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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Intelligence, Complexity, And Individuality In Sheep, Lori Marino, Debra Merskin Sep 2019

Intelligence, Complexity, And Individuality In Sheep, Lori Marino, Debra Merskin

Lori Marino, PhD

Domestic sheep (Ovis aries) are among the earliest animals domesticated for human use. They are consumed worldwide as mutton, hogget, and lamb, kept as wool and milk producers, and used extensively in scientific research. The popular stereotype is that sheep are docile, passive, unintelligent, and timid, but a review of the research on their behavior, affect, cognition, and personality reveals that they are complex, individualistic, and social.


Law Library Blog (August 2019): Legal Beagle's Blog Archive, Roger Williams University School Of Law Aug 2019

Law Library Blog (August 2019): Legal Beagle's Blog Archive, Roger Williams University School Of Law

Law Library Newsletters/Blog

No abstract provided.


Puerto Rico's Coffee Region: A Socio-Economic Profile, Carla B. Lee Ms. May 2019

Puerto Rico's Coffee Region: A Socio-Economic Profile, Carla B. Lee Ms.

International Development, Community and Environment (IDCE)

Using demographic, social, and economic information from the US Census Bureau, this study portrays the current conditions of Puerto Rico’s Coffee Region. There is evidence for the decline of the overall population in Puerto Rico, specifically younger groups, while women are economically disadvantaged in this region. Although there has been significant decline in the agricultural sector as a percentage of GDP, coffee holds significant potential to improve overall economic growth in the region.


Criminal Justice Systems: Impacts That Transcend Borders & Prison Bars, Erika Yeager May 2019

Criminal Justice Systems: Impacts That Transcend Borders & Prison Bars, Erika Yeager

Senior Honors Projects

Historically, the concepts of criminal justice and punishment have been core facets of many societies and cultures. The evolution of crime and punishment is unique in different places across the world and across cultures. The incarceration of individuals across the globe has turned into an epidemic; according to the Institute for Criminal Policy Research, there are almost 10.4 million individuals imprisoned around the world (“Global Prison Trends” 7). By researching this political and sociological phenomenon, more insight is gained into the tangible impacts systemic models of criminal justice have on societies and countries as a whole. These individualized systems ...


The Limits Of Sociality, Johnna B. Mcgovern Apr 2019

The Limits Of Sociality, Johnna B. Mcgovern

Theses

There is a longstanding tradition in Western philosophy of emphasizing the capacity for reflection in theories about humans’ characteristic nature. In Talking to Ourselves: Reflection, Ignorance, and Agency, John Doris attempts to shift the focus to an emphasis on human sociality. Particularly, Doris argues that sociality, both implicitly and in the form of collaborative reasoning, is what makes humans best equipped for moral improvement. This collaborativism possesses a defining role in his account of agency and responsibility. This thesis attempts to gain an understanding of how sociality affects moral behavior and to argue that it is not conducive to agency ...


Raped-Related Beliefs And Social Reactions, Tara Pursley Apr 2019

Raped-Related Beliefs And Social Reactions, Tara Pursley

Steeplechase: An ORCA Student Journal

Many agree that sexual violence is a pervasive problem, but there is less agreement regarding how to classify and define various experiences of rape. Research has demonstrated that the beliefs one holds about rape are the strongest indicator for how both victims and non-victims of sexual assault perceive and classify unwanted sexual experiences. What is less understood is the way that this perception influences how non-victims respond to a victim’s disclosure of sexual assault. The current study sought to fill this gap. Participants included 119 female college students (Mage = 19.23, SD = 1.98; 81% White). Results revealed ...


Social Identity And The Mexican Community, Francesca N. Rizzi Apr 2019

Social Identity And The Mexican Community, Francesca N. Rizzi

Student Publications

The election of President Trump can be shown to negatively impact the Mexican community through social identity theory. Since his election, President Trump has passed policies controlling immigration and uses harmful language to describe Mexicans, such as rapists and criminals. To investigate the impact that the presidency has had on the Mexican Community the author choose to analyze this influence with social identity theory. Social identity theory proposes that individuals’ self-concept is based on their identification to their ingroup, and when this ingroup (Mexican) is viewed unfavorably by the outgroup (Anglo-American), negative social identity occurs. The author interviewed 16 participants ...


