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Full-Text Articles in Law

Second Generation Employment Discrimination: A Structural Approach, Susan Sturm Jan 2001

Second Generation Employment Discrimination: A Structural Approach, Susan Sturm

Faculty Scholarship

The judiciary's traditional rule-based approach has been successful in reducing overt discrimination against women and people of color. It has been less effective in addressing more subtle and complex forms of workplace inequity. These second generation forms of bias result from patterns of interaction, informal norms, networking, mentoring, and evaluation. Drawing on the potential of recent Supreme Court decisions, Professor Sturm proposes a structural regulatory solution to this problem of second generation employment discrimination. Her approach links the efforts of courts, workplaces, employees, lawyers, and mediating organizations to construct a regime that encourages employers to engage in effective problem ...


Endowment Effects Within Corporate Agency Relationships, Jennifer Arlen, Matthew L. Spitzer, Eric L. Talley Jan 2001

Endowment Effects Within Corporate Agency Relationships, Jennifer Arlen, Matthew L. Spitzer, Eric L. Talley

Faculty Scholarship

Behavioral Law and Economics has become an increasingly prominent field within legal scholarship, and most recently within the corporate area. A behavioral bias of particular relevance in corporate contexts is the differential between individuals' willingness to pay to obtain a legal entitlement and her willingness to accept to part with one, known as the "endowment effect." Should endowment effects pervade relationships within business organizations, it would significantly complicate much of the common wisdom within corporate law, such as the presumed optimality of ex ante voluntary agreements. Existing experimental research, however, does not adequately address whether and to what extent the ...


The Liberal Commons, Hanoch Dagan, Michael A. Heller Jan 2001

The Liberal Commons, Hanoch Dagan, Michael A. Heller

Faculty Scholarship

Following the Civil War, black Americans began acquiring land in earnest; by 1920 almost one million black families owned farms. Since then, black rural landownership has dropped by more than 98% and continues in rapid decline – there are now fewer than 19,000 black-operated farms left in America. By contrast, white-operated farms dropped only by half, from about 5.5 million to 2.4 million. Commentators have offered as partial explanations the consolidation of inefficient small farms and intense racial discrimination in farm lending. However, even absent these factors, the unintended effects of old-fashioned American property law might have led ...


Chevron's Domain, Thomas W. Merrill, Kristin E. Hickman Jan 2001

Chevron's Domain, Thomas W. Merrill, Kristin E. Hickman

Faculty Scholarship

The Supreme Court's decision in Chevron U.S.A. Inc. v. Natural Resources Defense Counsel, Inc. dramatically expanded the circumstances in which courts must defer to agency interpretations of statutes. The idea that deference on questions of law is sometimes required was not new. Prior to Chevron, however, courts were said to have such a duty only when Congress expressly delegates authority to an agency "to define a statutory term or prescribe a method of executing a statutory provision." Outside this narrow context, whether courts would defer to an agency's legal interpretation depended upon multiple factors that courts ...


Do Norms Matter?: A Cross-Country Examination Of The Private Benefits Of Control, John C. Coffee Jr. Jan 2001

Do Norms Matter?: A Cross-Country Examination Of The Private Benefits Of Control, John C. Coffee Jr.

Faculty Scholarship

Recent empirical work has found that the private benefits of control differ significantly depending upon the underlying legal system in which the firm is incorporated. In particular, common law systems appear to outperform French civil law systems, but are trumped in turn by Scandinavian civil law systems. This evidence could be read to support the "law matters" thesis first advanced by Professors LaPorta, Lopez-de-Silanes, Shleifer and Vishny, which finds that "common law" legal systems incorporate superior legal protections for minority shareholders and therefore have deeper capital markets and more dispersed ownership. But the apparent superiority of Scandinavian legal systems complicates ...


Ratcheting Labor Standards: Regulation For Continuous Improvement In The Global Workplace, Charles F. Sabel, Archon Fung, Dara O'Rourke Jan 2001

Ratcheting Labor Standards: Regulation For Continuous Improvement In The Global Workplace, Charles F. Sabel, Archon Fung, Dara O'Rourke

Faculty Scholarship

It is a brute fact of contemporary globalization - unmistakable as activists and journalists catalog scandal after scandal – that the very transformations making possible higher quality, cheaper products often lead to unacceptable conditions of work: brutal use of child labor, dangerous environments, punishingly long days, starvation wages, discrimination, suppression of expression and association. In all quarters, the question is not whether to address these conditions, but how.


