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Research Collection School Of Accountancy

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Full-Text Articles in Business

The Economic Value Of Blockchain Applications: Early Evidence From Asset-Backed Securities, Xia Chen, Qiang Cheng, Ting Luo Jan 2024

The Economic Value Of Blockchain Applications: Early Evidence From Asset-Backed Securities, Xia Chen, Qiang Cheng, Ting Luo

Research Collection School Of Accountancy

In this paper, we evaluate the economic value of a blockchain application. In the context of asset-backed securities (ABS) issuance in China, where some ABS are issued with blockchain technology and others are not, we find that the use of blockchain significantly reduces the coupon yield at issuance. Compared with other ABS, those issued using blockchain technology experience a decrease of 31.4 basis points in the yield spread, which corresponds to a relative decrease of 13%. We further document that the effect of blockchain is more pronounced for ABS deals rated by less reputable credit rating agencies and agencies that …


Using Team Rewards And Individual Assessment To Incentivize Collaboration In Team Projects, Prasart Jongjaroenkamol Dec 2023

Using Team Rewards And Individual Assessment To Incentivize Collaboration In Team Projects, Prasart Jongjaroenkamol

Research Collection School Of Accountancy

Team projects are commonly used in higher education across different disciplines to promote cooperation among students. However, achieving this objective can be challenging. To address this issue, educators have explored various strategies, such as implementing peer evaluation or having periodic consultations with teams. In this paper, I present a novel approach to team assessment that combines team rewards with individual assessment. In this assessment, each team member independently takes a quiz, and the team's score is determined by the average performance of its members. Consequently, the team reward becomes intricately tied to the individual learning outcomes of all team members. …


Public Communication Of Audit Risks And Related-Party Transactions: Evidence From China, Ole-Kristian Hope, Heng Yue, Qinlin Zhong Nov 2023

Public Communication Of Audit Risks And Related-Party Transactions: Evidence From China, Ole-Kristian Hope, Heng Yue, Qinlin Zhong

Research Collection School Of Accountancy

This paper examines whether and how firms' engagement in related-party transactions (RPTs) is shaped by public communication of audit risks as required by the expanded audit report. Using the phased regulatory changes in China and a difference-in-differences design with firm fixed effects and matching, we find that firms significantly reduce their RPTs after the adoption of expanded audit reports (EARs). To investigate potential mechanisms, we find that (1) investor scrutiny increases after the adoption of EARs, (2) the reduction of RPTs is more pronounced when EARs are more likely to attract investor attention, and (3) the reduction of RPTs is …


Sustainability Transformation: The Role Of Accountancy And Finance Professionals In The Singapore Manufacturing Sector, Jiwei Wang, Holly I. Yang, Liandong Zhang, Sanli Pinar Darendeli, Ying-Chi Huang Nov 2023

Sustainability Transformation: The Role Of Accountancy And Finance Professionals In The Singapore Manufacturing Sector, Jiwei Wang, Holly I. Yang, Liandong Zhang, Sanli Pinar Darendeli, Ying-Chi Huang

Research Collection School Of Accountancy

Sustainability is already reshaping the Singapore manufacturing sector. The majority of companies surveyed (70%) have started their sustainability transformation in one form or another, and many have initiated discussions. However, on the whole, only 37% of companies have implemented sustainability initiatives, and 21% have reported on sustainability. On the bright side, these percentages are slated to double within 1-3 years. The infusion of sustainability into the manufacturing sector has led to accountancy and finance professionals potentially playing a bigger role in their organisations, particularly in aligning the sustainability objectives with business strategies. The study notes that manufacturing companies are mostly …


"Just Beat It" Do Firms Reclassify Costs To Avoid The Base Erosion And Anti-Abuse Tax (Beat) Of The Tcja?, Stacie O. Laplante, Christina M. Lewellen, Daniel P. Pynch, Daniel M. P. Samuel Nov 2023

"Just Beat It" Do Firms Reclassify Costs To Avoid The Base Erosion And Anti-Abuse Tax (Beat) Of The Tcja?, Stacie O. Laplante, Christina M. Lewellen, Daniel P. Pynch, Daniel M. P. Samuel