Stigma Mitigation Through Fine Arts, Kendall Owens Mar 2019

Stigma Mitigation Through Fine Arts, Kendall Owens

Honors Theses

Social stigma has plagued our society for centuries. It isolates groups of people based on erroneously defined characteristics causing stigmatized persons to be viewed as socially “abnormal”. This debarment from full social acceptance results in poor population health and well-being. Fine arts have been an integral component of society since the beginning of civilization; current and past research have found involvement in fine arts to improve health and well-being in many ways. In this project, relevant studies related to stigma, fine arts, and population health will be reviewed to support the argument that “fine arts combat and mitigate the impact ...


Use Of Social Networking Sites Among Undergraduates: A Case Study Of Department Of Theater And Film Arts, Faculty Of Arts, University Of Jos, Jos, Nigeria, Victor Chuks Nwokedi Dr. Jan 2019

Use Of Social Networking Sites Among Undergraduates: A Case Study Of Department Of Theater And Film Arts, Faculty Of Arts, University Of Jos, Jos, Nigeria, Victor Chuks Nwokedi Dr.

Library Philosophy and Practice (e-journal)

This study examined the Usage Patterns of Social Networking Sites (SNSs) amongst Undergraduate Students of Department of Theater and Film Arts, Faculty of Arts, University of Jos, Nigeria. The study was guided by nine objectives. Survey research design was adopted for the study. The target population was all the 348 First year Students in the Department of Theater and Film Arts, Faculty of Arts, University of Jos. Since, the population (348) was manageable, there was no need for sampling. Hence, all the students were adopted in the research. The research instrument adopted was questionnaire. Data collected were analyzed using frequency ...


Negative Appraisal Correlation To Ptsd Symptoms Among Law Enforcement Officers, Ginger Lee Jenkins Jan 2019

Negative Appraisal Correlation To Ptsd Symptoms Among Law Enforcement Officers, Ginger Lee Jenkins

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Law enforcement officers are exposed to traumatic events through their daily work responsibilities. Traumatic events have increased within recent decades and can have long-term and critical outcomes on officers such as health concerns, long-term psychological issues, social impairment, and work performance. Thus, this quantitative study was conducted to explore negative appraisals of cumulative traumatic events and their relation to post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in law enforcement officers. Based on the theoretical framework for the study, Ehlers and Clark's cognitive model, negative appraisals involve how an individual interprets a situation, negative appraisals of traumatic events lead to maladaptive behavior ...


Overcoming The Barriers Of Poverty: Intersectionality And Single Black Mothers Of P.T. Barnum Apartments, Laura James Jan 2019

Overcoming The Barriers Of Poverty: Intersectionality And Single Black Mothers Of P.T. Barnum Apartments, Laura James

Writing Across the Curriculum

This research investigated the ways in which intersectionality and various forms of support have influenced the ability of single black mothers to overcome the barriers of poverty. Qualitative research included analysis of three interviews of single black mothers from P.T. Barnum, a public housing complex located in Bridgeport, Connecticut. The use of an online coding tool, Dedoose, proved effective in identifying where various forms of support have aided these women. These supports included social and community supports. The women cited having various forms of social support, including informational, tangible, and emotional. They also cited having various forms of community ...


Intelligence, Complexity, And Individuality In Sheep, Lori Marino, Debra Merskin Jan 2019

Intelligence, Complexity, And Individuality In Sheep, Lori Marino, Debra Merskin

Animal Sentience

Domestic sheep (Ovis aries) are among the earliest animals domesticated for human use. They are consumed worldwide as mutton, hogget, and lamb, kept as wool and milk producers, and used extensively in scientific research. The popular stereotype is that sheep are docile, passive, unintelligent, and timid, but a review of the research on their behavior, affect, cognition, and personality reveals that they are complex, individualistic, and social.