The Methodological Commitments Of Contemporary Contract Theory, Jody S. Kraus Jan 2001

The Methodological Commitments Of Contemporary Contract Theory, Jody S. Kraus

Faculty Scholarship

Autonomy and economic theories of contract seem to provide incompatible accounts of contract law. In this Chapter, I argue that what appear to be first-order disagreements over particular contract doctrines are really implicit second-order disagreements reflecting the divergent methodological commitments of autonomy and economic theories. I argue that autonomy theories accord priority to the normative project of justifying existing contract doctrine, treat contract law as consisting in the plain meaning of doctrine, require contract theory to explain the distinctive character of contract law, and take the ex post perspective in adjudication. In contrast, economic theories accord priority to the positive ...


Playing Favorites With Shareholders, Stephen J. Choi, Eric L. Talley Jan 2001

Playing Favorites With Shareholders, Stephen J. Choi, Eric L. Talley

Faculty Scholarship

Many scholars agree that a robust market for corporate control provides a critical check on managerial opportunism within public corporations. Even prior to a tender offer, the specter of a takeover provides a powerful mechanism for aligning the incentives of managers and shareholders. Conventional wisdom, therefore, views with suspicion any practice that retards the takeover threat looming over managers who perform poorly. One such practice that has garnered particular attention of late is managerial "favoritism" towards influential block shareholders. Favoritism can take any number of forms, ranging from preferential stock subscriptions, to selective information disclosure, to outright cash payments. But ...


Can Copyright Become User-Friendly? Essay Review Of Jessica Litman, Digital Copyright, Prometheus Books 2001, Jane C. Ginsburg Jan 2001

Can Copyright Become User-Friendly? Essay Review Of Jessica Litman, Digital Copyright, Prometheus Books 2001, Jane C. Ginsburg

Faculty Scholarship

Professor Litman has written Digital Copyright for the general public, though lawyers, and especially copyright lawyers, would do well to read it. Professor Litman's message is straightforward: Copyright law is too complicated and counterintuitive. It has been written by and for copyright lawyers who represent many, but not all, of the players. Those left out include developers of new ways of communicating copyrighted works, and, most importantly, end users. But nowadays, copyright directly affects end users in ways more pervasive than could have been expected in the analog world. If copyright law doesn't make sense to those who ...


Lipton And Rowe's Apologia For Delaware: A Short Reply, Ronald J. Gilson Jan 2001

Lipton And Rowe's Apologia For Delaware: A Short Reply, Ronald J. Gilson

Faculty Scholarship

In Unocal Fifteen Years Later I offered a respectful but negative assessment of the Delaware Supreme Court's post-Unocal efforts to walk a line between managerialists who believe directors should be able to block a hostile takeover, and those who believe the ultimate decision whether to accept a takeover bid belongs to the shareholders. I suggested that Delaware law could be repositioned without requiring the Delaware Supreme Court to confess error by allowing shareholder adopted bylaws that repeal or amend poison pills. Martin Lipton and Paul Rowe responded to my essay by arguing that recent economic challenges to efficient market ...


The Rise Of Dispersed Ownership: The Roles Of Law And The State In The Separation Of Ownership And Control, John C. Coffee Jr. Jan 2001

The Rise Of Dispersed Ownership: The Roles Of Law And The State In The Separation Of Ownership And Control, John C. Coffee Jr.

Faculty Scholarship

Recent scholarship on comparative corporate governance has produced a puzzle. While Berle and Means had assumed that all large public corporations would mature to an end-stage capital structure characterized by the separation of ownership and control, the contemporary empirical evidence is decidedly to the contrary. Instead of convergence toward a single capital structure, the twentieth century saw the polarization of corporate structure between two rival systems of corporate governance:

  1. A Dispersed Ownership System, characterized by strong securities markets, rigorous disclosure standards, and high market transparency, in which the market for corporate control constitutes the ultimate disciplinary mechanism; and
  2. A Concentrated ...


