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Full-Text Articles in Engineering

The Ecological Responses To Hydroperiod Of Wetland Plant Species Determined By Manipulated Soil Surface Elevation (Marsh Organs), Brandon Wolff Jan 2024

The Ecological Responses To Hydroperiod Of Wetland Plant Species Determined By Manipulated Soil Surface Elevation (Marsh Organs), Brandon Wolff

LSU Master's Theses

As sea level rise, subsidence, and abandonment of natural deltaic processes due to a highly engineered Mississippi River continue to threaten Louisiana’s coastal wetlands, the need for a system-wide understanding of natural wetland land-building and preservation processes has never been greater. A key component of any wetland is the ever-changing water environment that periodically floods and dries the marsh platforms. The flooding depth, duration, and frequency, known as the hydroperiod, along with salinity and soil fertility are key determining factors of vegetation and marsh types at a particular location. Different types of vegetation will have different growth characteristics such as …


Enhancing Bridge Resilience And Overheight Vehicle Mitigation Through Innovative Sacrificial Cushion Systems, Aly Mousaad Aly, Marc Hoffmann Jan 2024

Enhancing Bridge Resilience And Overheight Vehicle Mitigation Through Innovative Sacrificial Cushion Systems, Aly Mousaad Aly, Marc Hoffmann

Faculty Publications

Transportation departments have made significant strides in addressing the challenges posed by the increasing weights of trucks on bridges. While there is a growing awareness of overheight vehicle collisions with bridges, implementing effective countermeasures remains limited. The susceptibility of bridges to damage from such collisions is on the rise, further exacerbated by unpredictable lateral impact forces. This study employs nonlinear impact analysis to assess the response of an unprotected vehicle-girder model, yielding realistic deformation outcomes comparable to observed impacts on the US-61 bridge. Predictions for a truck traveling at 112.65 km/h indicate deformations of 0.229 m, 0.161 m, and 0.271 …


Surrogate-Assisted Simulation-Optimization Framework For Groundwater Management In A Multi-Aquifer System, Melika Mani Nov 2023

Surrogate-Assisted Simulation-Optimization Framework For Groundwater Management In A Multi-Aquifer System, Melika Mani

LSU Master's Theses

Uncontrolled groundwater exploitation can lead to aquifer depletion, land subsidence, and saltwater intrusion. Effective groundwater management is challenging due to the intricate nature of subsurface hydrogeology and spatiotemporally variable pumping, especially in a multi-aquifer system. To ensure sustainable withdrawal, multi-objective optimization is an effective tool for balancing management goals and drawdown effects. However, running simulation-optimization using detailed groundwater models is computationally expensive, pushing decision-makers to decide based on limited scenarios. In this study, a hydrogeological framework was constructed for the Capital Area, Louisiana, allowing for individual assessment of each unit to better understand each aquifer's condition. Moreover, a surrogate-assisted simulation-optimization …


Understanding And Modeling Drivers’ En-Route Diversion Behavior During Congestion, Mohammad Shapouri Nov 2023

Understanding And Modeling Drivers’ En-Route Diversion Behavior During Congestion, Mohammad Shapouri

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

In the field of transportation, traffic assignment models primarily have been used to forecast driver route preferences, translating their choices into traffic flow patterns across networks. These models are grounded in distinct behavioral theories and strive to explain how drivers navigate routes based on network features and personal tendencies. Using an aggregation approach, conventional traffic assignment models distribute demand among paths, considering utility and attractiveness. Despite their prevalent use in transportation planning and operations, the fundamental behavioral assumptions of these models have rarely been thoroughly explored. This gap is further compounded by their limited consideration of real-time adjustments and choices …


Integrating The Concept Of Complete Streets Into Pavement Preservation, Sirisha Gangireddy Nov 2023

Integrating The Concept Of Complete Streets Into Pavement Preservation, Sirisha Gangireddy

LSU Master's Theses

This study is motivated by the evident gap in integrating Complete Streets principles into pavement preservation. Complete Streets opportunities, which aim to accommodate all road users, are typically encouraged in all kinds of projects including new construction, reconstruction, preservation, and rehabilitation. While the concept of Complete Streets is understood in terms of new construction (e.g., building sidewalks), its application through pavement preservation programs is not well-developed. To bridge the gap between the Complete Streets and pavement preservation, this study conducted a comprehensive review on how state Department of Transportation (DOTs) are currently incorporating Complete Streets into pavement preservation and identified …