Does Sharing Information With Friends And Family Cause Men To Adhere More Strongly To Masculine Norms?, Clint E. Johnson Jan 2019

Does Sharing Information With Friends And Family Cause Men To Adhere More Strongly To Masculine Norms?, Clint E. Johnson

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

It is clear that social influence can elicit conformity to norms (e.g., Asch, 1956). It remains unclear, however, how various relationships elicit differential conformity to masculine norms in particular. In this pre-registered experiment, I tested the hypothesis that when men are asked to reveal their responses on the Conformity to Masculine Norms Inventory (CMNI; Mahalik et al., 2003), men conform more when sharing that identifiable information with others who know them (i.e., “public” conformity), namely friends and family, as compared to sharing that information anonymously with a random stranger (i.e., the anonymous “private” condition). My convenience sample ...


Gaze Patterns Of Social And Nonsocial Stimuli: A Possible Early Marker For Autism Spectrum Disorder, Ashley Rose Doll Dec 2018

Gaze Patterns Of Social And Nonsocial Stimuli: A Possible Early Marker For Autism Spectrum Disorder, Ashley Rose Doll

Dissertations, Theses, and Projects

The push for early identification and diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) has led to new developments in this area of research. Eye tracking is a promising behavioral screening measure that has been heavily investigated for over a decade. Differences in eye gaze between typically developing (TD) children and children with ASD when viewing social and nonsocial videos have been observed, but only within videos of children playing as social stimuli and with geometric shapes as nonsocial stimuli (Pierce et al., 2016; Shaffer et al., 2017). In addition to social stimuli and geometric shapes, the current study expanded on previous ...


Psychopathic Personality Traits As A Moderator Of The Relationship Between Social Intelligence And Relational Aggression, Savannah Merold Dec 2018

Psychopathic Personality Traits As A Moderator Of The Relationship Between Social Intelligence And Relational Aggression, Savannah Merold

Master's Theses

Social intelligence has been identified as one of many predictors of relational aggression. It is likely that a certain level of social intelligence may be necessary for relationally aggressive behaviors to be effective (e.g., some ability to understand human behavior is necessary to effectively harm others through the manipulation of status, social relationships, or sense of belonging). And yet, social intelligence is unlikely to be sufficient to produce relationally aggressive behavior. Merely because someone has the requisite levels of social intelligence to use relational aggression does not mean that he or she will be motivated to do so. There ...


Perceived Public Opinion Vs. Actual Public Opinion And Media's Influence., Sarah Carey Dec 2018

Perceived Public Opinion Vs. Actual Public Opinion And Media's Influence., Sarah Carey

College of Arts & Sciences Senior Honors Theses

This paper examines the extent of polarization in the United States in the current political climate. It was predicted that individual beliefs would be less polarized than news media makes it seem because while the political parties are moving further toward the poles, there is no evidence to suggest that individuals are doing the same. Using Berkeley’s Survey Documentation and Analysis tool, data from the American National Election Studies (ANES) was analyzed to test this premise. The ANES measured individuals’ party identification. The analysis focused on those who identify as Democrats, Republicans, and Independents. The survey then asked those ...


Integrating Multiple Genetic Detection Methods To Estimate Population Density Of Social And Territorial Carnivores, Sean M. Murphy, Ben C. Augustine, Jennifer R. Adams, Lisette P. Waits, John J. Cox Oct 2018

Integrating Multiple Genetic Detection Methods To Estimate Population Density Of Social And Territorial Carnivores, Sean M. Murphy, Ben C. Augustine, Jennifer R. Adams, Lisette P. Waits, John J. Cox

Forestry and Natural Resources Faculty Publications

Spatial capture–recapture models can produce unbiased estimates of population density, but sparse detection data often plague studies of social and territorial carnivores. Integrating multiple types of detection data can improve estimation of the spatial scale parameter (σ), activity center locations, and density. Noninvasive genetic sampling is effective for detecting carnivores, but social structure and territoriality could cause differential detectability among population cohorts for different detection methods. Using three observation models, we evaluated the integration of genetic detection data from noninvasive hair and scat sampling of the social and territorial coyote (Canis latrans). Although precision of estimated density was improved ...


