Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

African History Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Discipline
Institution
Keyword
Publication Year
Publication
Publication Type
File Type

Articles 1 - 30 of 1344

Full-Text Articles in African History

From Patrons To Landlords: The Transformation Of Class Relations In Zanzibar Through Wakf Reform, Isabel Spafford May 2022

From Patrons To Landlords: The Transformation Of Class Relations In Zanzibar Through Wakf Reform, Isabel Spafford

Honors Theses

This study examines the role of wakf reforms in reshaping class relationships in Zanzibar during the British protectorate. Prior to the establishment of the British protectorate in Zanzibar, wakf dedications maintained patron-client relationships between the landowning class and poor clients that were established during the time of slavery but continued after abolition. I argue that wakf dedications were essential to continuing these relationships, and therefore British wakf reforms were necessary to achieve British colonial goals of dissolving patron-client relationships and establishing a capitalist system based on wage labor and ground rent. I analyze the relationship of the British colonial class ...


Escaped And Captured Slave Datasets From Newspapers In Jamaica, 1718-1795, Anthony Wood, Billy G. Smith Jul 2021

Escaped And Captured Slave Datasets From Newspapers In Jamaica, 1718-1795, Anthony Wood, Billy G. Smith

The Magazine of Early American Datasets (MEAD)

We created two datasets about fugitives and captives in eighteenth-century Jamaica, one of the most violent systems of racial bondage in the Atlantic World. To produce the first dataset as an Excel file, we organized and recorded information contained in hundreds of newspaper advertisements offering rewards for the return of escaped slaves in Jamaica between 1718 and 1795. While there are some gaps in the records because of missing newspapers, there are still a considerable number of advertisements included. One feature of the ads is that many identify the African ethnicity of runaway and captured slaves. The second dataset also ...


Singing And Sensing The Unknown: An Embodied History Of Hindu Practice In Ghana, Shobana Shankar Jun 2021

Singing And Sensing The Unknown: An Embodied History Of Hindu Practice In Ghana, Shobana Shankar

Yale Journal of Music & Religion

Hinduism fits well into the “sound-filled” West African religious soundscape, which is a scene of competition and conflict. This article explores the soundscape of devotional singing, mantras, and prayers as a central part of the embodiment and embedment of Hinduism among Africans in Ghana, where the Indian diaspora has been relatively small and the indigenous movement of Hinduism entirely through African initiative. Using ethnographic and written sources to examine the Hindu Monastery of Africa, founded by the Ghanaian monk Swami Ghanananda in 1975, I examine how the oral and aural popular devotions crafted by the swami have shifted attention away ...


Understanding The Importance Of Statues: Symbols Of Racism In Modern Society, Theresa Vanwormer Jun 2021

Understanding The Importance Of Statues: Symbols Of Racism In Modern Society, Theresa Vanwormer

The Review: A Journal of Undergraduate Student Research

Whether it is a monument, statue, plaque, or mural, the values and ideologies that are memorialized on public land reflect what reality the people of a country are choosing to remember. The United States’ political and racial history has led to the creation of controversial memorials, including memorials that honor the Confederacy and its leaders, influencing moral concepts based in racism, violence, and oppression. The continued veneration of these symbols on public land sends the message to the Black community that their oppressors are honored as heroes and that the society they live in still allows for their abuse. Annette-Gordon ...


Challenges Of Repatriation: Asante Artifacts At The American Museum Of Natural History, Abdul-Alim Farook Jun 2021

Challenges Of Repatriation: Asante Artifacts At The American Museum Of Natural History, Abdul-Alim Farook

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Inspired by calls for the repatriation of famous artifacts like the Benin Bronzes and the Elgin Marbles, for this capstone project, I have analyzed and catalogued 250 sampled Asante artifacts at the American Museum of Natural History (AMNH). Through this analysis, I discuss the many ways museums in North America acquired their collections. By doing so, I explore the difficulties that arise in debates surrounding repatriation due to the manner in which these artifacts were acquired. I argue that due to the many different types of donors of the Asante artifacts to the American Museum of Natural History, the Asante ...