Understanding And Modeling Drivers’ En-Route Diversion Behavior During Congestion, Mohammad Shapouri Nov 2023

Understanding And Modeling Drivers’ En-Route Diversion Behavior During Congestion, Mohammad Shapouri

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

In the field of transportation, traffic assignment models primarily have been used to forecast driver route preferences, translating their choices into traffic flow patterns across networks. These models are grounded in distinct behavioral theories and strive to explain how drivers navigate routes based on network features and personal tendencies. Using an aggregation approach, conventional traffic assignment models distribute demand among paths, considering utility and attractiveness. Despite their prevalent use in transportation planning and operations, the fundamental behavioral assumptions of these models have rarely been thoroughly explored. This gap is further compounded by their limited consideration of real-time adjustments and choices …


An Investigation Into The Challenges Of Contemporary Additive Manufacturing: Insights Into The Metallurgical Response Of Materials And Relevant Solution, Huan Ding Nov 2023

An Investigation Into The Challenges Of Contemporary Additive Manufacturing: Insights Into The Metallurgical Response Of Materials And Relevant Solution, Huan Ding

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

Additive Manufacturing (AM) has gained attention in recent years due to its unique capabilities in the fabrication of complex parts. As with any new research, there is still a lack of sufficient understanding in the field of additive manufacturing, and further investigation is needed to solve existing problems. Ultimately, the aim is to enable the widespread use of AM components across various industries.

Chapter One provides a brief introduction to the background and current bottlenecks of additive manufacturing technology. Chapter two focuses on the development of high-strength 7075 aluminum alloy (Al7075) for Fused Deposition Modeling and Sintering (FDMS) technology. Al7075 …


Electrophertic Deposition And Characterization Of Molybdenum Disulfide On Silicon Substrates, Alex J. Young Nov 2023

Electrophertic Deposition And Characterization Of Molybdenum Disulfide On Silicon Substrates, Alex J. Young

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

The electrical characteristics of 2D materials such as high electron mobility and current density are of great interest to various fields from optoelectronics to renewable energy. Researchers have focused their efforts on transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) due to their direct energy band gap. One such TMDC that has garnered much attention is molybdenum disulfide (MoS2). MoS2 has electrical properties comparable to graphene and is a TMDC with characteristics amenable to applications such as solar cells and sensors. Commonly deposited through time-consuming and complex deposition methods such as chemical vapor deposition (CVD), the viability of MoS2 as an electronic material will …


Multichannel Low-Cost Sensor For Iaq Monitoring: Implementation And Guidelines, Isaac Ntiamoah Oct 2023

Multichannel Low-Cost Sensor For Iaq Monitoring: Implementation And Guidelines, Isaac Ntiamoah

LSU Master's Theses

Indoor air quality (IAQ) is adversely affected by both indoor and outdoor environments, and rental homes occupied by low-income families suffer the most. Poor indoor air can be detrimental to the health of occupants, especially for susceptible populations like those with respiratory diseases such as asthma. Although IAQ monitoring is necessary, it is a challenging, costly, and time-intensive task. Moreover, the protocol for assessing IAQ in residential settings varies, and additional research is needed to establish a standard operating procedure that incorporates new monitoring technologies, such as low-cost air sensors. However, there is a dearth of comprehensive, evidence-based protocols for …


The Effects Of Disruption Type, Trip Purpose, Gender, And Age On Driver Diversion Willingness In The United States Of America, James D. Fuller Oct 2023

The Effects Of Disruption Type, Trip Purpose, Gender, And Age On Driver Diversion Willingness In The United States Of America, James D. Fuller

LSU Master's Theses

When drivers encounter traffic congestion, one of the most common ways to avoid excessive delays is to divert to an alternate route. Despite the commonplace nature of such routing decisions, relatively little is known about the specific influencers, motivators, and preferences that affect diversion choices under disrupted conditions. Understanding these driver motivations is important for improving the ability of transportation authorities to plan, design, operate, and maintain transportation networks. The research described in this thesis utilizes a driver survey to investigate the situational factors and personal characteristics that may play a significant role in determining a decision to divert or …