Research Collection School Of Accountancy

This study examines whether multinational corporations (MNCs) reclassify related-party payments to avoid the new base erosion and anti-abuse tax (BEAT). The Tax Cuts & Jobs Act of 2017 included the BEAT to combat income shifting from the U.S. to foreign entities. An exclusion in the tax law provides MNCs an incentive to reclassify related-party payments as cost of goods sold. We use a triple-difference design that leverages the BEAT filing threshold of $500 million in revenue and the parent company’s location to document increases in the unconsolidated sales of foreign subsidiaries of MNCs subject to BEAT relative foreign subsidiaries of …


Informativeness Of Key Audit Matters: Evidence From China, Beng Wee Goh, Kiat Bee Jimmy Lee, Dan Li, Muzhi Wang Nov 2023

Informativeness Of Key Audit Matters: Evidence From China, Beng Wee Goh, Kiat Bee Jimmy Lee, Dan Li, Muzhi Wang

Research Collection School Of Accountancy

This study examines whether the key audit matters (KAMs) disclosed in expanded audit reports as a part of recent regulatory reforms are informative for investors in an emerging economy setting. Using the recent adoption of expanded audit reports for firms listed exclusively in Mainland China, we find robust evidence that the abnormal trading volume and earnings response coefficients (ERCs) are higher and that stock price synchronicity is lower during the postadoption than preadoption period. In additional tests, we find evidence that KAMs are more informative for non-state-owned enterprises (non-SOEs), smaller firms, and firms with a smaller analyst following. Finally, we …


Ceo Contractual Protection And Debt Contracting, Xia Chen, Qiang Cheng, Alvis K. Lo, Xin Wang Oct 2023

Ceo Contractual Protection And Debt Contracting, Xia Chen, Qiang Cheng, Alvis K. Lo, Xin Wang

Research Collection School Of Accountancy

Chief Executive Officer (CEO) contractual protection, in the forms of CEO employment agreements and CEO severance pay agreements, is prevalent among S&P 1500 firms. While prior research has examined the impact of these agreements on corporate decisions from shareholders’ perspective, there is little research on the impact from debt holders’ perspective. We find that, compared with other loans, loans issued by firms with CEO contractual protection on average contain more performance covenants and performance-pricing provisions. This effect increases with CEOs’ risk-taking incentives and opportunities, but it decreases with CEOs’ preference for and opportunity of enjoying a quiet life. Furthermore, for …


Investor Reaction To Spacs' Voluntary Disclosures, Vincent Castellani, Karl A. Muller, K.J. Park Sep 2023

Investor Reaction To Spacs' Voluntary Disclosures, Vincent Castellani, Karl A. Muller, K.J. Park

Research Collection School Of Accountancy

SPACs are formed to combine with and provide a private firm public trading status and a capital infusion. Firms that enter the public market through a SPAC combination are believed to possess greater voluntary disclosure discretion than traditional IPOs as they obtain their public trading status through a merger. Consistent with regulators’ concerns, recent research finds that SPACs use this discretion opportunistically by issuing optimistic guidance. This study examines how investors respond to these disclosures. We find that optimistic projections increase retail purchasing, which is higher than that of institutional purchasing. Additionally, we find that investors partially see through the …


Esg Reporting Divergence, Qiang Cheng, Yun Lou, Mengjie Yang Sep 2023

Esg Reporting Divergence, Qiang Cheng, Yun Lou, Mengjie Yang

Research Collection School Of Accountancy

In this paper, we provide the first large-sample empirical analysis of the consequences of ESG reporting divergence among U.S. firms. We construct and validate an ESG reporting divergence measure based on the dissimilarities in ESG reporting across firms. Validation tests confirm that it is lower for firm-pairs using the same ESG reporting framework, with similar size, and with similar ESG performance than for other firm-pairs. We find that ESG reporting divergence is positively associated with ESG rating disagreement and weakens the positive association between ESG ratings and ESG fund allocation. These results indicate that ESG reporting divergence reduces the usefulness …


Auditor Materiality Threshold And Audit Quality: Evidence From The Revised Isa 700 In The United Kingdom, Beng Wee Goh, Kiat Bee Jimmy Lee, Dan Li, Na Li, Muzhi Wang Sep 2023

Auditor Materiality Threshold And Audit Quality: Evidence From The Revised Isa 700 In The United Kingdom, Beng Wee Goh, Kiat Bee Jimmy Lee, Dan Li, Na Li, Muzhi Wang

