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Full-Text Articles in Engineering

A Sample Weight And Adaboost Cnn-Based Coarse To Fine Classification Of Fruit And Vegetables At A Supermarket Self-Checkout, Khurram Hameed, Douglas Chai, Alexander Rassau Jan 2020

A Sample Weight And Adaboost Cnn-Based Coarse To Fine Classification Of Fruit And Vegetables At A Supermarket Self-Checkout, Khurram Hameed, Douglas Chai, Alexander Rassau

ECU Publications Post 2013

© 2020 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. The physical features of fruit and vegetables make the task of vision-based classification of fruit and vegetables challenging. The classification of fruit and vegetables at a supermarket self-checkout poses even more challenges due to variable lighting conditions and human factors arising from customer interactions with the system along with the challenges associated with the colour, texture, shape, and size of a fruit or vegetable. Considering this complex application, we have proposed a progressive coarse to fine classification technique to classify fruit and vegetables at supermarket checkouts. The image and weight of fruit ...


A Hardware-Deployable Neuromorphic Solution For Encoding And Classification Of Electronic Nose Data, Anup Vanarse, Alexander Rassau, Peter Van Der Made Jan 2019

A Hardware-Deployable Neuromorphic Solution For Encoding And Classification Of Electronic Nose Data, Anup Vanarse, Alexander Rassau, Peter Van Der Made

ECU Publications Post 2013

In several application domains, electronic nose systems employing conventional data processing approaches incur substantial power and computational costs and limitations, such as significant latency and poor accuracy for classification. Recent developments in spike-based bio-inspired approaches have delivered solutions for the highly accurate classification of multivariate sensor data with minimized computational and power requirements. Although these methods have addressed issues related to efficient data processing and classification accuracy, other areas, such as reducing the processing latency to support real-time application and deploying spike-based solutions on supported hardware, have yet to be studied in detail. Through this investigation, we proposed a spiking ...


Effective Plant Discrimination Based On The Combination Of Local Binary Pattern Operators And Multiclass Support Vector Machine Methods, Vi N T Le, Beniamin Apopei, Kamal Alameh Jan 2019

Effective Plant Discrimination Based On The Combination Of Local Binary Pattern Operators And Multiclass Support Vector Machine Methods, Vi N T Le, Beniamin Apopei, Kamal Alameh

ECU Publications Post 2013

Accurate crop and weed discrimination plays a critical role in addressing the challenges of weed management in agriculture. The use of herbicides is currently the most common approach to weed control. However, herbicide resistant plants have long been recognised as a major concern due to the excessive use of herbicides. Effective weed detection techniques can reduce the cost of weed management and improve crop quality and yield. A computationally efficient and robust plant classification algorithm is developed and applied to the classification of three crops: Brassica napus (canola), Zea mays (maize/corn), and radish. The developed algorithm is based on ...


Real-Time Classification Of Multivariate Olfaction Data Using Spiking Neural Networks, Arnup Vanarse, Adam Osseiran, Alexander Rassau, Therese O'Sullivan, Jonny Lo, Amanda Devine Jan 2019

Real-Time Classification Of Multivariate Olfaction Data Using Spiking Neural Networks, Arnup Vanarse, Adam Osseiran, Alexander Rassau, Therese O'Sullivan, Jonny Lo, Amanda Devine

ECU Publications Post 2013

Recent studies in bioinspired artificial olfaction, especially those detailing the application of spike-based neuromorphic methods, have led to promising developments towards overcoming the limitations of traditional approaches, such as complexity in handling multivariate data, computational and power requirements, poor accuracy, and substantial delay for processing and classification of odors. Rank-order-based olfactory systems provide an interesting approach for detection of target gases by encoding multi-variate data generated by artificial olfactory systems into temporal signatures. However, the utilization of traditional pattern-matching methods and unpredictable shuffling of spikes in the rank-order impedes the performance of the system. In this paper, we present an ...