Augmenting External Surface Pressures’ Predictions On Isolated Low-Rise Buildings Using Cfd Simulations, Md Faiaz Khaled, Aly Mousaad Aly Oct 2023

Augmenting External Surface Pressures’ Predictions On Isolated Low-Rise Buildings Using Cfd Simulations, Md Faiaz Khaled, Aly Mousaad Aly

Faculty Publications

The aim of this paper is to enhance the accuracy of predicting time-averaged external surface pressures on low-rise buildings by utilizing Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations. To achieve this, benchmark studies of the Silsoe cube and the Texas Tech University (TTU) experimental building are employed for comparison with simulation results. The paper is structured into three main sections. In the initial part, an appropriate domain size is selected based on the precision of mean pressure coefficients on the windward face of the cube, utilizing Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) turbulence models. Subsequently, recommendations regarding the optimal computational domain size for an …


Structural Health Monitoring And Repair Of Welded Thermoplastic Composite Joints Using Embedded Multifunctional Films, Wencai Li Oct 2023

Structural Health Monitoring And Repair Of Welded Thermoplastic Composite Joints Using Embedded Multifunctional Films, Wencai Li

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

Thermoplastic composites (TPCs) have gained widespread use, particularly in large or integrated structural components, necessitating effective joining techniques. Fusion bonding (welding) has emerged as a suitable method for TPCs due to their ability to be reshaped through heating and cooling, eliminating the need for mechanical fasteners, long curing times, and extensive surface preparation. Among the welding techniques, ultrasonic welding (USW) stands out for its fast-cycling time and potential for automating large-scale structures, thereby reducing energy consumption. However, limited industrial applications of USW in this context require further knowledge to instill confidence in the process. Moreover, composite structures are susceptible to …


Bim And Digital Twins In Infrastructure Projects: An Overview From The Transportation Professional's Perspective, Natállia Mendes Aug 2023

Bim And Digital Twins In Infrastructure Projects: An Overview From The Transportation Professional's Perspective, Natállia Mendes

LSU Master's Theses

Transport infrastructure has undergone significant changes in recent years due to the digitalization of construction methods. Consequently, there is an increasing demand for more productive and cost-effective technologies to optimize various aspects such as time, cost, changes, waste, and errors in projects. Notably, technologies such as Building Information Modeling (BIM) and Digital Twin (DT) hold the potential to enhance the performance of infrastructure projects. While BIM has received substantial attention in recent years, Digital Twin is relatively new to the construction industry. This leads to a scarcity of studies on DT and its integration with other emerging technologies like BIM. …


A Multi-Aerial Vehicle Platform For Testing Collaborative Mobility Formation Controllers, Matthew Snellgrove Aug 2023

A Multi-Aerial Vehicle Platform For Testing Collaborative Mobility Formation Controllers, Matthew Snellgrove

LSU Master's Theses

Multi-agent systems have potential applications in a multitude of fields due to their ability to perform complex tasks with a high degree of robustness. Decentralized systems are multi-agent systems where sensing, control, and communication responsibilities are distributed amongst the agents giving this scheme a particularly high potential for robustness, adaptability, and complexity; however, this comes with its own list of challenges. Formation control is a topic in multi-agent systems that aims to have the agents moving as a virtual rigid body through space. In the literature, there have been successful implementation of formation control algorithms on robot agents in both …


Investigating The Influence Of Portland Limestone Cement Combined With Sugarcane Bagasse Ash And Different Types Of Fly Ash On The Mechanical Properties Of Engineered Cementitious Composites, Samuel Guidroz Aug 2023

Investigating The Influence Of Portland Limestone Cement Combined With Sugarcane Bagasse Ash And Different Types Of Fly Ash On The Mechanical Properties Of Engineered Cementitious Composites, Samuel Guidroz