Research Collection School Of Accountancy

Using a broad sample of U.K. firms that are required to disclose auditor materiality thresholds under the International Standards on Auditing (U.K. and Ireland) 700, we examine whether the auditor materiality threshold is associated with audit quality. We document that a lower materiality threshold is associated with higher audit quality, as measured by lower absolute discretionary accruals, higher accruals quality, and a lower propensity to just meet or beat analysts’ earnings expectations. We also find some evidence that the negative association between the materiality threshold and audit quality is attenuated when the audit committee is more effective and when the …


Big Data Analytics And Management Forecasting Behavior, Beng Wee Goh, Na Li, Tharindra Ranasinghe Sep 2023

Big Data Analytics And Management Forecasting Behavior, Beng Wee Goh, Na Li, Tharindra Ranasinghe

Research Collection School Of Accountancy

This paper investigates whether the use of Big Data analytics by firms has a spillover effect on management forecasting behavior. Insights provided by Big Data could potentially improve firms’ ability to forecast earnings (supply channel) and investor demand for earnings information is likely higher for firms engaging in data analytics (demand channel). Using a text-based measure of firms’ commitments to and usage of Big Data analytics, we find that Big Data analytics usage is positively associated with the propensity to issue management earnings forecasts. Consistent with the “supply channel” explanation, we find that Big Data analytics usage is positively associated …


Institutions And Corporate Tax Evasion: A Review Of The Literature And A Methodological Exploration, Kiridaran Kanagaretnam, Kiat Bee Jimmy Lee, Chee Yeow Lim, Gerald J. Lobo Sep 2023

Institutions And Corporate Tax Evasion: A Review Of The Literature And A Methodological Exploration, Kiridaran Kanagaretnam, Kiat Bee Jimmy Lee, Chee Yeow Lim, Gerald J. Lobo

Research Collection School Of Accountancy

We first review the recent research published in JIAR on the influence of international institutions on accounting practices and follow it with a discussion of the literature studying the influence of institutions on tax avoidance and tax evasion. We then explore a new methodological approach that draws on the theory of institutional hierarchy proposed by Williamson (2000) and examine the relative importance of three broad types of institutions (informal, formal and media) in curtailing perceived tax evasion activities. We contribute to the international accounting literature by summarizing the recent research that addresses tax avoidance and tax evasion and providing preliminary …


When Do Corporate Good Deeds Become A Burden? The Role Of Corporate Social Responsibility Following Negative Events, Changhyun Kim, Yoonseok Zang, Heli Wang, Kate Niu Aug 2023

When Do Corporate Good Deeds Become A Burden? The Role Of Corporate Social Responsibility Following Negative Events, Changhyun Kim, Yoonseok Zang, Heli Wang, Kate Niu

Research Collection School Of Accountancy

This study investigates the differential roles of corporate social responsibility (CSR) in the context of negative events. By categorizing CSR and negative events by their respective stakeholder groups, primary and secondary stakeholders, we theorize and test differential impacts of CSR and their interaction effects with different types of negative events. We propose that, while CSR toward secondary stakeholders offers the monotonous risk-tempering effect, CSR toward primary stakeholders has heterogeneous effects when facing negative events. Specifically, the effect of CSR toward primary stakeholders varies with the type of negative events. When negative events are associated with secondary stakeholders in the domain …


The Implications Of Firms' Derivative Usage On The Frequency And Usefulness Of Management Earnings Forecasts, John L. Campbell, Sean Shun Cao, Hye Sun Chang, Raluca Chiorean Jul 2023

The Implications Of Firms' Derivative Usage On The Frequency And Usefulness Of Management Earnings Forecasts, John L. Campbell, Sean Shun Cao, Hye Sun Chang, Raluca Chiorean

Research Collection School Of Accountancy

We investigate how firms' use of derivatives impacts voluntary disclosure and offer four main findings. First, we find that when firms begin using derivative instruments, they increase the frequency of management earnings forecasts. Second, using path analysis, we find a direct link between derivative usage and forecast frequency, as well as an indirect link through reduced earnings volatility. Third, we find that CEOs with more pronounced career concerns increase forecast frequency only when derivatives make earnings easier to forecast and find no evidence that investor demand drives the decision to provide a forecast. These results suggest that the primary mechanism …


Measuring The Learning Effectiveness Of Two Courses In A Program In Accounting Data And Analytics, Clarence Goh, Duan Ning, Magdeleine Lew, Gary Pan, Poh Sun Seow Jun 2023

Measuring The Learning Effectiveness Of Two Courses In A Program In Accounting Data And Analytics, Clarence Goh, Duan Ning, Magdeleine Lew, Gary Pan, Poh Sun Seow

Research Collection School Of Accountancy

Driven by rapid technological innovation, information technology (IT) is expected to significantly alter the way that accountants work. However, both accounting researchers and practitioners have observed a shortage of accounting professionals who currently possess the relevant technology skillsets to exploit technological advances. In response, the School of Accountancy of a Singapore-based university launched a second major program in Accounting Data and Analytics in 2018. In this study, we examine the learning effectiveness of two courses – Business Data Management and Data Modelling & Visualization – offered as part of the program. Overall, our results suggest that the courses are effective …


Intrafirm Knowledge Sharing In The Investment Research Industry, Artur Hugon, An-Ping Lin, Stanimir Markov Jun 2023

Intrafirm Knowledge Sharing In The Investment Research Industry, Artur Hugon, An-Ping Lin, Stanimir Markov

Research Collection School Of Accountancy

We study interdepartment knowledge sharing in an investment research setting where the benefits are potentially significant for the brokerage and the capital market, but so are the frictions impeding it. Using hand-collected data on equity analyst access to in-house debt research expertise, we find significant benefits to equity analysts in the form of improved ability to forecast cash flows and to anticipate credit rating downgrades. Moreover, we find evidence that access to management and research expertise underlie in-house debt analysts' capacity to generate information beneficial to equity analysts. Finally, these benefits exist only in the presence of a collaborative brokerage …


Audit Adjustments And The Discontinuity In Earnings Distribution Around Zero, Chu Yeong Lim, Themin Suwardy, Tracey Chunqi Zhang Jun 2023

Audit Adjustments And The Discontinuity In Earnings Distribution Around Zero, Chu Yeong Lim, Themin Suwardy, Tracey Chunqi Zhang

Research Collection School Of Accountancy

Accounting researchers have documented that a discontinuity exists in earnings distribution around zero. However, there is considerable debate among researchers whether the earnings discontinuity around zero is caused by earnings management. We aim to shed light on the earnings discontinuity debate by examining the impact of audit adjustments on the distribution of earnings using a unique dataset from Singapore containing both recorded and waived adjustments. We find that audit adjustments do not reduce the discontinuity of earnings distribution around zero. This affirms that the results of Lennox et. al (2016) based on pre-tax earnings also apply to post-tax earnings and …


Does Social Capital Mitigate Managerial Self-Dealing? Evidence From Insider Trading, Kiat Bee Jimmy Lee, Jimmy Lee, Sang Hyun Park May 2023

Does Social Capital Mitigate Managerial Self-Dealing? Evidence From Insider Trading, Kiat Bee Jimmy Lee, Jimmy Lee, Sang Hyun Park

Research Collection School Of Accountancy

In this study, we examine whether the social capital surrounding the firm’s corporate headquarters mitigates managerial self-dealing in the form of opportunistic insider trading. We find strong evidence that the level of social capital in the region surrounding the firm’s headquarters is negatively and significantly associated with insider trading profitability. We also find that the negative association between social capital and insider trading profitability is more pronounced when governance is weaker and corporate opacity is higher, instances where insiders have greater opportunities to trade on their private information. Further analyses on the potential mechanisms suggest that the negative association is …


Do Firms Respond To Peer Disclosures? Evidence From Disclosures Of Clinical Trial Results, Vedran Capkun, Yun Lou, Clemens A. Otto, Yin Wang May 2023

Do Firms Respond To Peer Disclosures? Evidence From Disclosures Of Clinical Trial Results, Vedran Capkun, Yun Lou, Clemens A. Otto, Yin Wang

Research Collection School Of Accountancy

Using data on the registration of clinical trials and the disclosure of trial results, we examine how firms respond to peer disclosures. We find that firms are less likely to disclose their own trial results if the results of a larger number of closely related trials are disclosed by their peers. This relation is stronger if the firms face higher competition (as measured by the number of competing trials). It is weaker if the firms are further along in their research than the peers (as measured by the trials’ phase) and if the peers’ disclosures convey more negative news (as …


The Sec Revolving Door And Comment Letters, Michael Shen, Samuel T. Tan May 2023

The Sec Revolving Door And Comment Letters, Michael Shen, Samuel T. Tan

Research Collection School Of Accountancy

Government officials, advocacy groups, and the business press have raised concerns that former SEC employees may continue to influence the SEC after leaving the agency. Using hand-collected data on the characteristics of 1,384 lawyers who represented firms in responding to SEC comment letters between 2005 and 2016, we examine the impact of post-revolving SEC employees on the SEC comment letter process. Among other determinants, we find that older and larger firms with a history of litigation are more likely to hire former SEC lawyers over non-SEC lawyers. Relative to firms that involve only non-SEC lawyers, we find that firms that …


Flu Fallout: Information Production Constraints And Corporate Disclosure, Chen. Chen, Leonard Leye. Li, Louise Yi. Lu, Rencheng Wang May 2023

Flu Fallout: Information Production Constraints And Corporate Disclosure, Chen. Chen, Leonard Leye. Li, Louise Yi. Lu, Rencheng Wang

Research Collection School Of Accountancy

Using influenza epidemic data, we examine how constraints on corporate information production affect disclosure policies. We find that firms in areas with higher flu activity are less likely to issue short-run earnings forecasts and more likely to issue long-run earnings forecasts. These results are more pronounced when the information production process is more complex, when managers face a greater reputational loss for issuing low-quality short-run forecasts, and when firms’ costs of switching the forecast horizon are lower. Further analysis implies that the effect of flu activity on these forecast issuance decisions is not driven by firm performance or information uncertainty. …


Friends Can Help: The Effects Of Relationship In The Chinese Book-Building Process, Ting Luo, Wei Luo, Heng Yue, Lu Zhang May 2023

Friends Can Help: The Effects Of Relationship In The Chinese Book-Building Process, Ting Luo, Wei Luo, Heng Yue, Lu Zhang

Research Collection School Of Accountancy

Using detailed bidding information in Chinese IPO book-building process, we find that institutional investors who have a close relationship with the underwriter are more likely to participate in bidding and their bidding prices are higher, compared to other institutional investors. We also find that related institutional investors bid higher when the underwriter is more likely to need or receive their support. Further analysis suggests that related institutional investors gain some benefits for their support to the underwriter, including receiving more shares in profitable IPOs, better timing their exit from the IPO in the open market, and receiving more optimistic earnings …


The Effect Of Social Skills On Analyst Performance, Cong Cong Li, An-Ping Lin, Hai Lu Apr 2023

The Effect Of Social Skills On Analyst Performance, Cong Cong Li, An-Ping Lin, Hai Lu

Research Collection School Of Accountancy

Social skills are important but difficult to measure. So far, few empirical studies have examined the effect of social skills on the performance of professionals. Using the number of LinkedIn connections as a proxy for social skills, we investigate the effect of financial analysts' social skills on their performance. We use multiple ways to validate the measure of social skills and show that analysts with better social skills produce more accurate earnings forecasts and that their stock recommendations elicit stronger market reactions. Furthermore, these socially skilled analysts are more likely to be voted as All-Star Analysts. This study provides the …


Prosocial Ceos, Corporate Policies, And Firm Value, Mei Feng, Weili Ge, Zhejia Ling, Wei Ting Loh Mar 2023

Prosocial Ceos, Corporate Policies, And Firm Value, Mei Feng, Weili Ge, Zhejia Ling, Wei Ting Loh

Research Collection School Of Accountancy

This paper examines how chief executive officers' (CEOs') prosocial tendency influences corporate policies and firm value. We use individuals' involvement with charitable organizations as a proxy for prosocial tendency. We find that, compared to firms with non-prosocial CEOs, firms with prosocial CEOs have lower executive subordinate turnover, implement more employee-friendly policies, experience higher customer satisfaction, and engage in more socially responsible activities. We also find that firms with prosocial CEOs have higher value and lower risk, partly due to the corporate policies adopted by prosocial CEOs. These results are corroborated when we compare changes in corporate policies and firm value …


Accelerating Business Transformation In The Digital Age, Gary Pan, Shankararaman, Venky Mar 2023

Accelerating Business Transformation In The Digital Age, Gary Pan, Shankararaman, Venky

Research Collection School Of Accountancy

Business Transformation involves making fundamental changes in how business is conducted in order to help cope with shifts in market environment. This chapter focuses on the role played by digital technology in business transformation and the mindset shifts required to embark on a digital transformation journey. More relevantly, this chapter also highlights how data analytics is driving digital transformation.


