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Full-Text Articles in Bilingual, Multilingual, and Multicultural Education

Implementing Mathematical Modeling For Emergent Bilinguals, Ji Yeong I, Ricardo Martinez, Betsy A. Araujo-Grando Nov 2018

Implementing Mathematical Modeling For Emergent Bilinguals, Ji Yeong I, Ricardo Martinez, Betsy A. Araujo-Grando

Education Conference Presentations, Posters and Proceedings

In this study, a researcher collaborated with a middle school mathematics teacher through co-planning, teaching and reflecting upon mathematical modeling lessons to support emergent bilinguals to make sense of mathematics. We investigate how this collaboration impacts the process of co-teaching and co-planning in terms of the interactions between the researcher and the teacher. Our analysis reveals how each role changed and maintained during the collaboration and what factors were discussed to develop and implement modeling-based lessons for emergent bilinguals.


Modeling Classroom Language Learners' Comprehensibility And Accentedness Over Time: The Case Of L2 Spanish, Charles Nagle Sep 2017

Modeling Classroom Language Learners' Comprehensibility And Accentedness Over Time: The Case Of L2 Spanish, Charles Nagle

World Languages and Cultures Conference Papers, Posters and Proceedings

Significant scholarship has focused on the development of L2 oral skills in naturalistic language learning. However, few studies have examined how instructed learners’ pronunciation develops over time, despite the importance of the classroom context. This study addressed this gap by investigating L2 Spanish learners’ comprehensibility and accentedness over a yearlong period. Twenty-six learners completed a sentence-building task on five occasions distributed throughout their second, third, and fourth semesters of college-level Spanish language instruction. Learners received 20 sets of images, combining the images in each set to form a simple sentence in Spanish. Eighteen native Spanish listeners rated learners’ recordings for ...


Effects Of Strength Of Accent On An L2 Interactive Lecture Listening Comprehension Test, Gary Ockey, Spiros Papageorgiou, Robert French Apr 2016

Effects Of Strength Of Accent On An L2 Interactive Lecture Listening Comprehension Test, Gary Ockey, Spiros Papageorgiou, Robert French

English Publications

This article reports on a study which aimed to determine the effect of strength of accent on listening comprehension of interactive lectures. Test takers (N = 21,726) listened to an interactive lecture given by one of nine speakers and responded to six comprehension items. The test taker responses were analyzed with the Rasch computer program WINSTEPS to investigate the relative difficulty of the items associated with the nine versions of the interactive lectures. Results indicated that comprehension of interactive lectures was diminished with quite light accents, as has been found with monologic lectures.


Automated Writing Evaluation For Formative Assessment Of Second Language Writing: Investigating The Accuracy And Usefulness Of Feedback As Part Of Argument-Based Validation, Jim Ranalli, Stephanie Link, Evgeny Chukharev-Hudilainen Feb 2016

Automated Writing Evaluation For Formative Assessment Of Second Language Writing: Investigating The Accuracy And Usefulness Of Feedback As Part Of Argument-Based Validation, Jim Ranalli, Stephanie Link, Evgeny Chukharev-Hudilainen

English Publications

An increasing number of studies on the use of tools for automated writing evaluation (AWE) in writing classrooms suggest growing interest in their potential for formative assessment. As with all assessments, these applications should be validated in terms of their intended interpretations and uses. A recent argument-based validation framework outlined inferences that require backing to support integration of one AWE tool, Criterion, into a college-level English as a Second Language (ESL) writing course. The present research appraised evidence for the assumptions underlying two inferences in this argument. In the first of two studies, we assessed evidence for the evaluation inference ...