A Security Review Of Local Government Using Nist Csf: A Case Study, Ahmed Ibrahim, Craig Valli, Ian Mcateer, Junaid Chaudhry Jan 2018

A Security Review Of Local Government Using Nist Csf: A Case Study, Ahmed Ibrahim, Craig Valli, Ian Mcateer, Junaid Chaudhry

ECU Publications Post 2013

Evaluating cyber security risk is a challenging task regardless of an organisation’s nature of business or size, however, an essential activity. This paper uses the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) cyber security framework (CSF) to assess the cyber security posture of a local government organisation in Western Australia. Our approach enabled the quantification of risks for specific NIST CSF core functions and respective categories and allowed making recommendations to address the gaps discovered to attain the desired level of compliance. This has led the organisation to strategically target areas related to their people, processes, and technologies, thus ...


An Entropy-Histogram Approach For Image Similarity And Face Recognition, Mohammed Aljanabi, Zahir Hussain, Song F. Lu Jan 2018

An Entropy-Histogram Approach For Image Similarity And Face Recognition, Mohammed Aljanabi, Zahir Hussain, Song F. Lu

ECU Publications Post 2013

Image similarity and image recognition are modern and rapidly growing technologies because of their wide use in the field of digital image processing. It is possible to recognize the face image of a specific person by finding the similarity between the images of the same person face and this is what we will address in detail in this paper. In this paper, we designed two new measures for image similarity and image recognition simultaneously. The proposed measures are based mainly on a combination of information theory and joint histogram. Information theory has a high capability to predict the relationship between ...


Review Of Deep Learning Methods In Robotic Grasp Detection, Shehan Caldera, Alexander Rassau, Douglas Chai Jan 2018

Review Of Deep Learning Methods In Robotic Grasp Detection, Shehan Caldera, Alexander Rassau, Douglas Chai

ECU Publications Post 2013

For robots to attain more general-purpose utility, grasping is a necessary skill to master. Such general-purpose robots may use their perception abilities to visually identify grasps for a given object. A grasp describes how a robotic end-effector can be arranged to securely grab an object and successfully lift it without slippage. Traditionally, grasp detection requires expert human knowledge to analytically form the task-specific algorithm, but this is an arduous and time-consuming approach. During the last five years, deep learning methods have enabled significant advancements in robotic vision, natural language processing, and automated driving applications. The successful results of these methods ...


A Feature-Based Structural Measure: An Image Similarity Measure For Face Recognition, Noor A. Shnain, Zahir Hussain, Song F. Lu Jan 2017

A Feature-Based Structural Measure: An Image Similarity Measure For Face Recognition, Noor A. Shnain, Zahir Hussain, Song F. Lu

ECU Publications Post 2013

Facial recognition is one of the most challenging and interesting problems within the field of computer vision and pattern recognition. During the last few years, it has gained special attention due to its importance in relation to current issues such as security, surveillance systems and forensics analysis. Despite this high level of attention to facial recognition, the success is still limited by certain conditions; there is no method which gives reliable results in all situations. In this paper, we propose an efficient similarity index that resolves the shortcomings of the existing measures of feature and structural similarity. This measure, called ...


A Novel Privacy Preserving User Identification Approach For Network Traffic, Nathan Clarke, Fudong Li, Steven Furnell Jan 2017

A Novel Privacy Preserving User Identification Approach For Network Traffic, Nathan Clarke, Fudong Li, Steven Furnell

ECU Publications Post 2013

The prevalence of the Internet and cloud-based applications, alongside the technological evolution of smartphones, tablets and smartwatches, has resulted in users relying upon network connectivity more than ever before. This results in an increasingly voluminous footprint with respect to the network traffic that is created as a consequence. For network forensic examiners, this traffic represents a vital source of independent evidence in an environment where anti-forensics is increasingly challenging the validity of computer-based forensics. Performing network forensics today largely focuses upon an analysis based upon the Internet Protocol (IP) address – as this is the only characteristic available. More typically, however ...