The Role Of Nations-State In Protecting And Supporting Internally Displaced Persons, Daisy Byers May 2021

The Role Of Nations-State In Protecting And Supporting Internally Displaced Persons, Daisy Byers

Master's Theses

The rising increase of Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs) has become a global problem. There are over 40 million internally displaced people globally, and 15.9 million are displaced in Africa. These displacements come into place due to war/conflict, corruption, massive human rights violations, natural disasters, urban renewal projects (at the hands of powerful nations such as America, China, France, UK, etc.), and large-scale development projects. According to UNHCR, refugees are people who have international cross-border. In contrast, internally displaced persons must stay within their own country and stay under the protection of their government, even if the government is ...


Mobilize For Franchise: The Quest For African American Women’S Suffrage With The Creation Of African American Organizations From The 1910s To The 19th Amendment, Christina Kleman Apr 2021

Mobilize For Franchise: The Quest For African American Women’S Suffrage With The Creation Of African American Organizations From The 1910s To The 19th Amendment, Christina Kleman

Senior Scholars Day

The presentation is about the mobilization of African American women during the Women's suffrage movement and how they mobilized their community to seek the right to vote despite the racially motivated obstacles against them.


For [Redacted], Lalini Shanela Ranaraja Apr 2021

For [Redacted], Lalini Shanela Ranaraja

Vázquez-Valarezo Poetry Award

This poem was written following the attempts of a close friend and myself to create awareness for the ongoing genocide in Tigray, Ethiopia in particular, and in reaction to activism in the age of social media in general. The digital age and related phenomena, such as hashtag activism and cancel culture, has enabled certain social justice movements to gain rapid traction while other equally worthy movements struggle to find a foothold. Simultaneously, standards of accountability and ethics continue to decline among global news media, with non-Western countries such as Ethiopia and my own home country of Sri Lanka bearing the ...


Afn 121 Yoruba Tradition And Culture, Remi Alapo Apr 2021

Afn 121 Yoruba Tradition And Culture, Remi Alapo

Open Educational Resources

A class presentation as part of the discussion on West Africa about the instructor’s Yoruba Heritage, Research, Tradition and Culture in the AFN 121 course: History of African Civilizations on April 20, 2021.


Les Esprits Vodou, L’Oncle Sam, Et Le Crucifix : Les Relations Endommagées Entre Le Monde Occidental Et Haïti Dans Bain De Lune, Catherine S. Freeman Apr 2021

Les Esprits Vodou, L’Oncle Sam, Et Le Crucifix : Les Relations Endommagées Entre Le Monde Occidental Et Haïti Dans Bain De Lune, Catherine S. Freeman

Senior Theses and Projects

In her novel Bain de Lune, Haitian writer Yanick Lahens opens the doors of her native country to a Western readership that may be unfamiliar with its culture and history, in part because it has been mistreated by Western powers ever since gaining its independence in 1804. Readers are transported to the heart of a culture rich in Haitian Vodou traditions through the interwoven stories of the villagers of Anse Bleue, who struggle to survive the political instability of their country. Vodou is foregrounded through the narrative of the spirit of Cétoute, a young woman who is found dead on ...


الأمن الروحي نموذج للتعاون جنوب جنوب بين المملكة المغربية ودول أفريقيا جنوب الصحراء, عبد الله استيتو Mar 2021

الأمن الروحي نموذج للتعاون جنوب جنوب بين المملكة المغربية ودول أفريقيا جنوب الصحراء, عبد الله استيتو

Dirassat

Title : Spiritual security is a model for south-south cooperation between the Kingdom of Morocco and sub-Saharan Africa

Spiritual security is one of the most defining features of the south-south cooperation between the kingdom of Morocco and sub-Saharan African countries. Many social and religious factors. This policy of South-souoth cooperation has many economic advantages for the kingdom of Morocco. It strengthens win-win partnership between the kingdom of Morooco and many sub-sahran African countries to eradicate religious extremism and guarding spiritual equilibrium in the face of the sprawling Shiite aspiration and Evangelical missionaries.


Cameroon's Biya Is Africa's Oldest President: Assessing His 38 Years In Power, Julius A. Amin Mar 2021

Cameroon's Biya Is Africa's Oldest President: Assessing His 38 Years In Power, Julius A. Amin

History Faculty Publications

Cameroon’s President Paul Biya celebrated his 88th birthday recently, making him the oldest president in Africa. He has been in power for 38 years. Birthday celebrations held across the country were met with protest by the opposition, demanding that he step down. So, how has he acquitted himself in office, and what has been his legacy for Cameroon?