The Dynamic Analytics Of Property Law, Michael A. Heller Jan 2001

The Dynamic Analytics Of Property Law, Michael A. Heller

Faculty Scholarship

The standard property trilogy of private, commons, and state has become so outdated that it now impedes imagination and innovation at the frontiers of ownership. This essay suggests two approaches – creating new ideal types and synthesizing existing ones – that may help update our static property metaphors. Using these dynamic approaches to property analytics, legal theory can move beyond polarizing oppositions that have made jurisprudential debates unsolvable and rendered concrete problems invisible.


Taking Care, Katherine M. Franke Jan 2001

Taking Care, Katherine M. Franke

Faculty Scholarship

Care must be taken when human needs are expressed in the odd dialect of legal rights. This delicate act of translation – from private need to public obligation – demands acute sensitivity to the ways in which public responsibility inaugurates a new and complex encounter with a broad array of public preferences that deprive dependent subjects of primary stewardship over the ways in which their needs are met. Both Martha Fineman and Joan Williams have taken on the difficult project of making the ethical and political case for transforming dependency and care – from private or domestic need to public responsibility. In the ...


Clean Air, Clean Processes? The Struggle Over Air Pollution Law In The People's Republic Of China, William P. Alford, Benjamin L. Liebman Jan 2001

Clean Air, Clean Processes? The Struggle Over Air Pollution Law In The People's Republic Of China, William P. Alford, Benjamin L. Liebman

Faculty Scholarship

This Article commences in Part I by introducing law-making in China before reconstructing the drafting process and attendant political battles leading up to the revision of China's principal air pollution law in 1995 – which, as Ackerman and Hassler observed with reference to the United States, can be every bit as messy as the soiled air such efforts are intended to address. Part II then examines the institutional factors that ultimately are critical to an understanding of why the 1995 APPCL, as promulgated, fell well short of its original authors' objectives but set in motion a process that over time ...


Sales And Elections As Methods For Transferring Corporate Control, Ronald J. Gilson, Alan Schwartz Jan 2001

Sales And Elections As Methods For Transferring Corporate Control, Ronald J. Gilson, Alan Schwartz

Faculty Scholarship

Delaware case law has rendered the tender offer obsolete as a method for purchasing a company whose directors oppose the acquisition. A potential acquirer facing target opposition today must run an insurgent director slate, in the expectation that its directors are more likely to sell. The Delaware courts have not justified their preference for elections over markets as the preferred vehicle for implementing changes in control. Informal scholarly analyses ask transaction cost questions, such as whether proxy contests are more costly than takeovers. This article attempts to break new ground by asking whether there are systematic differences in the performance ...


Reflections On Environmental Justice, Michael B. Gerrard Jan 2001

Reflections On Environmental Justice, Michael B. Gerrard

Faculty Scholarship

Environmental justice is a very hot topic. Yesterday's New York Times on the front page of the Metropolitan section had a story stating: Mid-Sized Plants Headed to Poor Areas. The story stated, "The Pataki administration acknowledges in its own study that the electric generators that it wants to install around New York City would go into poor heavily minority communities, a finding that supports some of the arguments of the project's opponents. This is quoting an unreleased environmental justice analysis that may or may not be valid, but it certainly shows how hot a topic it is. This ...


Nixon V. Shrink Missouri Government Pac: The Beginning Of The End Of The Buckley Era?, Richard Briffault Jan 2001

Nixon V. Shrink Missouri Government Pac: The Beginning Of The End Of The Buckley Era?, Richard Briffault

Faculty Scholarship

In Nixon v. Shrink Missouri Government PAC, the Supreme Court emphatically reaffirmed a key element of the campaign finance doctrine first articulated in Buckley v. Valeo a quarter-century earlier that governments may, consistent with the First Amendment, impose limitations on the size of contributions to election campaigns. Shrink Missouri was significant because the Eighth Circuit decision reversed by the Supreme Court had sought to strengthen the constitutional protection provided to contributions and had invalidated limitations on donations to Missouri state candidates that were actually higher than the limits on donations to federal candidates that the Supreme Court had previously upheld ...


William Warren, Lance Liebman Jan 2001

William Warren, Lance Liebman

Faculty Scholarship

Don Rapson, then graduating from Columbia Law School and preferring not to be a foot-soldier in Korea, went to Dean Warren. The Dean said: "Go to General X in the Pentagon, tell him I sent you, and he will hire you as an Army lawyer." Don went to the Pentagon (it was probably easier to stroll in fifty years ago). The General said: "I never heard of Dean Warren." But after a lively talk Don was hired and supplied good professional service to his country.


