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2019

Energy Systems

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Full-Text Articles in Engineering

Synthesis And Connection Of Iridium Hydrogen Evolution Catalyst To Chlorella Vulgaris Photosystem I For Light-Driven Hydrogen Evolution, Anna Ramirez Dec 2019

Synthesis And Connection Of Iridium Hydrogen Evolution Catalyst To Chlorella Vulgaris Photosystem I For Light-Driven Hydrogen Evolution, Anna Ramirez

Honors Program Theses and Projects

Hydrogen gas has been shown to be a promising energy source as options other than fossil fuels are being looked at in the face of anthropogenic climate change. It is known that anthropogenic climate change is caused by the production of greenhouse gases being let into the atmosphere, specifically a common reason for this is the burning of fossil fuels for energy. The overall goal of this project is to design a biochemical hybrid system that will be used to make H 2 gas and does not require the use of fossil fuels. Burning hydrogen as fuel produces only water …


Experimental Study Of Condensation In A Thermoacoustic Cooler With Various 3d Printed Regenerators Using Water Vapor As The Working Fluid, Aibek Bekkulov, Andrew Luthen, Ben Xu Dec 2019

Experimental Study Of Condensation In A Thermoacoustic Cooler With Various 3d Printed Regenerators Using Water Vapor As The Working Fluid, Aibek Bekkulov, Andrew Luthen, Ben Xu

Mechanical Engineering Faculty Publications and Presentations

Thermoacoustics (TA) deals with the conversion of heat into sound and vice versa. The device that transfers energy from a low temperature reservoir to a high temperature one by utilizing acoustic work is called TA cooler (TAC). The main components of a typical TAC are a resonator, a porous regenerator (e.g. stack of parallel plates) and two heat exchangers. The thermoacoustic phenomenon takes place in the regenerator where a nonzero temperature gradient is imposed, and interacts with the sound wave. The low temperature at the cold end of TAC can be used to condense water from the humid air and …


City Of New Smyrna Beach Solar Feasibility Assessment, Florida Solar Energy Center, Charles Withers, Jr. Dec 2019

City Of New Smyrna Beach Solar Feasibility Assessment, Florida Solar Energy Center, Charles Withers, Jr.

FSEC Energy Research Center®

At the request of the City of New Smyrna Beach, the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) assessed rooftop solar and building energy efficiency improvement potential for 17 city-owned facilities. The intent has been to assist City leaders in identifying opportunities to reduce the City's overall electricity consumption and increase its use of renewable energy.

The FSEC team conducted Level 1 energy audit activities and site assessments including:

On-site assessment

  • Solar feasibility measurements and characterization including orientation, roof shading (adjacent structures, encroaching trees, etc.), available roof area, system output, annualized savings
  • HVAC characterization
  • Lighting survey
  • Occupancy density, schedule, thermostat settings

Post …


Characterization And Computational Modelling For The Garnet Oxide Solid State Electrolyte Ta-Llzo, Colin A. Versnick Dec 2019

Characterization And Computational Modelling For The Garnet Oxide Solid State Electrolyte Ta-Llzo, Colin A. Versnick

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The all-solid-state-battery (ASSB) serves as a promising candidate for next generation lithium ion batteries for significant improvements in battery safety, capacity, and longevity. Of the material candidates researched to replace the conventionally used liquid electrolyte, the garnet oxide Ta-LLZO (Li6.4La3Zr1.4Ta0.6O12) has received much attention thanks to its high chemical and electrochemical stability, and ionic conductivity which rivals that of liquid electrolytes. While much investigation has taken place regarding the electrochemical performance of Ta-LLZO, much less is known about the micromechanics, including microstructural characterization, stress and strain development, and material failure …


Energy Performance Certification: Misassessment Due To Assuming Default Heat Losses, Ciara Ahern, Brian Norton Dec 2019

Energy Performance Certification: Misassessment Due To Assuming Default Heat Losses, Ciara Ahern, Brian Norton