Hagar And Potiphar’S Wife: A Representation Of Egypt In Judaism And Islam, Nardine Attia Feb 2021

Hagar And Potiphar’S Wife: A Representation Of Egypt In Judaism And Islam, Nardine Attia

Capstone and Graduation Projects

As a nation and land, modern Egypt has gradually been depicted as a female. Considering Egypt’s prominence in Judaism and Islam, from a close reading of Jewish and Islamic texts pertaining to two Egyptian women—Hagar and Potiphar’s wife— various similarities could be noted between these female figures and Egypt as portrayed in the two Abrahamic religions. While Potiphar’s wife seems to be more representative of Egypt in Judaism and Islam, the different portrayal of both women across religious texts provides each with a space to reflect different aspects defining Egypt in each religion.


The Importance Of Morocco In The Spanish Civil War, Jarod E. Ramirez Feb 2021

The Importance Of Morocco In The Spanish Civil War, Jarod E. Ramirez

Swarthmore Undergraduate History Journal

This paper addresses the pivotal yet forgotten role that Morocco played in the Spanish Civil War. Other histories and analyses of the Civil War limit discussion to the Spanish side of the conflict without recognizing the colonialist holdings that Spain had and the ways that those lands and people impacted the war. This leads to an incomplete history that denies the Civil War its full historical context and the foundational context for the Nationalist side of the conflict. This paper analyzes the war as well as the ideological creations behind Spanish Fascism and the ways in which Morocco was tied ...


State Building In Post Conflict Rwanda: Popular Participation Of Citizen In Local Conflict Mitigation, Innocent Ndahiriwe Feb 2021

State Building In Post Conflict Rwanda: Popular Participation Of Citizen In Local Conflict Mitigation, Innocent Ndahiriwe

Journal of African Conflicts and Peace Studies

When studying local state building this article addresses the questions how does state led conflict mitigation in post conflict Rwanda work? How is it experienced by the citizens in terms of participation, accountability and local state legitimacy? Theoretically, the study engages with literature on state-building, state society relations and local conflict mitigation. The study’s findings have indicated that the citizens’ contribution to local state-building was still modest due to low motivation among the citizens involved in the conflict mitigation process due to insufficient resources and infrastructure in the conflict mitigation process, despite the fact that the state has granted ...


The Impact Of State Violence On Women During The 22 Years Of Dictatorship In The Gambia, Isatou Bittaye-Jobe Feb 2021

The Impact Of State Violence On Women During The 22 Years Of Dictatorship In The Gambia, Isatou Bittaye-Jobe

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

This thesis investigates the gendered dynamics of dictatorship in The Gambia by exploring the impact of state sanctioned violence on women during former President Yahya Jammeh’s twenty-two years of tyranny in the country. During the two-decade long brutal reign under Jammeh, Gambians from all walks of lives faced gross human rights violations and abuses that inflicted collective national trauma on the population. Therefore, this project examines how Jammeh’s tyrannical rule affected women’s rights, health, and wellbeing. Using a content analysis approach coupled with semi-structured interviews with victims and survivors, I argue that although the dictatorship affected all ...


Us, Abundantly: From Africa To The Americas, Karisma Jay Jan 2021

Us, Abundantly: From Africa To The Americas, Karisma Jay

School of Arts & Sciences Theses

"Us, AbunDantly," a Live theatrical dance performance and film, delves into the African Diaspora and its influences. An artistic and academic project built upon the amplification of Black excellence and Black pride, this paper contextualizes a work within the oral histories and contemporary dance studies of a powerfully ancestral community.


President Paul Biya And Cameroon’S Anglophone Crisis: A Catalogue Of Miscalculations, Julius A. Amin Jan 2021

President Paul Biya And Cameroon’S Anglophone Crisis: A Catalogue Of Miscalculations, Julius A. Amin

History Faculty Publications

The historical literature on Cameroon’s Anglophone Crisis traces its origin to the failure to implement the Foumban Constitutional Agreement. The current study adds a new perspective: Based on extensive field work in Cameroon and a variety of primary and secondary sources, this paper argues that Cameroon’s Anglophone Crisis, which began in October 2016, degenerated into violence because of a catalogue of miscalculations made by President Paul Biya’s regime. It also argues that the crisis has had a devastating impact on the way of life in the Anglophone region. This paper concludes with recommendations on what needs to ...