Application Of 3d Delaunay Triangulation In Fingerprint Authentication System, Wencheng Yang, Ahmed Ibrahim, Junaid Chaudhry, Song Wang, Jiankun Hu, Craig Valli Jan 2017

Application Of 3d Delaunay Triangulation In Fingerprint Authentication System, Wencheng Yang, Ahmed Ibrahim, Junaid Chaudhry, Song Wang, Jiankun Hu, Craig Valli

ECU Publications Post 2013

Biometric security has found many applications in Internet of Things (IoT) security. Many mobile devices including smart phones have supplied fingerprint authentication function. However, the authentication performance in such restricted environment has been downgraded significantly. A number of methods based on Delaunay triangulation have been proposed for minutiae-based fingerprint matching, due to some favorable properties of the Delaunay triangulation under image distortion. However, all existing methods are based on 2D pattern, of which each unit, a Delaunay triangle, can only provide limited discrimination ability and could cause low matching performance. In this paper, we propose a 3D Delaunay triangulation based ...


The Proceedings Of 14th Australian Digital Forensics Conference, 5-6 December 2016, Edith Cowan University, Perth, Australia, Craig Valli Jan 2016

The Proceedings Of 14th Australian Digital Forensics Conference, 5-6 December 2016, Edith Cowan University, Perth, Australia, Craig Valli

Australian Digital Forensics Conference

Conference Foreword

This is the fifth year that the Australian Digital Forensics Conference has been held under the banner of the Security Research Institute, which is in part due to the success of the security conference program at ECU. As with previous years, the conference continues to see a quality papers with a number from local and international authors. 11 papers were submitted and following a double blind peer review process, 8 were accepted for final presentation and publication. Conferences such as these are simply not possible without willing volunteers who follow through with the commitment they have initially made ...


Detecting And Tracing Slow Attacks On Mobile Phone User Service, Brian Cusack, Zhuang Tian Jan 2016

Detecting And Tracing Slow Attacks On Mobile Phone User Service, Brian Cusack, Zhuang Tian

Australian Digital Forensics Conference

The lower bandwidth of mobile devices has until recently filtered the range of attacks on the Internet. However, recent research shows that DOS and DDOS attacks, worms and viruses, and a whole range of social engineering attacks are impacting on broadband smartphone users. In our research we have developed a metric-based system to detect the traditional slow attacks that can be effective using limited resources, and then employed combinations of Internet trace back techniques to identify sources of attacks. Our research question asked: What defence mechanisms are effective? We critically evaluate the available literature to appraise the current state of ...


Optical Fiber Sensors In Physical Intrusion Detection Systems: A Review, Gary Andrew Allwood, Graham Wild, Steven Hinkley Jan 2016

Optical Fiber Sensors In Physical Intrusion Detection Systems: A Review, Gary Andrew Allwood, Graham Wild, Steven Hinkley

ECU Publications Post 2013

Fiber optic sensors have become a mainstream sensing technology within a large array of applications due to their inherent benefits. They are now used significantly in structural health monitoring, and are an essential solution for monitoring harsh environments. Since their first development over 30 years ago, they have also found promise in security applications. This paper reviews all of the optical fiber-based techniques used in physical intrusion detection systems. It details the different approaches used for sensing, interrogation, and networking, by research groups, attempting to secure both commercial and residential premises from physical security breaches. The advantages and the disadvantages ...


The Social Life Of Big Data - Pawsey Resources, Luke Edwards Jun 2015

The Social Life Of Big Data - Pawsey Resources, Luke Edwards

The Social Life of Big Data Symposium

The presentation covers the supercomputing facilities and services available at the Pawsey Supercomputing Centre, Western Australia.
The Pawsey Supercomputing Centre is an unincorporated joint venture between CSIRO, Curtin University, Edith Cowan University, Murdoch University and the University of Western Australia and is supported by the Western Australian Government.


Cyber Blackbox For Collecting Network Evidence, Jooyoung Lee, Sunoh Choi, Yangseo Choi, Jonghyun Kim, Ikkyun Kim, Youngseok Lee Jan 2015

Cyber Blackbox For Collecting Network Evidence, Jooyoung Lee, Sunoh Choi, Yangseo Choi, Jonghyun Kim, Ikkyun Kim, Youngseok Lee

Australian Digital Forensics Conference

In recent years, the hottest topics in the security field are related to the advanced and persistent attacks. As an approach to solve this problem, we propose a cyber blackbox which collects and preserves network traffic on a virtual volume based WORM device, called EvidenceLock to ensure data integrity for security and forensic analysis. As a strategy to retain traffic for long enough periods, we introduce a deduplication method. Also this paper includes a study on the network evidence which is collected and preserved for analyzing the cause of cyber incident. Then, a method is proposed to suggest a starting ...