Articles

Energy Performance Certificates (EPCs) are issued when dwellings are constructed, sold or leased in the EU. Where the cost of obtaining the required data is prohibitive, EPC assessors use nationally applicable default-values. To ensure that dwellings are not assigned a wrongly-higher EPC rating, a standardised thermal bridging transmittance coefficient (Y-value) is typically adopted for all existing dwellings while worst-case overall heat loss coefficients (U-values) are used. Default U-values are applied to a specific building element type (roof, wall, floor etc.) based on building codes and regulations applicable at time of construction. Due to significant building fabric upgrades, default U-values are …


A Generalisable Bottom-Up Methodology For Deriving A Residential Stock Model From Large Empirical Databases, Ciara Ahern, Brian Norton Dec 2019

A Generalisable Bottom-Up Methodology For Deriving A Residential Stock Model From Large Empirical Databases, Ciara Ahern, Brian Norton

Articles

Specifying representative reference buildings as a prerequisite for calculating cost-optimal energy performance requirements for buildings and building elements. Appropriate characterisation is prerequisite data for an overall national building energy consumption model to produce valid outcomes. Energy Performance Certificates (EPCs) are issued in the EU, for dwellings whenever they are constructed, sold or leased. Where acquiring data for an EPC would be prohibitively costly, nationally applicable default-values are employed for the building envelope thermal transmittance coefficients. Significant levels of retrofits led to the default-values used now being higher than is typical in reality, leading to characterisations of reference dwellings based on …


Hvac System Energy Audit For Leverett Elementary School, Connor Smalling Dec 2019

Hvac System Energy Audit For Leverett Elementary School, Connor Smalling

Biological and Agricultural Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

Leverett Elementary School is located in Fayetteville, AR. The school needs significant upgrades to its infrastructure. The Fayetteville Public School District has voted to pursue an Energy Services Performance Contract (ESPC) in order to finance the desired upgrades to Leverett Elementary, among other schools in the district.

The scope of this thesis was to perform an energy audit on the existing heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system. By using an energy modeling software, eQuest, the building and the existing base system were modeled to determine utility consumption. Three different HVAC system alternatives were analyzed against the base system by …


Demonstration Of A Quasi-Cw Diode-Pumped Metastable Xenon Laser, Carl R. Sanderson, Charles W. Ballmann, Jiande Han, Amanda B. Clark, Brett H. Hokr, Kunning G. Xu, Michael C. Heaven Nov 2019

Demonstration Of A Quasi-Cw Diode-Pumped Metastable Xenon Laser, Carl R. Sanderson, Charles W. Ballmann, Jiande Han, Amanda B. Clark, Brett H. Hokr, Kunning G. Xu, Michael C. Heaven

PRC-Affiliated Research

In this work, we present the first demonstration of a quasi-continuous-wave diode-pumped metastable xenon laser at atmospheric pressures. Lasing in metastable noble gas species has received increased attention in the last few years as a possible high-power laser source. This demonstration shows that metastable xenon has a sufficiently broad absorption spectrum to be pumped with a broad-bandwidth diode laser. This implies that a high-power metastable xenon gas laser should be achievable using high-power pump diodes.


Demonstration Of A Quasi-Cw Diode-Pumped Metastable Xenon Laser, Carl R. Sanderson, Charles W. Ballmann, Jiande Han, Amanda B. Clark, Brett H. Hokr, Kunning G. Xu, Michael C. Heaven Nov 2019

Demonstration Of A Quasi-Cw Diode-Pumped Metastable Xenon Laser, Carl R. Sanderson, Charles W. Ballmann, Jiande Han, Amanda B. Clark, Brett H. Hokr, Kunning G. Xu, Michael C. Heaven

PRC-Affiliated Research

In this work, we present the first demonstration of a quasi-continuous-wave diode-pumped metastable xenon laser at atmospheric pressures. Lasing in metastable noble gas species has received increased attention in the last few years as a possible high-power laser source. This demonstration shows that metastable xenon has a sufficiently broad absorption spectrum to be pumped with a broad-bandwidth diode laser. This implies that a high-power metastable xenon gas laser should be achievable using high-power pump diodes.