Testing A New Model Of Team Interdependence, Natasha E. Ouslis Aug 2018

Testing A New Model Of Team Interdependence, Natasha E. Ouslis

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Companies rely on teams to combine their different skills and solve multidisciplinary problems (Engestrom, 2008; Schrage, 1995). One crucial characteristic of teams is their interdependent nature (Sundstrom, de Meuse, & Futrell, 1990). However, interdependence as a construct is not well understood and its role in dynamic team processes is not clear. Recent theoretical advances have proposed a new model of interdependence – one that places two forms of interdependence at the beginning of a path that leads through task and social constructs to team effectiveness (Courtright, Thurgood, Stewart, & Pierotti, 2015). This new model was tested in two data sets of engineering student ...


Corporate Social Responsibility And Financial Performance: An Examination Of The Dow Jones Sustainability North American Index, Elizabeth A. Fides Aug 2018

Corporate Social Responsibility And Financial Performance: An Examination Of The Dow Jones Sustainability North American Index, Elizabeth A. Fides

Applied Economics Theses

This thesis explores the topic of corporate social responsibility (CSR) and the relationship between CSR and corporate profitability. This thesis includes a literature review which traces the history of CSR from 1920s through current theoretical positions. The thesis then examines the relationship between financial gain and CSR as defined by the sustainability parameters set by the Dow Jones Sustainability Index North America. Results from analysis performed show that corporations which practice CSR may benefit from increased stability compared to other index performance criteria, but improved financial performance as measured by stock price is inconclusive.


Inside And Out: Intrapersonal And Interpersonal Emotion Regulation In Young-Adult Friendships, Samantha Ann Chesney Jul 2018

Inside And Out: Intrapersonal And Interpersonal Emotion Regulation In Young-Adult Friendships, Samantha Ann Chesney

Dissertations (2009 -)

To date, the field of emotion regulation has been held captive by inquiries into processes that unfold at an intrapersonal, or individual, level. As such, experts know a great deal about how individual choices to engage in a particular regulatory strategy are related to psychosocial outcomes. Recently the spotlight for theoretical and empirical attention has shifted to address an inarguable truth: humans are social beings. Research must break from the view of emotion regulation as intrapersonal or interpersonal, instead employing person-centered approaches that represent both levels as an interdependent system. The current study evaluated emotion regulation as a dynamic system ...


The Effects Of Organizational Philanthropic Movements And Related Public Relations Strategies, Gabriella C. Trapani Jun 2018

The Effects Of Organizational Philanthropic Movements And Related Public Relations Strategies, Gabriella C. Trapani

Journalism

The following is a comprehensive public relations campaign created after extensive research on public relations efforts and corporate social responsibility. The study is mainly focused on establishing the relationship, if any, between a company’s philanthropic efforts and their profits. The study seeks to answer questions such as “Is the return on investment for philanthropic giving worth it?” and “How might this impact company morale?” With a focus on measuring the success of a philanthropic campaign created for Sereno Group Real Estate company, a small to midsize residential real estate company in the Silicon Valley, this study serves as a ...


Social Outcome Following Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury: A Meta-Analysis, Jonathan James Mietchen Jun 2018

Social Outcome Following Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury: A Meta-Analysis, Jonathan James Mietchen

Theses and Dissertations

Objective: Children and adolescents with a history of traumatic brain injury (TBI) are at increased risk for developing social incompetence and impairment in broad psychosocial functioning. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between history of TBI, social competence, and broad psychosocial functioning using meta-analytic methods. Methods: Studies relating to social outcome following pediatric TBI were searched for using scientific, academic databases. Sixteen studies (N=2,005) met inclusion criteria, and relevant data relating to social functioning was extracted. Meta-analytic methods were used in order to obtain Hedges's g effect size data for mild, moderate, and ...


Work With Elders Experiencing Cognitive Impairment: Exploring The Interest Of Social Work Students, Cindy Avelar, Gabriela Maria Cantu-Reyna Jun 2018

Work With Elders Experiencing Cognitive Impairment: Exploring The Interest Of Social Work Students, Cindy Avelar, Gabriela Maria Cantu-Reyna

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

The aging population in the United States will increase drastically in the next decades. Consequently, the field of aging will need more social workers. Beyond the usual cognitive decline of this stage in life, older adults may face conditions that include cognitive impairment, such as Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease. This research studied the extent to which personal experience and previous work exposure influences social work students’ interest in working with the elderly with cognitive impairment. This study used a cross-sectional survey design and collected the participants’ answers using a survey which was sent out through classroom visits ...