The Effects Of Item Preview On Video-Based Multiple-Choice Listening Assessments, Dennis Koyama, Angela Sun, Gary Ockey Jan 2016

The Effects Of Item Preview On Video-Based Multiple-Choice Listening Assessments, Dennis Koyama, Angela Sun, Gary Ockey

English Publications

Multiple-choice formats remain a popular design for assessing listening comprehension, yet no consensus has been reached on how multiple-choice formats should be employed. Some researchers argue that test takers must be provided with a preview of the items prior to the input (Buck, 1995; Sherman, 1997); others argue that a preview may decrease the authenticity of the task by changing the way input is processed (Hughes, 2003). Using stratified random sampling techniques, more and less proficient Japanese university English learners (N = 206) were assigned one of three test conditions: preview of question stem and answer options (n = 67), preview of ...


Structural Equation Modeling Reporting Practices For Language Assessment, Gary Ockey, Ikkyu Choi Jan 2015

Structural Equation Modeling Reporting Practices For Language Assessment, Gary Ockey, Ikkyu Choi

English Publications

Studies that use structural equation modeling (SEM) techniques are increasingly encountered in the language assessment literature. This popularity has created the need for a set of guidelines that can indicate what should be included in a research report and make it possible for research consumers to judge the appropriateness of the interpretations made from a reported study. This article attempts to fill this void by providing a set of reporting guidelines appropriate for language assessment researchers.


New And Not So New Methods For Assessing Oral Communication, Gary Ockey, Zhi Li Jan 2015

New And Not So New Methods For Assessing Oral Communication, Gary Ockey, Zhi Li

English Publications

The assessment of oral communication has continued to evolve over the past few decades. The construct being assessed has broadened to include interactional competence, and technology has played a role in the types of tasks that are currently popular. In this paper, we discuss the factors that affect the process of oral communication assessment, current conceptualizations of the construct to be assessed, and five tasks that are used to assess this construct. These tasks include oral proficiency interviews, paired/group oral discussion tasks, simulated tasks, integrated oral communication tasks, and elicited imitation tasks. We evaluate these tasks based on current ...


Learners’ Views Of Social Issues In Pronunciation Learning, John Levis Jan 2015

Learners’ Views Of Social Issues In Pronunciation Learning, John Levis

English Publications

Success in L2 pronunciation learning is affected by both individual differ-ences and social influences on learning. While individual differences have been extensively researched, social influences have not. This study examines the beliefs and attitudes of advanced learners of English in regard to their pronunciation abilities and improvement. Twelve graduate students took part in four weeks of individualized pronunciation tutoring followed by inter-views asking about their pronunciation, use of English, and their pronuncition in social contexts. The interviews revealed four images of their pronunciation learning. The first was that their spoken language skills left them feeling pulled in conflicting directions; the ...


Overworked And Stressed Teachers Under Market Economy: Case Study In Northwest China, Gulbahar Beckett, Juanjuan Zhao Jan 2015

Overworked And Stressed Teachers Under Market Economy: Case Study In Northwest China, Gulbahar Beckett, Juanjuan Zhao

English Publications

This chapter is based on a case study conducted in Xisheng (pseudonym promised to the participants for anonymity purposes) in Northwest China to explore teachers’ perspectives on teaching under the market economy system. The original plan was to study local indigenous teachers, but that was not possible due to political sensitivity of the region at the time of data collection. As a result, we interviewed mostly Han teachers, including as many local indigenous teachers as possible. We think that the study is still useful as it was the first study of its kind and that it was informative regarding the ...


From One To Multiple Accents On A Test Of L2 Listening Comprehension, Gary Ockey, Robert French Jan 2014

From One To Multiple Accents On A Test Of L2 Listening Comprehension, Gary Ockey, Robert French

English Publications

Concerns about the need for assessing multidialectal listening skills for global contexts are becoming increasingly prevalent. However, the inclusion of multiple accents on listening assessments may threaten test fairness because it is not practical to include every accent that may be encountered in the language use domain on these tests. Given this dilemma, this study aimed to determine the extent to which accent strength and familiarity affect comprehension and to provide a defensible direction for assessing multidialectal listening comprehension. A strength of accent scale was developed, and one US, four Australian, and four British English speakers of English were selected ...


Technology-Mediated L2 Strategy Instruction And Its Potential To Enhance Evaluation And Research, Jim Ranalli Jan 2014

Technology-Mediated L2 Strategy Instruction And Its Potential To Enhance Evaluation And Research, Jim Ranalli

English Publications

This paper discusses the potential of technology-mediated forms of L2 strategy instruction (SI) to not only facilitate SI but to enhance evaluation of SI interventions and L2 strategy research more generally. It uses results from a recent empirical study to show how computer-based forms of SI may offer remedies for problematic features of evaluation, including access to process data showing how learners actually perform strategy-related tasks, the timing and frequency of collection of learner perception data, and most importantly, data about task perception and meta-cognitive monitoring, which can position L2 strategies within frameworks for self-regulated learning. The underlying premise of ...


The Structural Consistency Of A Six-Factor Model Of Academic Self-Concept Among Culturally Diverse Preadolescents In The United States, Gary Ockey, Sarah Abercrombie Jan 2013

The Structural Consistency Of A Six-Factor Model Of Academic Self-Concept Among Culturally Diverse Preadolescents In The United States, Gary Ockey, Sarah Abercrombie

English Publications

For decades, research has indicated that preadolescents’ self-concept is comprised of subject-specific academic factors, a general academic factor, and several nonacademic factors. More recently, there have been some indications that academic self-concept might further be differentiated into competence and affect factors, at least for some preadolescent ethnic groups. This study examines the extent to which a 6-factor model of academic self-concept, in which competence and affect are distinct, is tenable for White, Hispanic, and Native American preadolescents. A total of 313 White, 331 Hispanic, and 224 Native American preadolescents from the southwestern United States were administered a modified version of ...


A Meta-Analysis Of Effectiveness Studies On Computer Technology-Supported Language Learning, Maja Grgurovic, Carol Chapelle, Mack C. Shelley Jan 2013

A Meta-Analysis Of Effectiveness Studies On Computer Technology-Supported Language Learning, Maja Grgurovic, Carol Chapelle, Mack C. Shelley

English Publications

With the aim of summarizing years of research comparing pedagogies for second/foreign language teaching supported with computer technology and pedagogy not-supported by computer technology, a meta-analysis was conducted of empirical research investigating language outcomes. Thirty-seven studies yielding 52 effect sizes were included, following a search of literature from 1970 to 2006 and screening of studies based on stated criteria. The differences in research designs required subdivision of studies, but overall results favored the technology-supported pedagogy, with a small, but positive and statistically significant effect size. Second/foreign language instruction supported by computer technology was found to be at least ...


Designing Online Strategy Instruction For Integrated Vocabulary Depth Of Knowledge And Web-Based Dictionary Skills, Jim Ranalli Jan 2013

Designing Online Strategy Instruction For Integrated Vocabulary Depth Of Knowledge And Web-Based Dictionary Skills, Jim Ranalli

English Publications

This paper describes the design and development of a CALL resource that teaches aspects of word combinability (i.e., grammatical collocation, transitivity, and complementation) to tertiary-level ESL learners by integrating conceptual understanding with related text-analysis and web-based dictionary skills. The resource delivers an automated, online form of strategy instruction outside of class time, facilitating self-paced learning with sufficient practice and feedback. In addition to the L2 lexicography, vocabulary, and strategy literatures, the project is informed by instructional design principles aimed at 1) managing demands on learners’ cognitive processing capacities; 2) differentiating materials so as to appropriately target declarative or procedural ...


Alternative Models Of Self-Regulation And Implications For L2 Strategy Research, Jim Ranalli Jan 2012

Alternative Models Of Self-Regulation And Implications For L2 Strategy Research, Jim Ranalli

English Publications

In this paper I discuss the proposal of Dörnyei and colleagues (Dörnyei, 2005; Tseng, Dörnyei, & Schmitt, 2006) to replace the construct of learning strategy with that of self-regulation and thus shift the research focus from specific strategic behaviors to a trait that is seen to underlie them. I argue that before doing so, we need a fuller understanding of what self-regulation entails and how it might intersect with traditional concerns of second language strategy research. To contribute to this understanding, I highlight alternative conceptualizations of self-regulation and then use data from my doctoral research to illustrate one in particular, the ...


Mentoring Perceptions And Experiences Of Minority Students Participating In Summer Research Opportunity Programs, Marcus Glenn, Levon T. Esters, Michael S. Retallick Jan 2012

Mentoring Perceptions And Experiences Of Minority Students Participating In Summer Research Opportunity Programs, Marcus Glenn, Levon T. Esters, Michael S. Retallick

Agricultural Education and Studies Publications

Literature has documented the underrepresentation of minority students in higher education and the importance of mentoring programs in retaining these students in the academy. This study examines the perceptions of mentoring and actual mentoring experiences of minority students participating in two Summer Research Opportunity Programs (SROPs) at Iowa State University. Seven mentoring functions (Clarity of Project, Challenging Assignment, Training, Contact, Assistance, Feedback and Role Modeling) were identified through the literature as being important in the mentoring relationship. Findings indicated that the students’ mentoring experience was better than expected, but students also noted that mentors should devote more attention to the ...


Towards Effective Integration And Positive Impact Of Automated Writing Evaluation In L2 Writing, Elena Cotos Jan 2012

Towards Effective Integration And Positive Impact Of Automated Writing Evaluation In L2 Writing, Elena Cotos

English Publications

The increasing dominance of English has elevated the need to develop an ability to effectively communicate in writing, and this has put a strain on second language education programs worldwide. Faced with time-consuming and copious commenting on student drafts and inspired by the promise of computerized writing assessment, many "educational technology enthusiasts are looking to A WE [automated writing evaluation] as a silver bullet for language and literacy development" (Warschauer & Ware, 2006, p. 175). This chapter reviews what AWE offers for learners and teachers and raises a number of controversies regarding A WE effectiveness with the underlying message that clear ...


Written English Into Spoken: A Functional Discourse Analysis Of American, Indian, And Chinese Ta Presentations, John Levis, Greta M. Levis, Tammy Slater Jan 2012

Written English Into Spoken: A Functional Discourse Analysis Of American, Indian, And Chinese Ta Presentations, John Levis, Greta M. Levis, Tammy Slater

English Publications

International teaching assistants (ITAs) often receive specialized training because their spoken English is not easily comprehensible. Lack of comprehensibility may be influenced by grammatical issues (Tyler, 1994), incorrect or inadequate discourse structure (Tyler, 1992; Williams, 1992), or aspects of their pronunciation, such as unclear sentence focus (Hahn, 2004) or intonation (Pickering, 2001; Wennerstrom, 1998). Problems with comprehensibility may be compounded by ITAs having learned English through formal, written models. However, we do not know how ITAs change written text into an oral lecture, nor how their strategies differ from those of native teaching assistants (NTAs) doing the same task. This ...


The Role Of Culture In Predicting Students' Achievement: International Perspectives, Linda Serra Hagedorn, Agustina Veny Purnamasari Jan 2012

The Role Of Culture In Predicting Students' Achievement: International Perspectives, Linda Serra Hagedorn, Agustina Veny Purnamasari

Education Publications

We amended the rich PISA (Program for International Student Assessment) data to include culture measures of power distance; uncertainty avoidance; individualism-collectivism; masculinity-femininity; and longand short-term orientation based on country. The added scores of each country on the culture components were obtained from the extensive studies of Hofstede and colleagues (2010). The dependent variables in our study are students’ achievements in the fields of reading, math, and science from various countries taken from PISA data. There are three proposed research questions: Do the various aspects of culture have an effect on students’ achievement internationally? Which of the culture measures explains a ...


Review Of Task-Based Language Learning And Teaching With Technology, Jim Ranalli Jan 2011

Review Of Task-Based Language Learning And Teaching With Technology, Jim Ranalli

English Publications

It is interesting to consider that task-based learning and teaching (TBLT) and computer-assisted language learning (CALL) both originated in the 1980s, were long considered marginal to mainstream language education (though this has thankfully changed), and more recently have been the focus of increasing scholarly attention, and yet to date no book has explicitly addressed the potential links between these two fields. What antecedents and principles do they share, and how can they mutually inform each other’s contributions to second language pedagogy and research? Task-based language learning and teaching with technology, edited by Michael Thomas and Hayo Reinders, attempts to ...


You Got The Word Now: Problematizing Vocabulary-Based Academic Language Instruction, Katherine R. Bruna, Roberta Vann, Moises P. Escudero Jan 2010

You Got The Word Now: Problematizing Vocabulary-Based Academic Language Instruction, Katherine R. Bruna, Roberta Vann, Moises P. Escudero

Education Publications

With increasing numbers of English Learners enrolling in public schools, teachers of core academic subject area classes are facing the challenge of integrating English language development into instruction. This article describes how teachers' understanding of infusing language into science teaching can shape instructional practices and consequently influence the simultaneous English language development and science learning of English Learner students.


The Spread Of Computer-Assisted Language Learning, Carol Chapelle Jan 2010

The Spread Of Computer-Assisted Language Learning, Carol Chapelle

English Publications

This paper argues that the vertical spread of computer-assisted language learning (CALL), i.e., a spread throughout language materials and curricula, makes it difficult to draw a clear distinction between CALL and other language materials. In view of the emphasis that teachers, researchers, and administrators have placed on evaluating CALL, I argue that some valuable lessons about materials evaluation can be drawn from reflection on issues in CALL evaluation. In particular, I discuss the opportunities for professionals to reconsider assumptions held about comparative research, draw upon research perspectives and methods from applied linguistics in materials evaluation, and include critical perspectives ...


Prospects For Developing L2 Students’ Effective Use Of Vocabulary Learning-Strategies Via Web-Based Training, Jim Ranalli Jan 2009

Prospects For Developing L2 Students’ Effective Use Of Vocabulary Learning-Strategies Via Web-Based Training, Jim Ranalli

English Publications

A large body of research supports the efficacy of learning strategies employed in the acquisition of second language vocabulary. However, research also indicates that many such strategies are underused or misused by learners and, further, that any effort to integrate learner training in the use of such strategies into classroom instruction faces a number of challenges, among them a shortage of appropriate training materials, a lack of expertise on the part of the teacher, and ingrained habits or even resistance on the part of the learner. This paper describes a classroom-based investigation into the utility of a prototype web-based learner-training ...


Individual Learner Differences In Call: The Field Independence/Dependence (Fid) Construct, Carol Chapelle, Trude Fraiser Jan 2009

Individual Learner Differences In Call: The Field Independence/Dependence (Fid) Construct, Carol Chapelle, Trude Fraiser

English Publications

In Spring semester 2006, we conducted a study with 50 learners of German to investigate the use of a new measure (Cárdenas-Claros, 2005) for research on the field independent/dependent (FID) cognitive style and CALL use. After the measure was administered, students worked on a CALL program for German that logs interaction. This paper reports the reliability and item analysis of the FID-CALL measure in addition to its relationship with learners' behaviors in the CALL program. With the goal of understanding how FID intersects with satisfaction and success in learning through CALL, we suggest areas for future development of the ...


Investigating The Promise Of Learner Corpora: Methodological Issues, Nick Pendar, Carol Chapelle Jan 2008

Investigating The Promise Of Learner Corpora: Methodological Issues, Nick Pendar, Carol Chapelle

English Publications

Researchers working with learner corpora promise quantitative results that would be of greater practical value in areas such as CALL than those from small-scale and qualitative studies. However, learner corpus research has not yet had an impact on practices in teaching and assessment. Significant methodological issues need to be examined if results from learner corpus research are going to provide convincing results about language development. This study explored the use of the International Corpus of Learner English (ICLE) focusing on methodological issues such as identification of variation in learners' levels and statistical analysis of large numbers of predictors consisting of ...


Learning English With The Sims: Exploiting Authentic Computer Simulation Games For L2 Learning, Jim Ranalli Jan 2008

Learning English With The Sims: Exploiting Authentic Computer Simulation Games For L2 Learning, Jim Ranalli

English Publications

With their realistic animation, complex scenarios and impressive interactivity, computer simulation games might be able to provide context-rich, cognitively engaging virtual environments for language learning. However, simulation games designed for L2 learners are in short supply. As an alternative, could games designed for the mass-market be enhanced with support materials to allow students to enter and make use of them for learning? This classroom-based investigation looked into whether the best selling game The SIMs™ could be rendered pedagogically beneficial to university-level ESL learners by means of supplementary materials designed to meet criteria for CALL task appropriateness. The mixed-methods study found ...


Calico At Center Stage: Our Emerging Rights And Responsibilities, Carol Chapelle Jan 2005

Calico At Center Stage: Our Emerging Rights And Responsibilities, Carol Chapelle

English Publications

The year of languages (see www.actfl.org) in the United States is a good time to reflect on where CALICO is as a professional group of technology users, developers, and researchers. My thoughts on this issue come from my background and concerns stemming from my work in ESL in higher education. However, most CALICO members are likely to share at least some of my concerns. After all, higher education has a considerable impact on people throughout the profession— at least it should. In higher education, our mission, simply put, is to create and disseminate knowledge. Issues in ESL are ...


Putting Principles Into Practice, Joan Jamieson, Carol Chapelle, Sherry Preiss Jan 2004

Putting Principles Into Practice, Joan Jamieson, Carol Chapelle, Sherry Preiss

English Publications

CALL evaluation might ideally draw on principles from fields such as second language acquisition, language pedagogy, instructional design, and testing and measurement in order to make judgments about criteria such as elaborated input, feedback, collaborative learning, authentic tasks, navigation, screen design, reliability, validity, impact, and practicality. In this study, a subset of criteria were used to evaluate the design of English as a second or foreign language (ESL/EFL) online courses and assessments, Longman English Online. This article illustrates how a set of principles suggested evaluation criteria which, in turn, suggested particular variables for the instructional design; these variables, again ...


Innovative Language Learning: Achieving The Vision, Carol Chapelle Jan 2001

Innovative Language Learning: Achieving The Vision, Carol Chapelle

English Publications

The technologies demonstrated at the InSTIL and EUROCALL 2000 conferences were very inspiring. They gave participants the sense that the technologies of their wildest imaginations are at last materializing, particularly in long awaited advances in speech technologies. Some challenges, however, remain ahead as attempts are made to put these technologies to use in CALL. Past experience demonstrates for example that software designed for recognition of a proficient speaker’s language is different than that required for learner language. It is also evident that while language use may be critical for language acquisition, language use does not necessarily indicate language acquisition ...


Methodilogical Issues In Research On Learner-Computer Interactions In Call, Volker Hegelheimer, Carol Chapelle Jan 2000

Methodilogical Issues In Research On Learner-Computer Interactions In Call, Volker Hegelheimer, Carol Chapelle

English Publications

CALL materials may provide a mechanism for implementing theoretically-ideal conditions for second language acquisition and for conducting empirical research to investigate effects of these conditions. This paper explores methodological issues involved in realizing this potential by focusing on investigation of the noticing hypothesis (Schmidt, 1990) in CALL reading materials. It reviews the problem of assessing noticing in classroom and experimental settings through a) conditions for noticing, b) retrospective assessment, and c) concurrent assessment. Concurrent assessment, which provides the most direct measure of noticing, is illustrated through CALL materials that gather data on noticing, test retention of word meaning, and calculate ...