Forensic Analysis Of A Sony Playstation 4: A First Look, Matthew Davies, Huw Read, Konstantinos Xynos, Iain Sutherland Jan 2015

Forensic Analysis Of A Sony Playstation 4: A First Look, Matthew Davies, Huw Read, Konstantinos Xynos, Iain Sutherland

ECU Publications Post 2013

The primary function of a games console is that of an entertainment system. However the latest iteration of these consoles has added a number of new interactive features that may prove of value to the digital investigator. This paper highlights the value of these consoles, in particular Sony's latest version of their PlayStation. This console provides a number of features including web browsing, downloading of material and chat functionality; all communication features that will be of interest to forensic investigators. In this paper we undertake an initial investigation of the PlayStation 4 games console. This paper identifies potential information ...


Locational Wireless And Social Media-Based Surveillance, Maxim Chernyshev Jan 2014

Locational Wireless And Social Media-Based Surveillance, Maxim Chernyshev

Australian Digital Forensics Conference

The number of smartphones and tablets as well as the volume of traffic generated by these devices has been growing constantly over the past decade and this growth is predicted to continue at an increasing rate over the next five years. Numerous native features built into contemporary smart devices enable highly accurate digital fingerprinting techniques. Furthermore, software developers have been taking advantage of locational capabilities of these devices by building applications and social media services that enable convenient sharing of information tied to geographical locations. Mass online sharing resulted in a large volume of locational and personal data being publicly ...


Listening To Botnet Communication Channels To Protect Information Systems, Brian Cusack, Sultan Almutairi Jan 2014

Listening To Botnet Communication Channels To Protect Information Systems, Brian Cusack, Sultan Almutairi

Australian Digital Forensics Conference

Botnets are a weapon of choice for people who wish to exploit information systems for economic advantage. A large percentage of high value commercial targets such as banking transaction systems and human customers are web connected so that access is gained through Internet services. A Botnet is designed to maximise the possibility of an economic success through the low cost of attacks and the high number that may be attempted in any small time unit. In this paper we report exploratory research into the communications of Botnets. The research question was: How do Botnets talk with the command and control ...


A Forensically-Enabled Iaas Cloud Computing Architecture, Saad Alqahtany, Nathan Clarke, Steven Furnell, Christoph Reich Jan 2014

A Forensically-Enabled Iaas Cloud Computing Architecture, Saad Alqahtany, Nathan Clarke, Steven Furnell, Christoph Reich

Australian Digital Forensics Conference

Current cloud architectures do not support digital forensic investigators, nor comply with today’s digital forensics procedures largely due to the dynamic nature of the cloud. Whilst much research has focused upon identifying the problems that are introduced with a cloud-based system, to date there is a significant lack of research on adapting current digital forensic tools and techniques to a cloud environment. Data acquisition is the first and most important process within digital forensics – to ensure data integrity and admissibility. However, access to data and the control of resources in the cloud is still very much provider-dependent and complicated ...


Towards A Set Of Metrics To Guide The Generation Of Fake Computer File Systems, Ben Whitham Jan 2014

Towards A Set Of Metrics To Guide The Generation Of Fake Computer File Systems, Ben Whitham

Australian Digital Forensics Conference

Fake file systems are used in the field of cyber deception to bait intruders and fool forensic investigators. File system researchers also frequently generate their own synthetic document repositories, due to data privacy and copyright concerns associated with experimenting on real-world corpora. For both these fields, realism is critical. Unfortunately, after creating a set of files and folders, there are no current testing standards that can be applied to validate their authenticity, or conversely, reliably automate their detection. This paper reviews the previous 30 years of file system surveys on real world corpora, to identify a set of discrete measures ...