Demonstration Of A Quasi-Cw Diode-Pumped Metastable Xenon Laser, Carl R. Sanderson, Charles W. Ballmann, Jiande Han, Amanda B. Clark, Brett H. Hokr, Kunning G. Xu, Michael C. Heaven Nov 2019

Demonstration Of A Quasi-Cw Diode-Pumped Metastable Xenon Laser, Carl R. Sanderson, Charles W. Ballmann, Jiande Han, Amanda B. Clark, Brett H. Hokr, Kunning G. Xu, Michael C. Heaven

PRC-Affiliated Research

In this work, we present the first demonstration of a quasi-continuous-wave diode-pumped metastable xenon laser at atmospheric pressures. Lasing in metastable noble gas species has received increased attention in the last few years as a possible high-power laser source. This demonstration shows that metastable xenon has a sufficiently broad absorption spectrum to be pumped with a broad-bandwidth diode laser. This implies that a high-power metastable xenon gas laser should be achievable using high-power pump diodes.


Assessment Of Ammonia Ignition As A Maritime Fuel, Using Engine Experiments And Chemical Kinetic Simulations, Abubakar Mahmud Sheriff, Abdoulaye Tall Nov 2019

Assessment Of Ammonia Ignition As A Maritime Fuel, Using Engine Experiments And Chemical Kinetic Simulations, Abubakar Mahmud Sheriff, Abdoulaye Tall

World Maritime University Dissertations

No abstract provided.


Assessment Of Various Parametric Effects On The Performance Of A Commercial Grade Photovoltaic Solar Panel, Susanta K. Das, David Frank Oct 2019

Assessment Of Various Parametric Effects On The Performance Of A Commercial Grade Photovoltaic Solar Panel, Susanta K. Das, David Frank

Mechanical Engineering Publications

This paper presents the implementation of an integrated photovoltaic solar panel model which includes all the necessary parameters in order to simulate and analyze using Matlab/Simulink software. The integrated photovoltaic model is validated with Matlab/Simulink simulation for a commercially available 100W photovoltaic solar panel module. Using the commercial solar panel specifications, such as solar irradiation, panel temperature, etc. the integrated model solved with Matlab/Simulink returns an I-V and PV performance characteristics under various conditions which enabled detailed analysis, assessment of parametric effect on the performance of the solar panel. According to the model simulation results for a commercial RNG-100D solar …


Meeting 2030 Primary Energy And Economic Growth Goals Mission Impossible, Matthew K. Heun, Paul E. Brockway Oct 2019

Meeting 2030 Primary Energy And Economic Growth Goals Mission Impossible, Matthew K. Heun, Paul E. Brockway

University Faculty Publications and Creative Works

To meet climate change mitigation objectives, international institutions have adopted targets aimed at reducing or ending growth of primary energy consumption. Simultaneously, continued economic growth is forecasted to meet human development goals. Together, declining energy consumption and rising gross domestic product (GDP)is called “absolute decoupling.” However, absolute decoupling is unprecedented for the world economy as a whole (since at least 1971). Is absolute decoupling “Mission impossible?” Given the high stakes, we need a clearer understanding of the extent of future energy–GDP decoupling. To gain that understanding, we perform societal exergy analyses using a novel Physical Supply Use Table framework to …


Thermal Refurbishment Status Of The Irish Housing Stock, Ciara Ahern, Brian Norton Oct 2019

Thermal Refurbishment Status Of The Irish Housing Stock, Ciara Ahern, Brian Norton

Articles

Energy Performance Certificates (EPCs) are issued for buildings constructed, sold or leased across the EU. Using a generalizable methodology this work exploits Ireland’s EPC national dwelling stock database to determine the thermal refurbishment status of Ireland’s housing stock. It is estimated in 2014 that; i) 58% of walls were insulated at a mean overall heat loss coefficient or U-value of 0.66 W/m 2 K, ii) 67% of roofs were insulated at a mean U-value 0.37 W/m 2 K, iii) 97% of windows were double-glazed, and iv) 53% of floors were insulated to a mean U-value of 0.59 W/m 2 K. …


Designing An Accessible Wave Energy Conversion Device For Powering Ocean Sensors, Sophie Coppieters ‘T Wallant Oct 2019

Designing An Accessible Wave Energy Conversion Device For Powering Ocean Sensors, Sophie Coppieters ‘T Wallant