LSU Master's Theses

The ability to implement Engineered Cementitious Composites (ECC) within our transportation infrastructure systems has been limited because of increased costs associated with the material’s high cement quantity. To improve cost- effectiveness and to create a more sustainable footprint, the use of supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs) has been explored. This study evaluated the effects of utilizing cement interground with limestone, Portland limestone cement (PLC), as a replacement for ordinary Portland cement (OPC). Additionally, the performance of the composites was analyzed when mixed with sugarcane bagasse ash (SCBA) as well as different classes of fly ash (FA). In doing so, the experimental …


Autonomous Shipwreck Detection & Mapping, William Ard Aug 2023

Autonomous Shipwreck Detection & Mapping, William Ard

LSU Master's Theses

This thesis presents the development and testing of Bruce, a low-cost hybrid Remote Operated Vehicle (ROV) / Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) system for the optical survey of marine archaeological sites, as well as a novel sonar image augmentation strategy for semantic segmentation of shipwrecks. This approach takes side-scan sonar and bathymetry data collected using an EdgeTech 2205 AUV sensor integrated with an Harris Iver3, and generates augmented image data to be used for the semantic segmentation of shipwrecks. It is shown that, due to the feature enhancement capabilities of the proposed shipwreck detection strategy, correctly identified areas have a 15% …


Cyberinet: Integrated Semi-Modular Sensors For The Computer-Augmented Clarinet, Matthew Bardin Aug 2023

Cyberinet: Integrated Semi-Modular Sensors For The Computer-Augmented Clarinet, Matthew Bardin

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

The Cyberinet is a new Augmented instrument designed to easily and intuitively provide a method of computer-enhanced performance to the Clarinetist to allow for greater control and expressiveness in a performance. A performer utilizing the Cyberinet is able to seamlessly switch between a traditional performance setting and an augmented one. Towards this, the Cyberinet is a hardware replacement for a portion of a Clarinet containing a variety of sensors embedded within the unit. These sensors collect various real time data motion data of the performer and air fow within the instrument. Additional sensors can be connected to the Cyberinet to …


Empowering Student Success: Unlocking The Potential Of Project-Based Steel Design Education, Aly Mousaad Aly Jun 2023

Empowering Student Success: Unlocking The Potential Of Project-Based Steel Design Education, Aly Mousaad Aly

Faculty Publications

In the pursuit of student success, it is essential to acknowledge that a singular teaching style does not universally cater to all students. The educator's crucial role lies in creating an optimal learning environment that fosters students' endeavors to excel. This endeavor transcends mere classroom success or employment prospects, encompassing a broader impact on societal well-being. An experiential learning approach, where students actively engage in practical tasks, emerges as the most effective mode of instruction. Integrating project-based learning activities into the curriculum holds immense potential for enhancing student learning. Additionally, the utilization of analysis software tools like FTool and STAAD …


Remote Sensing And Artificial Intelligence-Based Modeling And Prediction Of Harmful Algal Blooms In Lake Pontchartrain, Ian Smith May 2023

Remote Sensing And Artificial Intelligence-Based Modeling And Prediction Of Harmful Algal Blooms In Lake Pontchartrain, Ian Smith

LSU Master's Theses

Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs) and particularly toxic cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms (CyanoHABs) have become a growing threat to the environment, economy, communities, and human and animal health. This is particularly true for Lake Pontchartrain. Forecasting the occurrence of cyanobacterial HABs in Lake Pontchartrain is a process that currently does not exist, as nowcasting by the NCCOS Algal Bloom Monitoring System or the similar system implemented by the U.S. EPA is currently the only method to monitor HAB production in the Lake. This thesis made this process possible by identifying antecedent environmental conditions controlling CyanoHABs, describing the conditions using NASA satellite …


Behavioral Comparison Of Fluorescent Tracer Sediment To Lightweight Polystyrene Sediment Of The Lower Mississippi River Physical Model (Lmrpm), Julia C. Mudd May 2023

Behavioral Comparison Of Fluorescent Tracer Sediment To Lightweight Polystyrene Sediment Of The Lower Mississippi River Physical Model (Lmrpm), Julia C. Mudd

