Urzola Mar 2024

Common But Differentiated Constitutionalisms: Does ‘Environmental Constitutionalism’ Offer Realistic Policy Options For Improving Un Environmental Law And Governance? Us And Latin American Perspectives, Erin Daly, Maria Antonia Tigre, Natalia Urzola

Sabin Center for Climate Change Law

Environmental law and governance have taken many different forms in the Americas in response to climate change mitigation. This contribution describes recent developments in the United States, Colombia, and Brazil, illustrating the divergent approaches to climate protection. The chapter highlights the common but differentiated ways in which the three countries in the Americas approach environment constitutionalism in the midst of the climate crisis. On one hand, Brazil and Colombia adopt a rights-based approach to tackle complex issues related to environmental law and governance in their context-specific responses to climate protection. In particular, the courts of Colombia and Brazil have been …


The Right To A Healthy Environment In Latin America And The Caribbean: Compliance Through The Inter-American System And The Escazú Agreement, Maria Antonia Tigre Feb 2024

The Right To A Healthy Environment In Latin America And The Caribbean: Compliance Through The Inter-American System And The Escazú Agreement, Maria Antonia Tigre

Sabin Center for Climate Change Law

The Escazú Agreement has brought a myriad of environmental rights and duties to Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC), including the recognition of a right to a healthy environment and rights of environmental defenders. As a new agreement, the task of implementing the Escazú Agreement still lies ahead. Significantly, a non-judicial, non-punitive, consultative and transparent Committee to support Implementation and Compliance was established as a subsidiary body of the Conference of the Parties to promote implementation. Concomitantly, the Inter-American Court of Human Rights recognised an autonomous right to a healthy environment, establishing it as directly justiciable within the Inter-American System …


Billion-Dollar Exposure: Investor-State Dispute Settlement In Mozambique’S Fossil Fuel Sector, Lea Di Salvatore, Maria Julia Gubeissi Feb 2024

Billion-Dollar Exposure: Investor-State Dispute Settlement In Mozambique’S Fossil Fuel Sector, Lea Di Salvatore, Maria Julia Gubeissi

Columbia Center on Sustainable Investment

Alongside preparing for climate change, Africa should invest in the zero-carbon future, avoiding locking itself into the declining fossil fuel–based economy while taking advantage of the opportunities presented by decarbonization. However, investment treaties and investor–state dispute settlement (ISDS) hinder, rather than catalyze, the transition to climate-friendly investment opportunities. This report shows how Mozambique’s international investment agreements and publicly available oil, gas, and coal contracts allow foreign investors to bypass the national judicial system and bring multi-billion-dollar ISDS claims against Mozambique. Such claims can result in significant costs for the country, and they also have a chilling effect on new public-interest …


Harms From Concentrated Industries: A Primer, Denise Hearn Feb 2024

Harms From Concentrated Industries: A Primer, Denise Hearn

Columbia Center on Sustainable Investment

Market concentration within sectors and across global value chains has increased in recent years, leading to new scholarship on the benefits and harms of concentrated industries. The macroeconomic effects of market concentration, and its effects on stakeholders like workers, consumers, and citizens, will significantly impact the achievement of the SDGs. Read CCSI's primer on the Harms from Concentrated Industries here.


The Harm Of "Nothing Burgers", Joshua Gupta-Kagan Jan 2024

The Harm Of "Nothing Burgers", Joshua Gupta-Kagan

Faculty Scholarship

Child protective services (CPS) agencies subject a wide scope of families to investigation, and the vast majority do not lead to family separations or family court cases. A 2017 study, for instance, showing that 37% of all children and 53% of Black children are the subject of CPS investigations in their childhoods, has now been cited hundreds of times. Kelley Fong’s new book, Investigating Families, is based on the months she spent embedded with CPS investigators responding to allegations that parents abused or (more often) neglected their children, and the interviews she conducted with both investigators and the parents …


Congress's Untapped Authority To Certify U Visas, Elora Mukherjee, Fatma Marouf, Sabrineh Ardalan Jan 2024

Congress's Untapped Authority To Certify U Visas, Elora Mukherjee, Fatma Marouf, Sabrineh Ardalan

Faculty Scholarship

A crucial path to legal status for immigrant victims of crimes is the U visa, which Congress established with strong bipartisan support to protect victims of particular crimes who are helpful to law enforcement. Because the U visa was intended to encourage reporting of crimes, the application requires a certification form to be completed by a federal, state, or local authority that is investigating or prosecuting the alleged offense. Arbitrary and inconsistent certification decisions by state and local authorities make it especially important to identify relevant federal authorities that can serve as certifying authorities for U visas. This Piece argues …