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

Currently, less than 5% of our oceans are comprehensively monitored and much more ocean data is needed to facilitate understanding of ocean physics, carbon cycling, and ocean ecosystems. Today, most autonomous ocean sensors are powered by primary battery, which have both limited capacity and lifetime. The goal of this research is to design a small, accessible renewable wave energy device to power autonomous free-floating ocean sensors. By designing a cheap, accessible, and simple wave energy converter, this work hopes to make ocean sensor deployment easier and cheaper for researchers, increase the lifetime of autonomous ocean sensors, and reduce the reliance …


Assessing The Implications Of A Tidal Barrage Power Plant In Hvalfjörður, Iceland, Olive M. Colangelo Oct 2019

Assessing The Implications Of A Tidal Barrage Power Plant In Hvalfjörður, Iceland, Olive M. Colangelo

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

As climate change continues to threaten the future state of our world, we are searching for measures to take for mitigation. Among these measures, the most talked about method is the development of renewable energies. Great amounts of attention is paid to solar and wind power, but relatively little effort is given to researching the possibilities of ocean energy, particularly tidal barrage energy. This study assesses the possibility of a tidal barrage plant in Hvalfjörður, Iceland. This hypothetical power plant in Hvalfjörður would have an installed capacity of 840MWh and could produce 613GWh per year. This is less than 0.01% …


Environmental And Economic Implications Of Energy Efficiency In New Residential Buildings: A Multi-Criteria Selection Approach, Florida Solar Energy Center, Delia D'Agostino Sep 2019

Environmental And Economic Implications Of Energy Efficiency In New Residential Buildings: A Multi-Criteria Selection Approach, Florida Solar Energy Center, Delia D'Agostino

FSEC Energy Research Center®

The choice of the most appropriate technologies in buildings is often a challenge at the design stage, especially when many different criteria are taken into account. Consequently, the decision process relies often on one criterion only, such as costs or energy savings. We propose a multi-criteria approach based on multi-attribute utility theory to assess alternative energy efficiency measures, explicitly considering both environmental and economic criteria. We apply it to the design of a new residential building in Milan (Italy), with the aim to maximize CO2 emission savings related to electricity and gas consumption, and to minimize embodied energy and …


The Improvement Of The Solar Air Heater Duct By Wired Ribs Utilization, Osamah Raad Skheel Alkhafaji Sep 2019

The Improvement Of The Solar Air Heater Duct By Wired Ribs Utilization, Osamah Raad Skheel Alkhafaji

Karbala International Journal of Modern Science

Abstract Heat transfer coefficient of the solar air heater duct (SAH) is low due increasing the thermal performance of its absorber. The present study tends to enhance the thermal characteristics of the SAH by adopting the wired ribs on the absorber under different ribs dimensions and arrangements. A rectangular duct is used to form the SAH with length L=1500mm, width w=100mm and height H=30mm. The used heat fluxes over the absorber are 1000W/m2 and 500W/m2 while the operated Reynolds number range is 708 ~ 6375. The utilized wired ribs are arranged over the absorber so as to develop a relative …


A Techno-Economic Analysis Of Current Cooling Techniques In Irish Data Centres, Lee Gibbons, Bryan Coyne, David Kennedy, Sajad Alimohammadi Sep 2019

A Techno-Economic Analysis Of Current Cooling Techniques In Irish Data Centres, Lee Gibbons, Bryan Coyne, David Kennedy, Sajad Alimohammadi

Articles

This research is part of a comprehensive study to determine reformative actions for cooling regimes within the Irish data centre market. To achieve this goal, preliminary Exergy, Entropy change and operational cost analyses are used. It is determined that there is no clear advantage for using one cooling method over another without knowing the data centres secondary function (e.g. district heating, energy generation). Air cooling technology is a good candidate for a highly reliable system due to the low exhaust temperatures of 30°C. Two-phase immersion is a possibility for economically viable data centres where operational costs are to be minimised, …


Understanding Of The Ship Design Energy Efficiency And Its Implications In Practice, Haichao Yuan Aug 2019

Understanding Of The Ship Design Energy Efficiency And Its Implications In Practice, Haichao Yuan

Maritime Safety & Environment Management Dissertations (Dalian)

No abstract provided.