LSU Master's Theses

A lightweight, unexpanded polystyrene sediment with a specific gravity of 1.05 and a D10, D50 and D90 of 0.250 mm, 0.425mm, and 0.800 mm, respectively, is utilized in the Lower Mississippi River Physical Model (LMRPM) at Louisiana State University to mimic the sand transport of the Lower Mississippi River. While the black model sediment is easily visible against the stark white of the LMRPM, the relative homogeneity of the sediment particles and the opaqueness of the model channel make it difficult to closely study sediment dynamics during an experiment. For this reason, a tracer sediment that is marked with fluorescence …


Software-Defined Networking Security Techniques And The Digital Forensics Of The Sdn Control Plane, Abdullah Alshaya May 2023

Software-Defined Networking Security Techniques And The Digital Forensics Of The Sdn Control Plane, Abdullah Alshaya

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

Software-Defined Networking (SDN) is an efficient networking design that decouples the network's control plane from the data plane. When compared to the traditional network architecture, the SDN architecture shares many of the same security issues. The centralized SDN controller makes it easier to control, easier to program in real-time, and more flexible, but this comes at the cost of more security risks. An attack on the control plane layer of the SDN controller is a major security concern.

First, centralized design and the existence of a single point of failure in the control plane compromise the accessibility and availability of …


An Investigation On The Resilience Of Long Short-Term Memory Deep Neural Networks, Christopher Vasquez May 2023

An Investigation On The Resilience Of Long Short-Term Memory Deep Neural Networks, Christopher Vasquez

LSU Master's Theses

In a world of continuously advancing technology, the reliance on these technologies continues to increase. Recently, transformer networks [22] have been implemented through various projects such as ChatGPT. These networks are extremely computationally demanding and require cutting-edge hardware to explore. However, with the growing increase and popularity of these neural networks, a question of reliability and resilience comes about, especially as the dependency and research on these networks grow. Given the computational demand of transformer networks, we investigate the resilience of the weights and biases of the predecessor of these networks, i.e. the Long Short-Term (LSTM) neural network, through four …


Optimization Of The Self-Healing Efficiency Of Bacterial Concrete Using Impregnation Of Three Different Precursors Into Lightweight Aggregate, Omar Omar May 2023

Optimization Of The Self-Healing Efficiency Of Bacterial Concrete Using Impregnation Of Three Different Precursors Into Lightweight Aggregate, Omar Omar

LSU Master's Theses

Concrete is the most broadly used construction material; thus, developing sustainable concrete is essential to decrease greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from concrete production. Implementation of self-healing concrete technologies is a promising approach to enhance the durability and sustainability of the transportation infrastructure. Among these technologies, bacterial concrete has the potential to seal microcracks through microbial induced calcite precipitation (MICP). Bacterial protection is essential to ensure the viability of this technology due to concrete’s harsh environment. Additionally, the success of this technology depends on the presence of an adequate mineral precursor compound and nutrient for the bacteria. As such, the main …


Shape Memory Polymer-Based Multifunctional Syntactic Foams, Siavash Sarrafan Apr 2023

Shape Memory Polymer-Based Multifunctional Syntactic Foams, Siavash Sarrafan

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

With the increase in popularity of shape memory polymers (SMPs), especially in applications such as aerospace, textile, biomedical engineering, and even structures, the weight of the material and the devices made with it has always been a crucial factor. Using the shape memory polymer as a matrix to make a syntactic foam is one of the best and most affordable approaches to creating a lighter material that still has the shape memory effect. The addition of particles of different stiffness, strength, and size, with variable fractions, creates a composite that enables engineering the mechanical, as well as other physical and …


Development Of Novel Electrodes And Electrolytes For Safer Aqueous Ammonium Ion Batteries With Enhanced Performance., Shelton Farai Kuchena Apr 2023

Development Of Novel Electrodes And Electrolytes For Safer Aqueous Ammonium Ion Batteries With Enhanced Performance., Shelton Farai Kuchena

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

The Lithium-ion battery (LIBs) system has dominated the battery market because of its superior energy and power density. Problems related to LIBs such as safety, scarcity of cobalt and lithium have led researchers to explore alternative battery systems. NH4+ ion is a nonmetal charge carrier with lower molar mass (18 mol g-1) and smaller hydrated ionic size (3.31 Å) which results in excellent electrochemical properties. Furthermore, NH4+ ion has a tetrahedral structure that has no preferred orientation as compared to spherical metal ions giving a different intercalation chemistry based on hydrogen bonding. These properties …