Unemployment Insurance And Wealth Redistribution, Gillian Lester Jan 2001

Unemployment Insurance And Wealth Redistribution, Gillian Lester

Faculty Scholarship

This Article evaluates the merit of liberalizing unemployment insurance eligibility as a means to achieve progressive wealth redistribution-an idea that has recently gained popularity among policymakers and legal scholars. Unemployment insurance (UI) provides temporary, partial wage replacement to workers who suffer unexpected job loss, but it tends to exclude workers who have very low wages or hours of work, or who quit for reasons considered "personal" (for example, to accommodate family demands). Professor Lester argues that while redistribution to workers who are poor or who have caregiving obligations is a desirable goal, expanding UI is a poor way to do ...


Tax Constraints On Indexed Options, David M. Schizer Jan 2001

Tax Constraints On Indexed Options, David M. Schizer

Faculty Scholarship

Indexed stock option grants reward executives for outperforming a benchmark, such as the market as a whole or competitors in the same industry. These options offer superior incentives by diminishing the influence of factors beyond an executive's control, such as general market and industry conditions. Yet indexed options are almost never used. Professor Saul Levmore seeks to explain this puzzle with norms. The main point of this comment on his Article is that tax plays a larger role in this puzzle than Professor Levmore acknowledges, although tax is not a complete explanation. The tax appeal of traditional options is ...


Frictions As A Constraint On Tax Planning, David M. Schizer Jan 2001

Frictions As A Constraint On Tax Planning, David M. Schizer

Faculty Scholarship

In recent years, the government has enacted a series of narrow tax reforms targeting specific planning strategies. Sometimes these reforms stop the targeted planning, but sometimes they merely prompt a new, more wasteful variation. The difference often lies in so-called frictions, which are constraints on tax planning other than the tax law, such as fees, accounting or regulatory treatment, credit risk, and the like. While frictions are important, reformers often lack key information, and legal academics should help provide it. This Article offers general observations about frictions that deter end runs. Most promising are strong "discontinuous" frictions that impose significant ...


The Acquiescent Gatekeeper: Reputational Intermediaries, Auditor Independence And The Governance Of Accounting, John C. Coffee Jr. Jan 2001

The Acquiescent Gatekeeper: Reputational Intermediaries, Auditor Independence And The Governance Of Accounting, John C. Coffee Jr.

Faculty Scholarship

The role of "gatekeepers" as reputational intermediaries who can be more easily deterred than the principals they serve has been developed in theory, but less often examined in practice. Initially, this article seeks to define the conditions under which gatekeeper liability is likely to work – and, correspondingly, the conditions under which it is more likely to fail. Then, after reviewing the recent empirical literature on earnings management, it concludes that the independent auditor does not today satisfy the conditions under which gatekeeper liability should produce high law compliance. A variety of explanations – poor observability, implicit collusion, and high agency costs ...


The Ali And The Ucc, Lance Liebman Jan 2001

The Ali And The Ucc, Lance Liebman

Faculty Scholarship

I will speak at less length than some of my colleagues here for two reasons. One is, my knowledge of this subject is extremely limited. I've taught for thirty years, but in areas of law that have nothing to do with these. And, it is only on coming to the American Law Institute job a year ago, that I find myself learning about NCCUSL, learning about all these issues, and learning in substantive ways about commercial law. Suddenly, out of the repressed memory, have come back my experiences in Professor Brancher's course in commercial law. I didn't ...


Unocal Fifteen Year Later (And What We Can Do About It), Ronald J. Gilson Jan 2001

Unocal Fifteen Year Later (And What We Can Do About It), Ronald J. Gilson

Faculty Scholarship

The coincidence of the new millennium and the fifteenth anniversary of the Delaware Supreme Court's announcement of a new approach to takeover law provides an occasion to evaluate a remarkable experiment in corporate law; the Delaware Supreme Court's development of an intermediate standard of review for appraising defensive tactics. This assessment reveals that Unocal has developed into an unexplained and likely inexplicable preference that control contests be resolved through elections rather than through market transactions. In doing so, the remarkable struggle between the chancery court and the supreme court for Unocal's soul is canvassed. The author also ...