How Will Climate Alter Efficiency Objectives? Simulated Impact Of Using Recent Versus Historic European Weather Data For The Cost-Optimal Design Of Nearly Zero Energy Buildings (Nzebs), Florida Solar Energy Center, Delia D'Agostino Aug 2019

How Will Climate Alter Efficiency Objectives? Simulated Impact Of Using Recent Versus Historic European Weather Data For The Cost-Optimal Design Of Nearly Zero Energy Buildings (Nzebs), Florida Solar Energy Center, Delia D'Agostino

FSEC Energy Research Center®

Achieving "nearly zero energy buildings" (NZEB) has been established as a vital objective over the next decade within the European Union (EU) [1,2]. Previous work has shown that a series of very cost-effective thermal efficiency measures, equipment, appliance and renewable energy choices are available across climates to reach the NZEB objective. Resulting detailed energy and economic optimization findings have been obtained and published. One area that has just begun to be explored, however, is how selection of weather files and their application against coming climate change can influence outcomes from energy optimization procedures.

Presented at: CLIMA 2019, REHVA 13th HVAC …


Design, Development And Implementation Of An Electrical Controller For A Solar-Electrical Collector, Sahar Mahboob, Razieh Pourdarbani, Bahman Behfar, Hossein Behfar Aug 2019

Design, Development And Implementation Of An Electrical Controller For A Solar-Electrical Collector, Sahar Mahboob, Razieh Pourdarbani, Bahman Behfar, Hossein Behfar

Emirates Journal for Engineering Research

Todays, maintaining atmospheric health is one of the most important prerequisites for sustainable global economic development, and the international community has no choice but to switch to renewable energies, including solar energy. The goal of the study was to provide a temperature of 60 ° C for drying summer fruits such as apricots therefore we investigated the effect of temperature control systems on the solar-electrical collector performance. Three LM35 temperature sensors were placed at 3 points of the collector (before the air inlet to the collector, after the air outlet from the collector and after heating elements) that were linked …


Swarm Behavior To Mitigate Rebound In Air Conditioning Demand Response Events, Jason Yasuto Kuwada Aug 2019

Swarm Behavior To Mitigate Rebound In Air Conditioning Demand Response Events, Jason Yasuto Kuwada

Boise State University Theses and Dissertations

Thermostatically Controlled Loads (TCLs) have shown great potential for Demand Response (DR) events. However, it has been commonly seen that DR events using TCLs may cause demand rebound, especially in homogeneous populations. To further explore the potential for DR events, as well as the negative effects, a stability and resilience analysis were performed on multiple populations and verified with agent based modeling simulations.

At the core of this study is an added thermostat criterion created from the combination of a proportional gain and the average compressor operating state of neighboring TCLs. Where DR events in TCLs are commonly controlled by …


Maximizing The Effectiveness Of Ductless Heat Pumps In Existing Homes By Demonstrating Integrated Controls: Measurement And Verification Plan, Florida Solar Energy Center, Eric Martin Jul 2019

Maximizing The Effectiveness Of Ductless Heat Pumps In Existing Homes By Demonstrating Integrated Controls: Measurement And Verification Plan, Florida Solar Energy Center, Eric Martin

FSEC Energy Research Center®

There is a trend for homeowners to install efficient ductless air-source heat pumps (ASHP) as a supplement to less efficient existing space conditioning systems, with most homeowners adding one unit in a central living area. Because of the potential for ASHPs to save energy by providing a large portion of the space conditioning, utilities have incentivized this strategy. However, post installation evaluations suggest ASHPs are not reaching their full potential because the existing heating system continues to operate more than necessary. This report describes a measurement and verifications strategy for a research project that aims to maximize savings from supplemental …


City Of New Smyrna Beach Solar Feasibility Assessment -- City Hall Annex, Florida Solar Energy Center, Charles Withers, Jr. Jul 2019

City Of New Smyrna Beach Solar Feasibility Assessment -- City Hall Annex, Florida Solar Energy Center, Charles Withers, Jr.