Social Service Workers Knowledge On The Use Of Technology For Human Trafficking, Raquel Monique Holguin, Athena Noel Barber Jun 2018

Social Service Workers Knowledge On The Use Of Technology For Human Trafficking, Raquel Monique Holguin, Athena Noel Barber

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

Human Trafficking is the modern-day equivalent of slavery. Those who perpetuate it do so because it is lucrative to invest in a product that can be resold multiple times (Ellis, 2017). The recent advancement of technology has tremendously helped traffickers thrive in the illicit business of Human Trafficking. Social media websites, online classifieds, and mobile applications are quickly becoming some of the major mediums perpetrators utilize to traffick their victims (Latonero, 2012). The purpose of this study was to examine social service workers’ knowledge on the use of technology for Human Trafficking. Face-to-face interviews were conducted and the participants were ...


Child Abuse Prevention In Rural Southern California: A Participatory Action Research Project, Nelly Zambrano Jun 2018

Child Abuse Prevention In Rural Southern California: A Participatory Action Research Project, Nelly Zambrano

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

This research project examines resources and services to prevent families and children from entering the child welfare system in a rural town in Southern California. There is constant struggle to get the adequate services, resources and trained staff in this rural area because it is isolated and it takes about two hours’ travel time to get to the metropolitan cities. The literature review discusses child welfare services challenges, strengths and social capital to support families and children as well as the child welfare system itself in rural areas. Constructivism is the appropriate framework for this research project, because the goal ...


We’Ve Come A Long Way (Baby)! Or Have We? Evolving Intellectual Freedom Issues In The Us And Florida, L. Bryan Cooper, A.D. Beman-Cavallaro May 2018

We’Ve Come A Long Way (Baby)! Or Have We? Evolving Intellectual Freedom Issues In The Us And Florida, L. Bryan Cooper, A.D. Beman-Cavallaro

Works of the FIU Libraries

This paper analyzes a shifting landscape of intellectual freedom (IF) in and outside Florida for children, adolescents, teens and adults. National ideals stand in tension with local and state developments, as new threats are visible in historical, legal, and technological context. Examples include doctrinal shifts, legislative bills, electronic surveillance and recent attempts to censor books, classroom texts, and reading lists.

Privacy rights for minors in Florida are increasingly unstable. New assertions of parental rights are part of a larger conservative animus. Proponents of IF can identify a lessening of ideals and standards that began after doctrinal fruition in the 1960s ...


Psychopathy To Altruism: Neurobiology Of The Selfish–Selfless Spectrum, James W. H. Sonne, Don M. Gash Apr 2018

Psychopathy To Altruism: Neurobiology Of The Selfish–Selfless Spectrum, James W. H. Sonne, Don M. Gash

Neuroscience Faculty Publications

The age-old philosophical, biological, and social debate over the basic nature of humans as being “universally selfish” or “universally good” continues today highlighting sharply divergent views of natural social order. Here we analyze advances in biology, genetics and neuroscience increasing our understanding of the evolution, features and neurocircuitry of the human brain underlying behavior in the selfish–selfless spectrum. First, we examine evolutionary pressures for selection of altruistic traits in species with protracted periods of dependence on parents and communities for subsistence and acquisition of learned behaviors. Evidence supporting the concept that altruistic potential is a common feature in human ...


Career: Location-Aware Social Science For Adaptation: Modeling Dynamic Patterns In Public Perceptions And Behavior, Peter D. Howe Apr 2018

Career: Location-Aware Social Science For Adaptation: Modeling Dynamic Patterns In Public Perceptions And Behavior, Peter D. Howe

Funded Research Records

No abstract provided.


Psychosocial Consequences Of Intensive Internet Use Among Undergraduates Of Universities In Ilorin Metropolis, M. L. Akanbi, Kabir Alabi Sulaiman, Ismail Olatunji Adeyemi Apr 2018

Psychosocial Consequences Of Intensive Internet Use Among Undergraduates Of Universities In Ilorin Metropolis, M. L. Akanbi, Kabir Alabi Sulaiman, