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Full-Text Articles in Education

The Impact Of Digital Technology On Employees' Development Via Informal Learning Approach: A Systematic Review, Ke Ma Jun 2024

The Impact Of Digital Technology On Employees' Development Via Informal Learning Approach: A Systematic Review, Ke Ma

Adult Education Research Conference

The objective of this literature study is to assess the feasibility of HRD practitioners incorporating digital technology to support informal learning in enterprises, with the aim of improving employees' professional development.


Exploring Entrepreneurial Intention And Subjective Beliefs: A Comparative Analysis Of General Education Schools And Commercial Schools, Julia Riess, Bettina Fuhrmann, Gerhard Geissler Apr 2024

Exploring Entrepreneurial Intention And Subjective Beliefs: A Comparative Analysis Of General Education Schools And Commercial Schools, Julia Riess, Bettina Fuhrmann, Gerhard Geissler

International Journal for Business Education

This study examines the entrepreneurial intentions of Austrian secondary school students, specifically comparing students from commercial schools with those from general education schools. We analyzed 2,329 data sets and found that subjective beliefs, primarily behavioral and control beliefs, significantly influence entrepreneurial intentions. In addition, demographic factors such as gender, language, acquaintance with entrepreneurs, and school type play a significant role in explaining the variance in entrepreneurial intentions.

Our detailed analysis shows that students from commercial schools have stronger entrepreneurial intentions and subjective beliefs. Particularly notable are the differences in behavioral beliefs, where students from commercial schools find all aspects of …


An Exploratory Study On The Use Of Artificial Intelligence For Tourism Marketing In The Midwest, Callyn Anderson, Marisol Banda, Katie Hale Apr 2024

An Exploratory Study On The Use Of Artificial Intelligence For Tourism Marketing In The Midwest, Callyn Anderson, Marisol Banda, Katie Hale

SACAD: John Heinrichs Scholarly and Creative Activity Days

Rural tourism plays a significant role in fostering economic development, preserving cultural heritage and promoting sustainable practices. It creates employment opportunities for local residents, both directly in the tourism sector and indirectly in supporting industries. Marketing tourism in rural communities requires a strategic approach that highlights the unique aspects of the area, promotes sustainable practices, and engages potential visitors. A strong understanding of marketing tools and techniques are critical in the usage of marketing ("); border-bottom: 1px solid transparent; background-size: 5px; font-size: 18pt; font-family: "Book Antiqua", "Book Antiqua_EmbeddedFont", "Book Antiqua_MSFontService", "Book Antiqua_MSFontService", Calibri, sans-serif; letter-spacing: 0px; font-kerning: normal; line-height: 6px; …


Comparing Cognitive Theories Of Learning Transfer To Advance Cybersecurity Instruction, Assessment, And Testing, Daniel T. Hickey Ph.D., Ronald J. Kantor Apr 2024

Comparing Cognitive Theories Of Learning Transfer To Advance Cybersecurity Instruction, Assessment, And Testing, Daniel T. Hickey Ph.D., Ronald J. Kantor

Journal of Cybersecurity Education, Research and Practice

The cybersecurity threat landscape evolves quickly, continually, and consequentially. This means that the transfer of cybersecurity learning is crucial. We compared how different recognized “cognitive” transfer theories might help explain and synergize three aspects of cybersecurity education. These include teaching and training in diverse settings, assessing learning formatively & summatively, and testing & measuring achievement, proficiency, & readiness. We excluded newer sociocultural theories and their implications for inclusion as we explore those theories elsewhere. We first summarized the history of cybersecurity education and proficiency standards considering transfer theories. We then explored each theory and reviewed the most relevant cybersecurity education …


Columnas: The Honors Program Newsletter At Bentley University, Clara Williams, Micaela Corzo, Naeelah Desanges, Alyssa Galin, Isabella Ramirez Apr 2024

Columnas: The Honors Program Newsletter At Bentley University, Clara Williams, Micaela Corzo, Naeelah Desanges, Alyssa Galin, Isabella Ramirez

Honors Program

Page 1: WHY ARE NEW YEAR’S RESOLUTIONS SO HARD TO KEEP? By Sahil Raut ’27

Page 2: THE CAPITALIST INFLUENCE ON HIGHER EDUCATION By Kevin Heintz ’26

Page 3: THE IMPORTANCE OF MENSTRUAL HEALTH MANAGEMENT By Sid Goel ’24

Page 4: CAN TECHNOLOGY SOLVE EDUCATIONAL INEQUALITY? By Ariana Ramirez ’27

Page 5: DATA PORTABILITY CAN CHANGE THE DIGITAL WORLD By Kassidi Thompson ’27

Page 6: THE POWER OF VULNERABILITY By Peter Epp ’24

Page 7: THREADS OF BELIEF By Yudao Song ’26


Leading Horses To Water During A Pandemic: Assuring Communication Learning For "Quants", Thomas Hall Mar 2024

Leading Horses To Water During A Pandemic: Assuring Communication Learning For "Quants", Thomas Hall

International Journal for Business Education

Students who are attracted to quantitative disciplines of study can be reluctant to devote much attention to the important task of communicating, and previous research (Hostager, 2018) has identified statistically significant differences in learning approaches by major among undergraduate business students. This paper presents results of learning assurance for writing skills (direct measures) even when the content of the course relates to the highly quantitative topics of data analytics and finance. The approach combines various pedagogical methods in an undergraduate, writing-intensive setting: traditional testing but in an iterative framework, “flipped classroom” intensive work using spreadsheet software, repeated submission of brief …


Improving Belonging And Connectedness In The Cybersecurity Workforce: From College To The Profession, Mary Beth Klinger Feb 2024

Improving Belonging And Connectedness In The Cybersecurity Workforce: From College To The Profession, Mary Beth Klinger

Journal of Cybersecurity Education, Research and Practice

This article explores the results of a project aimed at supporting community college students in their academic pursuit of an Associate of Applied Science (AAS) degree in Cybersecurity through mentorship, collaboration, skill preparation, and other activities and touch points to increase students’ sense of belonging and connectedness in the cybersecurity profession. The goal of the project was focused on developing diverse, educated, and skilled cybersecurity personnel for employment within local industry and government to help curtail the current regional cybersecurity workforce gap that is emblematic of the lack of qualified cybersecurity personnel that presently exists nationwide. Emphasis throughout the project …


University Of Johannesburg Institutional Repository Cybersecurity Output: 2015-2021 Interdisciplinary Study, Mancha J. Sekgololo Feb 2024

University Of Johannesburg Institutional Repository Cybersecurity Output: 2015-2021 Interdisciplinary Study, Mancha J. Sekgololo

Journal of Cybersecurity Education, Research and Practice

This study examines cybersecurity awareness in universities by analyzing related research output across different disciplines at the University of Johannesburg. The diffusion of innovation theory is used in this study as a theoretical framework to explain how cybersecurity awareness diffuses across disciplines. The University of Johannesburg Institutional Repository database was the data source for this study. Variations in cybersecurity keyword searches and topic modeling techniques were used to identify the frequency and distribution of research output across different disciplines. The study reveals that cybersecurity awareness has diffused across various disciplines, including non-computer science disciplines such as business, accounting, and social …


From Technical Resolution To Agile Evolution: A Blended Role At Humane Interface Design Enterprise (Hide), Ketansingh Anil Patil Jan 2024

From Technical Resolution To Agile Evolution: A Blended Role At Humane Interface Design Enterprise (Hide), Ketansingh Anil Patil

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports

This report provides a comprehensive overview of my journey through two distinct roles at the Humane Interface Design Enterprise (HIDE) - as a Technical Consultant in Spring 2023 and an Agile Process Analyst in Fall 2023. My tenure as a Technical Consultant was marked by the application of academic knowledge and technical skills to tackle real-world challenges at HIDE, leveraging experiences from my capstone projects and my roles in the industry as an IT Analyst Intern at Milwaukee Tool and a Data Engineer at UST. This role at HIDE enhanced my problem-solving skills and contributed to the progress of the …


Deploying Chatbots To Build Students' Critical Thinking Skills: Leveraging Generative Ai Effectively And Purposefully In Higher Education, Sun Sun Lim, Tamas Makany Jan 2024

Deploying Chatbots To Build Students' Critical Thinking Skills: Leveraging Generative Ai Effectively And Purposefully In Higher Education, Sun Sun Lim, Tamas Makany

Research Collection College of Integrative Studies

No abstract provided.


An Examination Of The Relationship Between Cheating In Online Classes And Technostress: Perceptions Of Business Faculty, Stacy Boyer-Davis, Kevin Berry, Amy Cooper Dec 2023

An Examination Of The Relationship Between Cheating In Online Classes And Technostress: Perceptions Of Business Faculty, Stacy Boyer-Davis, Kevin Berry, Amy Cooper

International Journal for Business Education

This research study investigated the relationship between technostress creators (techno-complexity, techno-insecurity, techno-invasion, techno-overload, and techno-uncertainty) and faculty perceptions of student cheating in online classes. Data were collected from faculty members of the Management and Organizational Behavior Teaching Society (MOBTS), a member of the AACSB Business Education Alliance, the American Society of Business and Behavioral Sciences (ASBBS), an interdisciplinary professional organization comprised of faculty teaching in accounting, finance, management, marketing, organizational behavior, and computer information systems, and other research panels during 2021 (N = 94). Findings from regression analysis indicated that the techno-complexity subconstruct is positively related to a faculty’s perception …


Reducing Food Scarcity: The Benefits Of Urban Farming, S.A. Claudell, Emilio Mejia Dec 2023

Reducing Food Scarcity: The Benefits Of Urban Farming, S.A. Claudell, Emilio Mejia

Journal of Nonprofit Innovation

Urban farming can enhance the lives of communities and help reduce food scarcity. This paper presents a conceptual prototype of an efficient urban farming community that can be scaled for a single apartment building or an entire community across all global geoeconomics regions, including densely populated cities and rural, developing towns and communities. When deployed in coordination with smart crop choices, local farm support, and efficient transportation then the result isn’t just sustainability, but also increasing fresh produce accessibility, optimizing nutritional value, eliminating the use of ‘forever chemicals’, reducing transportation costs, and fostering global environmental benefits.

Imagine Doris, who is …


The Coming Transformative Impact Of Large Language Models And Artificial Intelligence On Global Business And Education, Eva K. Jermakowicz Dec 2023

The Coming Transformative Impact Of Large Language Models And Artificial Intelligence On Global Business And Education, Eva K. Jermakowicz

Journal of Global Awareness

Rapid advances in the capabilities of Large Language Models (LLM) as a basis for Artificial Intelligence (AI) applications, and their sudden wide accessibility, have garnered significant attention recently. These technologies (e.g., ChatGPT, BARD), which have the ability to predict and generate human language, have led to excitement and concerns regarding their use in various industries. This paper explores the history of LLM, examines their applications in business and education, and delves into the critical ethical concerns and challenges of these emerging technologies to ensure that their uses are not only effective, but also responsible and equitable.


Educator Preparedness To Leverage Assistive Technologies In The Classroom, Sean Masterman Dec 2023

Educator Preparedness To Leverage Assistive Technologies In The Classroom, Sean Masterman

Doctorate in Education

The fourth industrial revolution (4IR) is driving a compelling need for pedagogical change, yet there is disjuncture between the capacity of emerging technologies to address this need and their actual use in the American classroom. These technologies can enable personalization to meet each student’s individualized learning needs. Educator preparedness is the first step toward embracing and integrating the broad capabilities of emerging technologies to help build the future workforce. This qualitative, phenomenological case study assessed the preparedness of middle school general educators in two Minnesota school districts to leverage assistive technologies (ATs) to improve student learning from the perspective of …


How Chatgpt Can Be Used As A Defense Mechanism For Cyber Attacks, Michelle Ayaim Dec 2023

How Chatgpt Can Be Used As A Defense Mechanism For Cyber Attacks, Michelle Ayaim

Cybersecurity Undergraduate Research Showcase

The powers of OpenAI's groundbreaking AI language model, ChatGPT, startled millions of users when it was released in November. But for many, the tool's ability to further accomplish the goals of evil actors swiftly replaced their initial excitement with significant concerns. ChatGPT gives malicious actors additional ways to possibly compromise sophisticated cybersecurity software. Leaders in a sector that is currently suffering from a 38% global spike in data breaches in 2022 must acknowledge the rising influence of AI and take appropriate action. Cybercriminals are writing more complex and focused business email compromise (BEC) and other phishing emails with the assistance …


Integrity, Confidentiality, And Equity: Using Inquiry-Based Labs To Help Students Understand Ai And Cybersecurity, Richard C. Alexander, Liran Ma, Ze-Li Dou, Zhipeng Cai, Yan Huang Nov 2023

Integrity, Confidentiality, And Equity: Using Inquiry-Based Labs To Help Students Understand Ai And Cybersecurity, Richard C. Alexander, Liran Ma, Ze-Li Dou, Zhipeng Cai, Yan Huang

Journal of Cybersecurity Education, Research and Practice

Recent advances in Artificial Intelligence (AI) have brought society closer to the long-held dream of creating machines to help with both common and complex tasks and functions. From recommending movies to detecting disease in its earliest stages, AI has become an aspect of daily life many people accept without scrutiny. Despite its functionality and promise, AI has inherent security risks that users should understand and programmers must be trained to address. The ICE (integrity, confidentiality, and equity) cybersecurity labs developed by a team of cybersecurity researchers addresses these vulnerabilities to AI models through a series of hands-on, inquiry-based labs. Through …


Building A Diverse Cybersecurity Workforce: A Study On Attracting Learners With Varied Educational Backgrounds, Mubashrah Saddiqa, Kristian Helmer Kjær Larsen1 Helmer Kjær Larsen, Robert Nedergaard Nielsen, Jens Myrup Pedersen Nov 2023

Building A Diverse Cybersecurity Workforce: A Study On Attracting Learners With Varied Educational Backgrounds, Mubashrah Saddiqa, Kristian Helmer Kjær Larsen1 Helmer Kjær Larsen, Robert Nedergaard Nielsen, Jens Myrup Pedersen

Journal of Cybersecurity Education, Research and Practice

Cybersecurity has traditionally been perceived as a highly technical field, centered around hacking, programming, and network defense. However, this article contends that the scope of cybersecurity must transcend its technical confines to embrace a more inclusive approach. By incorporating various concepts such as privacy, data sharing, and ethics, cybersecurity can foster diversity among audiences with varying educational backgrounds, thereby cultivating a richer and more resilient security landscape. A more diverse cybersecurity workforce can provide a broader range of perspectives, experiences, and skills to address the complex and ever-evolving threats of the digital age. The research focuses on enhancing cybersecurity education …


Depaul Digest Oct 2023

Depaul Digest

DePaul Magazine

College of Education Professor Jason Goulah fosters hope, happiness and global citizenship through DePaul’s Institute for Daisaku Ikeda Studies in Education. Associate Journalism Professor Jill Hopke shares how to talk about climate change. News briefs from DePaul’s 10 colleges and schools: Occupational Therapy Standardized Patient Program, Financial Planning Certificate program, Business Education in Technology and Analytics Hub, Racial Justice Initiative, Teacher Quality Partnership grant, Intimate Partner Violence and Brain Injury collaboration, School of Music Career Closet, Sports Photojournalism course, DePaul Migration Collaborative’s Solutions Lab, Inclusive Screenwriting courses. New appointments: School of Music Dean John Milbauer, College of Education Dean Jennifer …


Combating Illegal, Unreported And Unregulated (Iuu) Fishing In Ecuador:: The Maritime Authority Approach For The Exercise Of Coastal State Rights, Daniela Andrade Tamayo Oct 2023

Combating Illegal, Unreported And Unregulated (Iuu) Fishing In Ecuador:: The Maritime Authority Approach For The Exercise Of Coastal State Rights, Daniela Andrade Tamayo

World Maritime University Dissertations

No abstract provided.


Leveraging Vr/Ar/Mr/Xr Technologies To Improve Cybersecurity Education, Training, And Operations, Paul Wagner, Dalal Alharthi Oct 2023

Leveraging Vr/Ar/Mr/Xr Technologies To Improve Cybersecurity Education, Training, And Operations, Paul Wagner, Dalal Alharthi

Journal of Cybersecurity Education, Research and Practice

The United States faces persistent threats conducting malicious cyber campaigns that threaten critical infrastructure, companies and their intellectual property, and the privacy of its citizens. Additionally, there are millions of unfilled cybersecurity positions, and the cybersecurity skills gap continues to widen. Most companies believe that this problem has not improved and nearly 44% believe it has gotten worse over the past 10 years. Threat actors are continuing to evolve their tactics, techniques, and procedures for conducting attacks on public and private targets. Education institutions and companies must adopt emerging technologies to develop security professionals and to increase cybersecurity awareness holistically. …


Introduction To International Business, Rajaram Veliyath Oct 2023

Introduction To International Business, Rajaram Veliyath

KSU Distinguished Course Repository

An introduction to the global business environment, this course examines the discrete and interactive effects of the geographic, historical, sociocultural, political/legal, economic and technological forces that shape business activities across borders and their consequences.


An Interdisciplinary Approach To Experiential Learning In Cyberbiosecurity And Agriculture Through Workforce Development, Kellie Johnson, Tiffany Drape, Joseph Oakes, Joseph Simpson, Ann Brown, Donna M. Westfall-Rudd, Susan Duncan Oct 2023

An Interdisciplinary Approach To Experiential Learning In Cyberbiosecurity And Agriculture Through Workforce Development, Kellie Johnson, Tiffany Drape, Joseph Oakes, Joseph Simpson, Ann Brown, Donna M. Westfall-Rudd, Susan Duncan

Journal of Cybersecurity Education, Research and Practice

Cyberbiosecurity and workforce development in agriculture and the life sciences (ALS) is a growing area of need in the curriculum in higher education. Students that pursue majors related to ALS often do not include training in cyber-related concepts or expose the ‘hidden curriculum’ of seeking internships and jobs. Exposing students through workforce development training and hands-on engagement with industry professionals can provide learning opportunities to bridge the two and is an area of growth and demand as the workforce evolves. The objectives of this work were 1) to learn key concepts in cybersecurity, including data security, visualization, and analysis, to …


Integrating Certifications Into The Cybersecurity College Curriculum: The Efficacy Of Education With Certifications To Increase The Cybersecurity Workforce, Binh Tran, Karen C. Benson, Lorraine Jonassen Oct 2023

Integrating Certifications Into The Cybersecurity College Curriculum: The Efficacy Of Education With Certifications To Increase The Cybersecurity Workforce, Binh Tran, Karen C. Benson, Lorraine Jonassen

Journal of Cybersecurity Education, Research and Practice

One only needs to listen to the news reports to recognize that the gap between securing the enterprise and cybersecurity threats, breaches, and vulnerabilities appears to be widening at an alarming rate. An un-tapped resource to combat these attacks lies in the students of the secondary educational system. Necessary in the cybersecurity education is a 3-tiered approach to quickly escalate the student into a workplace-ready graduate. The analogy used is a three-legged-stool, where curriculum content, hands-on skills, and certifications are equal instruments in the edification of the cybersecurity student. This paper endeavors to delve into the 3rd leg of …


Like Treating The Symptom Rather Than The Cause - The Omission Of Courses Over Terrorism In Nsa Designated Institutions, Ida L. Oesteraas Oct 2023

Like Treating The Symptom Rather Than The Cause - The Omission Of Courses Over Terrorism In Nsa Designated Institutions, Ida L. Oesteraas

Journal of Cybersecurity Education, Research and Practice

The National Security Agency (NSA) awards Center of Academic Excellence (CAE) designations to institutions that commit to producing cybersecurity professionals who will work in careers that reduce vulnerabilities in our national infrastructure. A review of the curricula in the 327 institutions and their degree programs reveal that only two programs offer a required course about terrorism. Given the fluid nature of terrorism and its threat to national infrastructure, the omission is concerning. It is recommended that NSA-certified cybersecurity programs begin implementing educational content that aim to teach about this emerging crime and justice issue. One suggestion is to embrace the …


Cybersecurity Challenges And Awareness Of The Multi-Generational Learners In Nepal, Raj Kumar Dhungana, Lina Gurung Dr, Hem Poudyal Oct 2023

Cybersecurity Challenges And Awareness Of The Multi-Generational Learners In Nepal, Raj Kumar Dhungana, Lina Gurung Dr, Hem Poudyal

Journal of Cybersecurity Education, Research and Practice

Increased exposure to technologies has lately emerged as one of the everyday realities of digital natives, especially K-12 students, and teachers, the digital immigrants. Protection from cybersecurity risks in digital learning spaces is a human right, but students are increasingly exposed to high-risk cyberspace without time to cope with cybersecurity risks. This study, using a survey (N-891 students and 157 teachers) and in-depth interviews (27 students and 14 teachers), described the students' cybersecurity-related experiences and challenges in Nepal. This study revealed that the school’s cybersecurity support system is poor and teachers has very low awareness and competencies to protect students …


A Mixed-Method Study Exploring Cyber Ranges And Educator Motivation, Cheryl Beauchamp, Holly M. Matusovich Oct 2023

A Mixed-Method Study Exploring Cyber Ranges And Educator Motivation, Cheryl Beauchamp, Holly M. Matusovich

Journal of Cybersecurity Education, Research and Practice

A growing number of academic institutions have invested resources to integrate cyber ranges for applying and developing cybersecurity-related knowledge and skills. Cyber range developers and administrators provided much of what is known about cyber range resources and possible educational applications; however, the educator provides valuable understanding of the cyber range resources they use, how they use them, what they value, and what they do not value. This study provides the cyber range user perspective of cyber ranges in cybersecurity education by describing how K-12 educators are motivated using cyber ranges. Using mixed methods, this study explored educator motivation associated with …


Textbook Tasks For Social Change: Instantiation Of Development Debates And Interposition Of Pedagogical Interventions In Media Literacy Education, John N. Ponsaran Oct 2023

Textbook Tasks For Social Change: Instantiation Of Development Debates And Interposition Of Pedagogical Interventions In Media Literacy Education, John N. Ponsaran

Journal of Sustainable Social Change

As materialization of their discursive stance as instructional communicators and media producers, textbook authors instantiate various development debates as well as interpose a wide range of pedagogical interventions for critical reflection and adoption by learners. This qualitative study sought to situate these development debates and the counterpart pedagogical interventions within the context of textbook task design as an application and embodiment of social justice communication. The development debates serve as the proposed contexts for media text analyses, reflective exercises, case studies, and media production, among others. Correspondingly, the interposition of interventions allows students to make sense of and act upon …


Civilian Oversight Of Police Through The Lens Of Polarities Of Democracy, Joseph A. Mcmillan, Jacqueline D. Smith, William J. Benet Oct 2023

Civilian Oversight Of Police Through The Lens Of Polarities Of Democracy, Joseph A. Mcmillan, Jacqueline D. Smith, William J. Benet

Journal of Sustainable Social Change

Following the murder of George Floyd, the U.S. Congress called upon the National Organization for Black Law Enforcement Executives (NOBLE) to play a role in the reimagining of policing in America, including a transformation of policing from a warrior to a guardian mentality. In turn, NOBLE partnered with the Institute for Polarities of Democracy (the Institute) to conduct an analysis of the 21st Century Policing Report (the Report), which focused on addressing a myriad of issues that challenged the relationship between the police and communities. The Report determined there were six “pillars” necessary for effective policing in America, including (1) …


Digital Transformation Of Smes Through Social Media, Georgette Eugenia Otoo, Raphael Amponsah, Eric Afful-Dadzie, Emmanuel Awuni Kolog Sep 2023

Digital Transformation Of Smes Through Social Media, Georgette Eugenia Otoo, Raphael Amponsah, Eric Afful-Dadzie, Emmanuel Awuni Kolog

African Conference on Information Systems and Technology

This research paper explores the strategic integration of social media platforms by Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) in Low- and Middle-Income Countries (LMICs) beyond marketing. Drawing from Resource-Based View and Dynamic Capabilities theories, the study investigates how social media enhances management, coordination, and control functions. Through five diverse case studies from Ghana, findings reveal SMEs’ innovative use of platforms like Instagram, WhatsApp, Slack, and Trello. These platforms foster efficient internal communication, customer engagement, project management, and talent acquisition. Challenges such as technical expertise and dynamic digital landscapes are identified.


Internet Of Things Affordance For Open Educational Resources In A Comprehensive Open Distance E-Learning, Lancelord Mncube Sep 2023

Internet Of Things Affordance For Open Educational Resources In A Comprehensive Open Distance E-Learning, Lancelord Mncube

African Conference on Information Systems and Technology

The Internet of Things (IoT) space has dual dimensions of affordance to support open educational resources (OER). The duality of affordance has little or not been well articulated in relation to OER, particularly in a Comprehensive open distance e-learning (CODEL) institution. Such an institution is a mega open distance in South Africa and beyond the continent to accommodate students globally and rely on information and communication technology (ICT) in the provision of tuition. In the CODEL institution, there is a recognizable shift as the institution encourages the appropriation of OER and phasing out the prescription of the prescribed textbooks. The …