Marijuana Liberalization And Public Finance: A Capital Market Perspective On The Passage Of Medical Use Laws, Stephanie F. Cheng, Gus De Franco, Pengkai Lin Feb 2023

Marijuana Liberalization And Public Finance: A Capital Market Perspective On The Passage Of Medical Use Laws, Stephanie F. Cheng, Gus De Franco, Pengkai Lin

Research Collection School Of Accountancy

We find that the staggered passage of state-level laws that legalize marijuana for medical use increases states' borrowing costs by 7–9 basis points. Consistent with economic theory on substance use suggesting that marijuana legalization increases local consumption of the drug (by expanding its availability and reducing its perceived risks), we predict and find that increased consumption represents an important mechanism that explains the higher state bond spreads. We also show that following such laws’ passage, states incur higher marijuana-consumption-related expenditures, including for police, corrections, and public welfare.


The Effect Of Pcaob Inspections On Corporate Innovation: Evidence From Deficiencies About The Valuation Of Intangibles, Jungbae Kim Jan 2023

The Effect Of Pcaob Inspections On Corporate Innovation: Evidence From Deficiencies About The Valuation Of Intangibles, Jungbae Kim

Research Collection School Of Accountancy

I examine the economic consequences on corporate innovation when PCAOB inspections cite auditors for insufficient procedures in auditing the valuation of intangibles. I find that the clients of deficient auditors recognize larger and timelier impairments of intangibles, suggesting that affected auditors increase scrutiny about the valuation of intangibles in subsequent audits. This effect obtains only for valuation-related deficiencies and is salient for the clients of auditors who receive such deficiencies repeatedly. I also document real effects that the clients of deficient auditors exhibit less use of external mergers and acquisitions—which yield recognizable intangibles whose valuation is subject to increased auditor …


Postmaterialism And Corporate Tax Avoidance, Jiwei Wang, Jiwei Wang, Kangtao Ye Jan 2023

Postmaterialism And Corporate Tax Avoidance, Jiwei Wang, Jiwei Wang, Kangtao Ye

Research Collection School Of Accountancy

Using a proprietary dataset of China tax audits, we found that firms owned by investors from countries with higher postmaterialism values were less likely to engage in tax-avoidance behavior in China. In addition, we found some evidence that the negative association between postmaterialism and tax avoidance is more pronounced when tax enforcement is stronger, indicating that national culture and formal institutions act as complements. To check the external validity of our main results, we further used a cross-country sample from 21 countries over 22 years. The evidence from the cross-country sample was consistent with the findings obtained from the China …


Information Sharing Between Mutual Funds And Auditors, Ole‐Kristian Hope, Pingui Rao, Yanping Xu, Heng Yue Jan 2023

Information Sharing Between Mutual Funds And Auditors, Ole‐Kristian Hope, Pingui Rao, Yanping Xu, Heng Yue

Research Collection School Of Accountancy

This paper examines whether there is information sharing between mutual funds and their auditors about the auditors’ other listed firm clients. Using data from the Chinese market, we find that mutual funds earn higher profits from trading in firms that share the same auditors. The effects are more pronounced when firms have a more opaque information environment and when the audit partners for the fund and the partners for the listed firm share school ties. The evidence is consistent with information flowing from auditors to mutual funds, providing mutual funds with an information advantage in firms that share the same …


Trust And Contracting: Evidence From Church Sex Scandals, Gilles Hilary, Sterling Huang Jan 2023

Trust And Contracting: Evidence From Church Sex Scandals, Gilles Hilary, Sterling Huang

Research Collection School Of Accountancy

Firms located in communities in which people are, on average, more trusting enjoy some benefits in terms of the power of CEO contracts. We present two pieces of empirical evidence to support this claim: (1) higher average trust in a county is associated with “flatter” executive contracts and (2) when an exogenous shock occurs (such as a scandal involving an important social institution), both trust and contracting move in similar directions. We obtain the first result in a panel specification and the second in a “difference-in-difference” specification that uses the revelation of sex scandals involving the Catholic Church across different …