The Role And Reality Of Emotions In Law, Carol Sanger Jan 2001

The Role And Reality Of Emotions In Law, Carol Sanger

Faculty Scholarship

It is a great pleasure to participate in the celebration and exploration of Susan Bandes' The Passions of Law in this symposium on emotion and gender jurisprudence. It may be worth reminding today's law students that when Professor Bandes and I were classmates at the University of Michigan Law School in the mid-1970s, there were no such conferences. Jurisprudence existed, but the concept of gender had not yet emerged; we were still too busy defining feminism. Emotions were something we dutifully suppressed as we tried to assimilate into the legal profession.

This is not to say we were wholly ...


Copyright And Control Over New Technologies Of Dissemination, Jane C. Ginsburg Jan 2001

Copyright And Control Over New Technologies Of Dissemination, Jane C. Ginsburg

Faculty Scholarship

The relationship of copyright to new technologies that exploit copyrighted works is often perceived to pit copyright against progress. Historically, when copyright owners seek to eliminate a new kind of dissemination, and when courts do not deem that dissemination harmful to copyright owners, courts decline to find infringement. However, when owners seek instead to participate in and be paid for the new modes of exploitation, the courts, and Congress, appear more favorable to copyright control over that new market. Today, the courts and Congress regard the unlicensed distribution of works over the Internet as impairing copyright owners' ability to avail ...


The David R. Tillinghast Lecture: Taxing International Income: Inadequate Principles, Outdated Concepts, And Unsatisfactory Policies, Michael J. Graetz Jan 2001

The David R. Tillinghast Lecture: Taxing International Income: Inadequate Principles, Outdated Concepts, And Unsatisfactory Policies, Michael J. Graetz

Faculty Scholarship

It is a pleasure to be here today to deliver the first David R. Tillinghast Lecture of the 21st century, a lecture honoring a man who has done much to shape and stimulate our thinking about the international tax world of the 20th.

Our nation's system for taxing international income today is largely a creature of the period 1918-1928, a time when the income tax was itself in childhood. From the inception of the income tax (1913 for individuals, 1909 for corporations) until 1918, foreign taxes were deducted like any other business expense. In 1918, the foreign tax credit ...


Is Article 2 The Best We Can Do?, Robert E. Scott Jan 2001

Is Article 2 The Best We Can Do?, Robert E. Scott

Faculty Scholarship

You will all be happy to know that, haying listened to my colleagues for the last three hours, I have completely forgotten what I was planning to say. But I haven't forgotten why I am here. I am the proverbial skunk at the garden party, and I hope to fulfill my role as the only skeptic in the group. I must tell you candidly, however, that I agree with everything Gail Hillebrand had to say. That doesn't mean she is going to agree with anything that I have to say, but perhaps there are two skeptics here this ...


Guns, Crime, And Punishment In America, Bernard Harcourt Jan 2001

Guns, Crime, And Punishment In America, Bernard Harcourt

Faculty Scholarship

There are over 200 million firearms in private hands in the United States, more than a third of which are handguns. In 1993 alone, it is estimated that 1.3 million victims of serious violent crime faced an offender with a gun. In 1999, there were approximately 563,000 such victims. Estimates of defensive uses of firearms – situations where individuals used a gun to protect themselves, someone else, or their property – range from 65,000 to 2.5 million per year. Punishments for crimes committed with a firearm are severe: under the federal firearms enhancement statute, the mandatory minimum sentence ...


"Project Exile" And The Allocation Of Federal Law Enforcement Authority, Daniel Richman Jan 2001

"Project Exile" And The Allocation Of Federal Law Enforcement Authority, Daniel Richman

Faculty Scholarship

With each report of violent crime statistics (whether rising or falling) or of the latest firearms outrage, we hear the antiphony of the gun control debate. Advocates of increased federal regulation decry the inadequacies of a regime that permits relatively free access to firearms and argue that the availability of guns is itself a spur to more deadly violence. Advocates of minimal regulation, for their part, condemn measures that, they say, will primarily penalize law-abiding citizens, and instead call for more vigorous enforcement of existing laws, targeting "criminals," not their weapons. When the antiphony intrudes on funerals, the effect can ...