Forensic Examination And Analysis Of The Prefetch Files On The Banking Trojan Malware Incidents, Andri P. Heriyanto Jan 2014

Forensic Examination And Analysis Of The Prefetch Files On The Banking Trojan Malware Incidents, Andri P. Heriyanto

Australian Digital Forensics Conference

Whenever a program runs within the operating system, there will be data or artefacts created on the system. This condition applies to the malicious software (malware). Although they intend to obscure their presence on the system with anti-forensic techniques, still they have to run on the victim’s system to acquire their objective. Modern malware creates a significant challenge to the digital forensic community since they are being designed to leave limited traces and misdirect the examiner. Therefore, every examiner should consider performing all the forensics approaches such as memory forensic, live-response and Windows file analysis in the related malware ...


The Impact Of Custom Rom Backups On Android External Storage Erasure, Haydon Hope, Peter Hannay Jan 2014

The Impact Of Custom Rom Backups On Android External Storage Erasure, Haydon Hope, Peter Hannay

Australian Digital Forensics Conference

The Android operating system is the current market leader on mobile devices such as smartphones and tablet computers. The core operating system is open source and has a number of developers creating variants of this operating system. These variants, often referred to as custom ROMs are available for a wide number of mobile devices. Custom ROMs provide a number of features, such as enhanced control over the operating system, variation in user interfaces and so on. The process of installing custom ROMs is often accomplished through the use of a ROM manager application. Such applications often provide mechanisms to back ...


A User-Oriented Network Forensic Analyser: The Design Of A High-Level Protocol Analyser, D Joy, F Li, N L. Clarke, S M. Furnell Jan 2014

A User-Oriented Network Forensic Analyser: The Design Of A High-Level Protocol Analyser, D Joy, F Li, N L. Clarke, S M. Furnell

Australian Digital Forensics Conference

Network forensics is becoming an increasingly important tool in the investigation of cyber and computer-assisted crimes. Unfortunately, whilst much effort has been undertaken in developing computer forensic file system analysers (e.g. Encase and FTK), such focus has not been given to Network Forensic Analysis Tools (NFATs). The single biggest barrier to effective NFATs is the handling of large volumes of low-level traffic and being able to exact and interpret forensic artefacts and their context – for example, being able extract and render application-level objects (such as emails, web pages and documents) from the low-level TCP/IP traffic but also understand ...


The Zombies Strike Back: Towards Client-Side Beefdetection, Maxim Chernyshev, Peter Hannay Jan 2014

The Zombies Strike Back: Towards Client-Side Beefdetection, Maxim Chernyshev, Peter Hannay

Australian Digital Forensics Conference

A web browser is an application that comes bundled with every consumer operating system, including both desktop and mobile platforms. A modern web browser is complex software that has access to system-level features, includes various plugins and requires the availability of an Internet connection. Like any multifaceted software products, web browsers are prone to numerous vulnerabilities. Exploitation of these vulnerabilities can result in destructive consequences ranging from identity theft to network infrastructure damage. BeEF, the Browser Exploitation Framework, allows taking advantage of these vulnerabilities to launch a diverse range of readily available attacks from within the browser context. Existing defensive ...


A Forensic Overview Of The Lg Smart Tv, Iain Sutherland, Konstantino Xynos, Huw Read, Andy Jones, Tom Drange Jan 2014

A Forensic Overview Of The Lg Smart Tv, Iain Sutherland, Konstantino Xynos, Huw Read, Andy Jones, Tom Drange

Australian Digital Forensics Conference

The emerging Smart TV platform will likely replace traditional television sets over time as the entertainment and communication centrepiece in people’s homes. Given its expanded functionality and now, its online presence, there is a need to identify how they may become part of forensic investigations. The purpose of this paper is to introduce the area of Smart TVs and the potential forensic value these systems present in combination with their ever advancing functionality and capabilities. We provide an overview of Smart TV systems highlighting functionality and potential issues. We also take an initial look at two particular models, from ...


