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Full-Text Articles in Urban Studies and Planning

How Does Transportation Affordability Vary Among Tods, Tads, And Other Areas?, Brenda Scheer, Reid Ewing, Keunhyun Park, Shabnam Sifat Ara Khan Aug 2017

How Does Transportation Affordability Vary Among Tods, Tads, And Other Areas?, Brenda Scheer, Reid Ewing, Keunhyun Park, Shabnam Sifat Ara Khan

TREC Final Reports

Transit-oriented development (TOD) has gained popularity worldwide as a sustainable form of urbanism; it concentrates development near a transit station so as to reduce auto-dependency and increase ridership. Existing travel behavior studies in the context of TOD, however, are limited in terms of small sample size, inconsistent TOD classification methods, and failure to control for residential self-selection. Thus, this study has three research questions. First, how can we distinguish between Transit-oriented development (TOD) and Transit-adjacent development (TAD)? Second, how do travel behaviors vary between TODs and TADs? Third, how does transportation affordability vary between TODs and TADs? This study utilizes ...


When Cities Shrink, Affordability Does Too, Joanna Ganning, Jenna Rosie Tighe Jul 2017

When Cities Shrink, Affordability Does Too, Joanna Ganning, Jenna Rosie Tighe

TREC Project Briefs

To better understand the real costs of housing and transportation in a declining urban context, NITC researchers implemented a household survey to determine whether the assumptions made in existing research literature and in the LAI regarding household expenditures and transportation accessibility hold true when analyzing shrinking cities—generally, cities characterized by a long-term loss in occupied housing units. The project was led by Joanna Ganning of Cleveland State University, who has conducted previous research into shrinking cities with the support of the NITC program.


Homes Close To Fast Transit: The Value Is Still Rising, Victoria Perk, Martin Catalá, Maximillian Mantius, Katrina Corcoran Jul 2017

Homes Close To Fast Transit: The Value Is Still Rising, Victoria Perk, Martin Catalá, Maximillian Mantius, Katrina Corcoran

TREC Project Briefs

This research contributes to the relatively small body of literature on property value impacts of BRT in the U.S. by conducting a case study on Lane Transit District’s EmX BRT service in Eugene, Oregon, using econometric modeling techniques to estimate changes in property values associated with the BRT. The analysis is based on hedonic price regression analysis, where sale prices are modeled using several property characteristics that contribute to the market or sale price. The findings of this research indicate that the EmX BRT system does positively impact surrounding single-family home sale prices.


Impacts Of Bus Rapid Transit (Brt) On Surrounding Residential Property Values, Victoria Perk, Martin Catalá, Maximillian Mantius, Katrina Corcoran Jul 2017

Impacts Of Bus Rapid Transit (Brt) On Surrounding Residential Property Values, Victoria Perk, Martin Catalá, Maximillian Mantius, Katrina Corcoran

TREC Final Reports

As bus rapid transit (BRT) grows in popularity in the United States, a better understanding of the mode’s impacts on land uses and property values is needed. Economic theory suggests, and literature has shown, that people are willing to pay higher housing costs to lower their costs of transportation to areas of economic activity. Does high-quality BRT service reliably provide such access and, thereby, increase residential property values? The hypothesis is that property values are higher closer to BRT stations, reflecting a premium for the access provided by the BRT service to various goods, services, employment, education, and recreation ...


What Do We Know About Location Affordability In U.S. Shrinking Cities?, Joanna Ganning, Jenna Rosie Tighe Jul 2017

What Do We Know About Location Affordability In U.S. Shrinking Cities?, Joanna Ganning, Jenna Rosie Tighe

TREC Final Reports

In late 2013, the Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) launched the Location Affordability Index (LAI) portal. Their dataset uses models to estimate typical amount households spend on housing and transportation at the block group level, and calculates “H + T Affordability,” the percent of household income spent on these items. In our previous research, we analyzed 81 shrinking cities to determine how location affordability differs across various neighborhoods. Our results suggest that households in declining neighborhoods, as compared to stable or redeveloping neighborhoods, face the greatest H + T affordability challenges in shrinking cities. Furthermore, in declining neighborhoods, virtually all ...


Trip And Parking Generation At Transit-Oriented Developments, Reid Ewing, Guang Tian, Torrey Lyons, David Proffitt, Preston Stinger, Rachel Weinberger, Ben Kaufman, Kevin Shivley Jan 2017

Trip And Parking Generation At Transit-Oriented Developments, Reid Ewing, Guang Tian, Torrey Lyons, David Proffitt, Preston Stinger, Rachel Weinberger, Ben Kaufman, Kevin Shivley

TREC Final Reports

The decision of how best to allocate land around transit stations is a debated topic, with transit officials often opting for park-and-ride lots over active uses such as multifamily housing, office, and retail organized into transit-oriented developments (TODs). In practice, guidelines for providing parking and mitigating vehicle trips come mainly from the Institute of Transportation Engineers (ITE) Trip Generation Manual and the ITE Parking Generation Manual. However, both manuals have well-known shortcomings. The goal of this study is to determine how many fewer vehicle trips are generated at TODs, and how much less parking is required at TODs, than ITE ...


The Impact Of Transit-Oriented Development On Social Capital, Robert B. Noland, Orin T. Puniello, Stephanie Dipetrillo Oct 2016

The Impact Of Transit-Oriented Development On Social Capital, Robert B. Noland, Orin T. Puniello, Stephanie Dipetrillo

Mineta Transportation Institute Publications

This paper focuses on the ability of Transit Oriented Development (TOD) to improve social capital and interactions within a community. The expectation is that TOD has a positive impact on the lifestyle and activities of individuals who reside, work, and frequent these locations, and that this can include increases in social capital. Using data from a survey of transit station locations in New Jersey, the authors examine how proximity to the station and various built environment variables are associated with different measures of social capital, derived from responses to survey questions. These questions inquire about respondents’ perceptions of their neighborhood ...


Do Tods Make A Difference?, Arthur C. Nelson, Matt Miller, Dejan Eskic, Keuntae Kim, Reid Ewing, Jenny H. Liu, Matt Berggren, Zakari Mumuni Dec 2015

Do Tods Make A Difference?, Arthur C. Nelson, Matt Miller, Dejan Eskic, Keuntae Kim, Reid Ewing, Jenny H. Liu, Matt Berggren, Zakari Mumuni

TREC Final Reports

In this report, we present research that measures the outcomes of TOD areas in relation to their metropolitan area controls with respect to (1) jobs by sector; (2) housing choice for household types based on key demographic characteristics; (3) housing affordability based on transportation costs; and (4) job-worker balance as a measure of accessibility. Prior literature has not systematically evaluated TOD outcomes in these respects with respect to light rail transit (LRT), commuter rail transit (CRT), bus rapid transit (BRT), and streetcar transit (SCT) systems. Our analysis helps close some of these gaps. We apply our analysis to 23 fixed-guideway ...


National Study Of Brt Development Outcomes, Arthur C. Nelson, Joanna Ganning Nov 2015

National Study Of Brt Development Outcomes, Arthur C. Nelson, Joanna Ganning

TREC Final Reports

Bus rapid transit (BRT) is poised to become the “next big thing” in public transit. From virtually no systems a generation ago, there are now 19 lines operating with at least seven under construction and more than 20 in the planning stages. BRT is gaining popularity because of its combination of low capital cost and potential for high levels of benefits. But are BRT systems effective in attracting development?

To answer this and many more trending BRT questions, the Metropolitan Research Center (MRC) reviewed multiple studies using data from the United States Census Bureau, Longitudinal Employer-Household Dynamics, and CoStar data ...


Retail Rent With Respect To Distance From Light Rail Transit Stations In Dallas And Denver, Arthur C. Nelson, Dejan Eskic, Joanna P. Ganning, Shima Hamidi, Susan J. Petheram, Jenny H. Liu, Reid Ewing Jan 2015

Retail Rent With Respect To Distance From Light Rail Transit Stations In Dallas And Denver, Arthur C. Nelson, Dejan Eskic, Joanna P. Ganning, Shima Hamidi, Susan J. Petheram, Jenny H. Liu, Reid Ewing

Urban Studies and Planning Faculty Publications and Presentations

A growing body of recent research is challenging the assumptions underlying the half-mile-circle in planning for development around transit stations. In this article we review this literature and extend it to include retail land uses. We estimate the rent premium conferred on retail properties in metropolitan Dallas and metropolitan Denver, both of which have extensive light rail transit systems. We find that consistent with half-mile-circle assumptions, retail rent premiums extend only to about 0.30 mile from transit stations with half the premium dissipating after a few hundred feet and three quarters within the first 0.10 mile. We offer ...


Transit And Economic Resilience, Arthur C. Nelson, Matt Miller, Joanna P. Ganning, Philip Stoker, Jenny H. Liu, Reid Ewing Jan 2015

Transit And Economic Resilience, Arthur C. Nelson, Matt Miller, Joanna P. Ganning, Philip Stoker, Jenny H. Liu, Reid Ewing

Urban Studies and Planning Faculty Publications and Presentations

Do fixed-guideway transit systems facilitate resilience with metropolitan areas? There is little literature making this connection theoretically and none testing it empirically. This paper helps close this gap in both respects. In evaluating metropolitan areas with light rail transit systems the authors find evidence that transit corridors on the whole performed better than control corridors during the recovery period of two recessions: that of the early 2000s and the so-called Great Recession. In particular, during the Great Recession transit corridors outperformed control corridors among many economic sectors. Outcomes were more impressive during recoveries from both the recession of the early ...


Office Rent Premiums With Respect To Distance From Light Rail Transit Stations In Dallas And Denver, Arthur C. Nelson, Dejan Eskic, Joanna P. Ganning, Shima Hamidi, Susan J. Petheram, Jenny H. Liu, Reid Ewing Jan 2015

Office Rent Premiums With Respect To Distance From Light Rail Transit Stations In Dallas And Denver, Arthur C. Nelson, Dejan Eskic, Joanna P. Ganning, Shima Hamidi, Susan J. Petheram, Jenny H. Liu, Reid Ewing

Urban Studies and Planning Faculty Publications and Presentations

It seems an article-of-faith that real estate markets respond more favorably to location within one-half mile of transit stations. Planning and public decision-makers have thus drawn half-mile (or smaller) circles around rail transit stations assuming larger planning areas would not be supported by the evidence. Recent research, however, has shown market-responsiveness well beyond one-half mile. We contribute to this literature by evaluating the distance-decay function of office rents in metropolitan Dallas and Denver with respect to light rail transit (LRT) station distance. Using a quadratic transformation of distance we find office rent premiums extending in the range of two miles ...


But Do Lower-Wage Jobs Follow? Comparing Wage-Based Outcomes Of Light Rail Transit To Control Corridors, Arthur C. Nelson, Matt Miller, Dejan Eskic, Joanna P. Ganning, Jenny H. Liu, Reid Ewing Jan 2015

But Do Lower-Wage Jobs Follow? Comparing Wage-Based Outcomes Of Light Rail Transit To Control Corridors, Arthur C. Nelson, Matt Miller, Dejan Eskic, Joanna P. Ganning, Jenny H. Liu, Reid Ewing

Urban Studies and Planning Faculty Publications and Presentations

Literature suggests that rail transit improvements should be associated with more jobs and perhaps increasing share of jobs in a metropolitan area. Literature and some research also suggest that such improvements should increase the number of lower-wage jobs accessible to transit. In this paper, we assess both in the context of all 11 light rail transit systems built in metropolitan areas of fewer than eight million residents in the nation since 1981. Using census block-level job data over the period 2002 to 2011, we evaluate change in jobs and change in metropolitan area job share for all jobs, and lower- ...


Commuter Rail Transit And Economic Development, Arthur C. Nelson, Matt Miller, Keuntae Kim, Joanna P. Ganning, Jenny H. Liu, Reid Ewing Jan 2015

Commuter Rail Transit And Economic Development, Arthur C. Nelson, Matt Miller, Keuntae Kim, Joanna P. Ganning, Jenny H. Liu, Reid Ewing

Urban Studies and Planning Faculty Publications and Presentations

Commuter rail transit (CRT) is a form of rail passenger service connecting downtowns and other major activity centers with suburban commuter towns and beyond. Between 1834 and 1973, only three public CRT systems were built in the U.S. serving New York, Chicago and then Boston. There are now 25 such systems. Modern CRT systems aim to expand economic development in metropolitan areas. But do they? This paper evaluates the economic development performance of five modern CRT systems. The authors find that several economic sectors perform well within 0.50 miles of CRT stations. The authors offer planning and policy ...


Do Tods Make A Difference? Max Yellow Line Portland, Oregon, Jenny H. Liu, Zakari Mumuni, Matt Berggren, Matt Miller, Arthur C. Miller, Reid Ewing Jun 2014

Do Tods Make A Difference? Max Yellow Line Portland, Oregon, Jenny H. Liu, Zakari Mumuni, Matt Berggren, Matt Miller, Arthur C. Miller, Reid Ewing

Urban Studies and Planning Faculty Publications and Presentations

This analysis was intended to help answer the following policy questions:

Q1: Are TODs attractive to certain NAICS sectors?
Q2: Do TODs generate more jobs in certain NAICS sectors?
Q3: Are firms in TODs more resilient to economic downturns?
Q4: Do TODs create more affordable housing measured as H+T?
Q5: Do TODs improve job accessibility for those living in or near them?

The first question investigates which types of industries are actually transit oriented. Best planning practices call for a mix of uses focused around housing and retail, but analysis provides some surprises. The second question tests the economic ...


Do Tods Make A Difference? Ns Streetcar Line Portland, Oregon, Jenny H. Liu, Zakari Mumuni, Matt Berggren, Matt Miller, Arthur C. Nelson, Reid Ewing Jun 2014

Do Tods Make A Difference? Ns Streetcar Line Portland, Oregon, Jenny H. Liu, Zakari Mumuni, Matt Berggren, Matt Miller, Arthur C. Nelson, Reid Ewing

Urban Studies and Planning Faculty Publications and Presentations

This analysis was intended to help answer the following policy questions:

Q1: Are TODs attractive to certain NAICS sectors?
Q2: Do TODs generate more jobs in certain NAICS sectors?
Q3: Are firms in TODs more resilient to economic downturns?
Q4: Do TODs create more affordable housing measured as H+T?
Q5: Do TODs improve job accessibility for those living in or near them?

The first question investigates which types of industries are actually transit oriented. Best planning practices call for a mix of uses focused around housing and retail, but analysis provides some surprises. The second question tests the economic ...


Effect Of Light-Rail Transit On Traffic In A Travel Corridor, Reid Ewing, Guang Tian, Allison Spain Jun 2014

Effect Of Light-Rail Transit On Traffic In A Travel Corridor, Reid Ewing, Guang Tian, Allison Spain

TREC Final Reports

This study seeks to quantify the effect of the University TRAX light-rail line on traffic near the University of Utah, providing quantitative data that can be used to shape future transportation policies aimed at reducing traffic congestion, energy consumption, air pollution, greenhouse gas emissions, and parking costs. Travel demand models have long been used to estimate and evaluate the effects of transportation improvements, like LRT investments, on network travel flows and times as part of long-range planning studies, using four-step models or more sophisticated urban simulation studies. However, these are usually ex ante studies. Few ex post evaluations have been ...


Transit-Oriented Development: An Examination Of America’S Transit Precincts In 2000 & 2010, John L. Renne, Reid Ewing Jun 2013

Transit-Oriented Development: An Examination Of America’S Transit Precincts In 2000 & 2010, John L. Renne, Reid Ewing

UNOTI Publications

This study creates a typology of all fixed transit precincts across the United States to categorize all stations as either a Transit Oriented Development (TOD), Transit Adjacent Development (TAD) or hybrid. This typology is based on an index that accounts for density, land use diversity and walkable design. This study also presents a separate non-typological multilevel, multivariate analysis of transit commuting and the built environment, which is unique in that it is the first national study of transit station precincts of its kind to control for both regional and neighborhood level variables. The findings lend support for the TOD concept ...


City Design Lecture Series: Linking Transportation And Land Use Planning, Mark L. Gillem May 2010

City Design Lecture Series: Linking Transportation And Land Use Planning, Mark L. Gillem

TREC Final Reports

The objective of this multidisciplinary educational program was to host a lecture series that will inform area professionals, students, and the broader public about the need to consider transportation and land use strategies in concert that can jointly create more livable cities with enhanced safety, reduced congestion, greater mobility choices, and more housing variety. This lecture series meets the Oregon Transportation Research and Education Consortium’s (OTREC) goal of encouraging “… multidisciplinary educational programs and experiential learning across disciplines in the transportation field.” The lecture series brought a variety of nationally known experts in the fields of transportation planning, urban design ...


Planning For Passenger Rail In Small Cities And Towns, Alyssa R. Larose Jan 2010

Planning For Passenger Rail In Small Cities And Towns, Alyssa R. Larose

Masters Theses 1911 - February 2014

Projects to expand the passenger rail network in the United States will connect major metropolitan areas over long distances, travelling through smaller communities along the way. Transit-oriented development (TOD) is a concept for planning around stations to support transit and allow the development of dense, mixed use, walkable places. TOD literature focuses largely on developing around transit in metropolitan areas. Guidance for small towns and cities in rural areas is lacking.

This thesis compares best planning practices from TOD literature to the planning practices of small cities located in rural areas of New England where new passenger rail service or ...


Transit Oriented Development: Trip Generation & Mode Split In The Portland Metropolitan Region, Michael Lapham Mar 2001

Transit Oriented Development: Trip Generation & Mode Split In The Portland Metropolitan Region, Michael Lapham

Center for Urban Studies Publications and Reports

The Portland metropolitan region has planned and implemented transit-oriented developments (T.O.D.) along light rail alignments and traditional transit corridors based on the assumption that promoting mixed-use, high density residential development close to transit will reduce vehicle trips, lessen congestion, and reduce air pollution. Oregon has state and local transportation policies that rely on alternative modes of travel to help reduce vehicle trips, yet there is little documentation on how effective T.O.D.s are at actually reducing vehicle trips and total vehicle miles traveled. This report attempts to calculate how successful Transit Oriented Developments in the Portland ...


Light Rail Transit Impacts In Portland: The First Ten Years, Kenneth Dueker, Martha J. Bianco Jan 1999

Light Rail Transit Impacts In Portland: The First Ten Years, Kenneth Dueker, Martha J. Bianco

Center for Urban Studies Publications and Reports

This paper examines how the first decade of light rail transit (LRT) in the Portland region has affected auto ownership, mode share, density, and property values. The empirical analysis provides evidence that light rail has had some positive effect of rail on single-family property values, transit use, and slower growth of two-plus car households in the outer part of the LRT corridor as compared to an outer part of a parallel bus corridor. These effects may be the result of households self-selecting to make housing location decisions where LRT is located, rather than current households changing mode.

This assessment of ...


Effects Of Light Rail Transit In Portland: Implications For Transit-Oriented Development Design Concepts, Kenneth Dueker, Martha J. Bianco Jul 1998

Effects Of Light Rail Transit In Portland: Implications For Transit-Oriented Development Design Concepts, Kenneth Dueker, Martha J. Bianco

Center for Urban Studies Publications and Reports

In the Portland, Oregon, region many local planners have embraced the neotraditional planning concept in the form of transit-oriented development (TOD). One of the primary components of transit-oriented development, light rail transit (LRT), has been in place in Portland long enough to provide data for analysis. Because neotraditional planners often emphasize LRT as a crucial element in decreasing auto use and in encouraging high-density development, this paper examines the effects of LRT in the Portland region including mode share, density, and property values. The empirical analysis provides evidence that light rail alone has not been sufficient to have an appreciable ...