Oral Interview: Contextualizing The Women's Rights Movement In Tunisia Through Family History, Walid Zarrad Jan 2021

Oral Interview: Contextualizing The Women's Rights Movement In Tunisia Through Family History, Walid Zarrad

Papers, Posters, and Presentations

In their path towards emancipation and equal rights, Tunisian women have gone through a number of phases that seem to be directly linked to legal changes and cultural factors. In fact, the Code of Personal Status (CPS) of 1956 seems to be a milestone in the women’s movement, and its following amendments continued on this path. However, it is a lot more complex than that. A piece of legislation officially passing is not a simple determinant of the state of Women’s Rights in a country.

Through Dorra Mahfoudh Draoui’s “Report on Gender and Marriage in Tunisian Society ...


#Aminext: The Link Between European Colonization And Gender-Based Violence In Contemporary South Africa, Jenna Meredith Pagel Jan 2021

#Aminext: The Link Between European Colonization And Gender-Based Violence In Contemporary South Africa, Jenna Meredith Pagel

Capstone Showcase

Alarmingly, the female murder rate in South Africa is five times the global average (BBC News 2019). According to data from 2017 and 2018, a woman is murdered every four hours in South Africa (Wilkinson 2019). More than 30 women were killed by their spouses in August 2019, and at least 137 sexual offenses are committed per day in South Africa (Francke 2019).

For this thesis, and in order to understand why South Africa has some of the highest rates of violence against women in the world, I consult a number of scholars who conclude that the overall issue of ...


African American History In Relation To Covid-19 And Other Health Disparities, Deborah Asaolu Jan 2021

African American History In Relation To Covid-19 And Other Health Disparities, Deborah Asaolu

Creative Components

The COVID-19 pandemic has largely affected us as a society, even more so individuals of certain demographic groups. Several factors have been found to contribute to one’s susceptibility for the SARs-CoV-2 virus, including but not limited to age, comorbidities, and occupation. The data also shows that in addition to older individuals, COVID-19 has hit minority communities the hardest, most notably African Americans. The reasons (and solutions) for this are complex and have strong racial and historical components. This paper discusses the intersectionality of African American history with the COVID-19 and other health disparities we see today.


Sweetened Blood, Sweat And Tears, Nathan Celestine Jan 2021

Sweetened Blood, Sweat And Tears, Nathan Celestine

Theses, Dissertations, and Capstone Projects

Of the transatlantic diffusion of culture, there is no better example than what developed out of Caribbean enslavement. The loss of African identity among slaves with a common, methodically destroyed ancestry, along with the diversity inherent to the different groups of Africans and Europeans and their respective cultural elements and identities resulted in a complex homogeny of culture, race, nationality, and socioeconomic status that has continued its development since the introduction of slaves to West Indian soil. It was this same soil that would cause the demand for slave labor to explode throughout European-controlled Caribbean islands, from the addition of ...


Cannot Afford To Publicly Surrender: The Public's Influence On Ronald Reagan's Strategic Relationship With South Africa, Jessica P. Forsee Jan 2021

Cannot Afford To Publicly Surrender: The Public's Influence On Ronald Reagan's Strategic Relationship With South Africa, Jessica P. Forsee

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Reagan’s administration used the policy of constructive engagement to bring gradual reform to the apartheid system and build peace in the southern African region. The coordination of anti-apartheid activist organizations and members advocating for harsher economic pressure on South Africa successfully raised US public awareness and shifted public opinion against constructive engagement’s gradualist policies. As a result, leading Reagan staffers like Assistant Secretary of State for African Affairs Chester Crocker recalibrated constructive engagement’s focus to quicken regional peacebuilding maintain stability and control of US foreign policy in the public eye. This thesis analyzes the early influences on ...