Up-Dating Investigation Models For Smart Phone Procedures, Brian Cusack, Raymond Lutui Jan 2014

Up-Dating Investigation Models For Smart Phone Procedures, Brian Cusack, Raymond Lutui

Australian Digital Forensics Conference

The convergence of services in Smart Technologies such as iPhones, Androids and multiple tablet work surfaces challenges the scope of any forensic investigation to include cloud environments, devices and service media. The analysis of current investigation guidelines suggests that each element in an investigation requires an independent procedure to assure the preservation of evidence. However we dispute this view and review the possibility of consolidating current investigation guidelines into a unified best practice guideline. This exploratory research proposes to fill a gap in digital forensic investigation knowledge for smart technologies used in business environments and to propose a better way ...


Finding Evidence Of Wordlists Being Deployed Against Ssh Honeypots – Implications And Impacts, Priya Rabadia, Craig Valli Jan 2014

Finding Evidence Of Wordlists Being Deployed Against Ssh Honeypots – Implications And Impacts, Priya Rabadia, Craig Valli

Australian Digital Forensics Conference

This paper is an investigation focusing on activities detected by three SSH honeypots that utilise Kippo honeypot software. The honeypots were located on the same /24 IPv4 network and configured as identically as possible. The honeypots used the same base software and hardware configurations. The data from the honeypots were collected during the period 17th July 2012 and 26th November 2013, a total of 497 active day periods. The analysis in this paper focuses on the techniques used to attempt to gain access to these systems by attacking entities. Although all three honeypots are have the same configuration settings and ...


Performance Evaluation Of A Technology Independent Security Gateway For Next Generation Networks, Fudong Li, Nathan Clarke, Steven Furnell, Is-Mkwawa Mkwawa Jan 2014

Performance Evaluation Of A Technology Independent Security Gateway For Next Generation Networks, Fudong Li, Nathan Clarke, Steven Furnell, Is-Mkwawa Mkwawa

ECU Publications Post 2013

With the all IP based Next Generation Networks being deployed around the world, the use of real-time multimedia service applications is being extended from normal daily communications to emergency situations. However, currently different emergency providers utilise differing networks and different technologies. As such, conversations could be terminated at the setup phase or data could be transmitted in plaintext should incompatibility issues exit between terminals. To this end, a novel security gateway that can provide the necessary security support for incompatible terminals was proposed, developed and implemented to ensure the successful establishment of secure real-time multimedia conversations. A series of experiments ...


Indirect Measures Of Learning Transfer Between Real And Virtual Environments, Michael J. Garrett, Mark T. Mcmahon Jan 2013

Indirect Measures Of Learning Transfer Between Real And Virtual Environments, Michael J. Garrett, Mark T. Mcmahon

ECU Publications 2013

This paper reports on research undertaken to determine the effectiveness of a 3D simulation environment used to train mining personnel in emergency evacuation procedures, designated the Fires in Underground Mines Evacuation Simulator (FUMES). Owing to the operational constraints of the mining facility, methods for measuring learning transfer were employed which did not require real world performance evaluation. Transfer measures that examined simulator performance relative to real world experience, fidelity assessment, and appraisal of the training value of the platform were utilised. Triangulation of results across all three measures indicated the presence of learning transfer, suggesting the viability of indirect measures ...


Energy Efficiency Performance Improvements For Ant-Based Routing Algorithm In Wireless Sensor Networks, A. M. Zungeru, Kah Phooi Seng, Li-Minn Ang, W.C. Chia Jan 2013

Energy Efficiency Performance Improvements For Ant-Based Routing Algorithm In Wireless Sensor Networks, A. M. Zungeru, Kah Phooi Seng, Li-Minn Ang, W.C. Chia

ECU Publications 2013

The main problem for event gathering in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) is the restricted communication range for each node. Due to the restricted communication range and high network density, event forwarding in WSNs is very challenging and requires multihop data forwarding. Currently, the energy-efficient ant based routing (EEABR) algorithm, based on the ant colony optimization (ACO) metaheuristic, is one of the state-of-the-art energy-aware routing protocols. In this paper, we propose three improvements to the EEABR algorithm to further improve its energy efficiency. The improvements to the original EEABR are based on the following: (1) a new scheme to intelligently initialize ...