FSEC Energy Research Center®

This review and solar assessment is organized by component with brief description of intended details, challenges and recommendations.

Building: City of New Smyrna Beach, City Hall Annex (Renovation of a portion of the Historic First Baptist Church of New Smyrna Beach) Year of Construction: 1920's[1] Building Use: Renovation will create spaces for City workers and a new City Council Chambers Conditioned area: 1st floor = 7856 ft2 2nd floor = 3,967 ft2 Total = 11,823 ft2[2]

[1] New Smyrna Beach Property Appraiser's website states 1920, historic marker states circa 1929. [2] New Smyrna …


Energy Transformation And Conservation Investigation, Mike Jackson, Holly Haney Jul 2019

Energy Transformation And Conservation Investigation, Mike Jackson, Holly Haney

High School Lesson Plans

Students will use a thermoelectric generator module to analyze the relationship between thermal and electrical energies. Using data collection sensors and analysis software, students will investigate the relationship between the temperature gradient across a thermoelectric generator module and the resulting electrical potential. Students will then use their data and analysis to solve problems relating to waste thermal energy in electrical systems and communicate their work to their peers and teacher.


Toward A Fast And Accurate Modeling Strategy For Thermal Management In Air-Cooled Data Centers, Long Tran Bao Phan Jun 2019

Toward A Fast And Accurate Modeling Strategy For Thermal Management In Air-Cooled Data Centers, Long Tran Bao Phan

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has become a popular tool compared to experimental measurement for thermal management in data centers. However, it is very time-consuming and resource-intensive when used to model large-scale data centers, and may not be ready for real-time thermal monitoring. In this thesis, the two main goals are first to develop rapid flow simulation to reduce the computing time while maintaining good accuracy, and second, to develop a whole building energy simulation (BES) strategy for data center modeling. To achieve this end, hybrid modeling and model training methodologies are investigated for rapid flow simulation, and a multi-zone model …


Analysis Of The System Response Of A Spray Passive Downdraft Evaporative Cooling System, Daeho Kang, Richard K. Strand Jun 2019

Analysis Of The System Response Of A Spray Passive Downdraft Evaporative Cooling System, Daeho Kang, Richard K. Strand

Publications and Research

A spray Passive Downdraft Evaporative Cooling (PDEC) system achieves great savings for space cooling and improves indoor environmental quality by supplying a large amount of fresh outdoor air. As previous studies heavily focused on the energy saving capability of a spray PDEC system due to lack of methods for a detailed analysis, the influence of cool humid supply air from a spray PDEC system in a space in buildings has not been comprehensively studied. This study is intended to evaluate the competence of a spray PDEC system as a primary cooling system in typical spaces in a primary school building …


Biomethane Production From Distillery Wastewater, Zachary Christman Jun 2019

Biomethane Production From Distillery Wastewater, Zachary Christman

Department of Agronomy and Horticulture: Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research

Distillery wastewater treatment is a great ecological problem, for example, India produces 2.7 billion liters of alcohol that results in 40 billion liters of wastewater. However, this material can be seen as a resource since 11 million cubic meters of biogas at 60% methane could be produced in addition to cleaning the water. The distillery has two options of what to do with the biogas. The first is to use the biogas to fuel the distillery making the production plant more energy efficient and removing some of the need to buy natural gas. The other is to upgrade the biogas …


Effect Of The Nonlinear Material Viscosity On The Performance Of Dielectric Elastomer Transducers, Yuanping Li Jun 2019

Effect Of The Nonlinear Material Viscosity On The Performance Of Dielectric Elastomer Transducers, Yuanping Li

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

As a typical type of soft electroactive materials, dielectric elastomers (DEs) are capable of producing large voltage-induced deformation, which makes them desirable materials for a variety of applications in transduction technology, including tunable oscillators, resonators, biomimetics and energy harvesters. The dynamic and energy harvesting performance of such DE-based devices is strongly affected not only by multiple failure modes such as electrical breakdown, electromechanical instability, loss-of-tension and fatigue, but also by their material viscoelasticity. Moreover, as suggested by experiments and theoretical studies, DEs possess nonlinear relaxation processes, which makes modeling of the performance of DE-based devices more challenging.

In this thesis, …