Failure To Protect?: Applying The Drri-2 Scales To Rwanda And Srebrenica, Elizabeth Mason Dec 2020

Failure To Protect?: Applying The Drri-2 Scales To Rwanda And Srebrenica, Elizabeth Mason

Genocide Studies and Prevention: An International Journal

This article critically reanalyses the action, or lack of action, taken by UN peacekeepers in Rwanda and Srebrenica in the 1990's. The lack of action of UN peacekeepers in Rwanda and Bosnia has long been criticised as a conscious decision made by peacekeepers to not act in defence of those being targeted but instead to act as bystanders of genocide when they had the ability to prevent acts of genocide taking place. This article re-examines the actions of the UN command under Romeo Dallaire in Rwanda and Thom Karremans in Srebrenica, Bosnia in terms of the stress-related factors which ...


Power And Identity Of The Individual In Contexts Of Violence And Trauma, Elizabeth B.D. Johnson Dec 2020

Power And Identity Of The Individual In Contexts Of Violence And Trauma, Elizabeth B.D. Johnson

Iowa Historical Review

No abstract provided.


Opposing Tyranny: White Resistance Against The Rhodesian Front (1965-1977), Rebekah J. Gansemer Dec 2020

Opposing Tyranny: White Resistance Against The Rhodesian Front (1965-1977), Rebekah J. Gansemer

Iowa Historical Review

In November 1965, the government of Southern Rhodesia unilaterally declared itself independent from Britain. It was an extreme response to the British directive that there would be “no independence before majority rule.” The ruling political party during this time, the Rhodesian Front, feared the consequences of relinquishing power. Born out of imperialist beliefs and anti-communist sentiment, this ultra-conservative political party sought to maintain minority rule and asserted that Rhodesia would “never in a thousand years” be ruled by the Black majority. While many Whites supported minority rule, my paper will focus on the efforts of select groups within the White ...


A Study Of West African Slave Resistance From The Seventeenth To Nineteenth Centuries, Adam D. Wilsey Oct 2020

A Study Of West African Slave Resistance From The Seventeenth To Nineteenth Centuries, Adam D. Wilsey

History in the Making

Accompanying the dawn of the twenty-first century, there has emerged a new era of historical thinking that has created the need to reexamine the history of slavery and slave resistance. Slavery has become a controversial topic that historians and scholars throughout the world are reevaluating. In this modern period, which is finally beginning to honor the ideas and ideals of equality, slavery is the black mark of our past; and the task now lies before the world to derive a better understanding of slavery. In order to better understand slavery, it is crucial to have a more acute awareness of ...


Slavery And The Search For Belonging In Modern Sudan, William Fant Oct 2020

Slavery And The Search For Belonging In Modern Sudan, William Fant

History in the Making

For many Sudanese, the migration of Islamic society into Sudan has produced difficulties in identifying belonging. Centuries in the making, Sudan has become a split nation in which the south has retained much of its African identity, while the north has become increasingly Islamized. While no discernable traits separate the divided portions of Sudan, the division has allowed the dominant north to forcibly gain control of the entire nation. This phenomenon has led to increased discontent among the regions, resulting in civil war and the reintroduction of slavery. Although the physical division in Sudan is as blurred as the ethnic ...


The Western Media And The Portrayal Of The Rwandan Genocide, Cherice Joyann Estes Oct 2020

The Western Media And The Portrayal Of The Rwandan Genocide, Cherice Joyann Estes

History in the Making

On December 9, 1948, the United Nations established its Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide. Genocides, however, have continued to occur, affecting millions of people around the globe. The 1994 genocide in Rwanda resulted in an estimated 800,000 deaths. Global leaders were well aware of the atrocities, but failed to intervene. At the same time, the Western media's reports on Rwanda tended to understate the magnitude of the crisis. This paper explores the Western media's failure to accurately interpret and describe the Rwandan Genocide. Recognizing the outside media’s role in mischaracterizations ...


The Trokosi Tradition In Ghana: The Silencing Of A Religion, Rhonda Martinez Sep 2020

The Trokosi Tradition In Ghana: The Silencing Of A Religion, Rhonda Martinez

History in the Making

When does tradition and religion infringe upon human rights and who has the right to impose restrictions on them? Slavery is still an ongoing phenomenon that should no longer be denied. Trokosi, still being practiced today, is a relatively unknown African religion in which young girls are sexually enslaved to pay for crimes committed by their families. This paper highlights the terrible tradition of trokosi in order to bring public awareness to its three-hundred-year practice. Through the examination of a variety of secondary sources, definitions of slavery and explanations of the trokosi traditions are first established. Next, debates for and ...