Domain Specific Analysis Of Privacy Practices And Concerns In The Mobile Application Market, Fahimeh Ebrahimi Meymand Apr 2023

Domain Specific Analysis Of Privacy Practices And Concerns In The Mobile Application Market, Fahimeh Ebrahimi Meymand

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

Mobile applications (apps) constantly demand access to sensitive user information in exchange for more personalized services. These-mostly unjustified-data collection tactics have raised major privacy concerns among mobile app users. Existing research on mobile app privacy aims to identify these concerns, expose apps with malicious data collection practices, assess the quality of apps' privacy policies, and propose automated solutions for privacy leak detection and prevention. However, existing solutions are generic, frequently missing the contextual characteristics of different application domains. To address these limitations, in this dissertation, we study privacy in the app store at a domain level. Our objective is to …


Numerical Flume For Wave Dissipation By Mangrove Prop Roots, Rebecca L. Schurr Apr 2023

Numerical Flume For Wave Dissipation By Mangrove Prop Roots, Rebecca L. Schurr

LSU Master's Theses

Mangroves provide shorelines with many beneficial engineering services, including shoreline stabilization, wave attenuation, and damage mitigation during tsunami or tropical cyclone events. This research focuses on wave attenuation rates and drag coefficients, and how they are affected by mangrove prop roots. Previous lab research using a physical wave flume has quantified wave height decay and drag coefficients for synthetic mangrove forests and confirmed that attenuation does indeed increase as mangrove forest density increases. This research will use a 3D numerical flume model developed in Proteus, a Python package, to simulate prior physical model experiments. This work will attempt to validate …


Deposition, Material Characterization, And Mechanical Testing Of Cr Containing Diamond-Like Carbon Films, Nicholas Anderson Apr 2023

Deposition, Material Characterization, And Mechanical Testing Of Cr Containing Diamond-Like Carbon Films, Nicholas Anderson

LSU Master's Theses

A series of amorphous hydrogenated chromium containing diamond-like carbon films were deposited on 316 stainless steel substrates with a chromium interlayer through inductively coupled plasma assisted direct current magnetron sputtering. Details on the deposition process of these films are discussed. The film is characterized using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The coating hardness and indentation modulus is measured by instrumented nanoindentation. The coefficient of friction and the upper bound of the coating wear coefficient is measured using the pin-on-disk method. The fracture toughness of the diamond-like carbon film and a …


Cable Decoupling And Cable-Based Stiffening Of Continuum Robots, Parsa Molaei Mar 2023

Cable Decoupling And Cable-Based Stiffening Of Continuum Robots, Parsa Molaei

LSU Master's Theses

Cable-driven continuum robots, which are robots with a continuously flexible backbone and no identifiable joints that are actuated by cables, have shown great potential for many applications in unstructured, uncertain environments. However, the standard design for a cable-driven continuum robot segment, which bends a continuous backbone along a circular arc, has many compliant modes of deformation which are uncontrolled, and which may result in buckling or other undesirable behaviors if not ameliorated. In this study, a detailed approach for using additional cables to selectively stiffen planar cable-driven robots without substantial coupling to the actuating cables is investigated. A mechanics-based model …


Improved Selectivity And Stability In Methane Dry Reforming By Atomic Layer Deposition Onto Ni-Ceo2-Zro2/Al2o3 Catalysts, Jonathan Lucas Mar 2023

Improved Selectivity And Stability In Methane Dry Reforming By Atomic Layer Deposition Onto Ni-Ceo2-Zro2/Al2o3 Catalysts, Jonathan Lucas

LSU Master's Theses

The use of Ni in the dry reforming of methane (DRM) has been widely studied as a replacement for noble metal catalysts (Pt, Pd, Rh) due to Ni’s low cost compared to noble metals, its abundance, and the fact that its DRM activity is near that of noble metal catalysts. However, Ni has been shown to deactivate quickly under DRM conditions. Rare earth oxides such as CeO2, or as CeO2-ZrO2 (CZO) are supports that improve both the activity and stability of Ni DRM systems due to their redox activity. However, this same activity is thought …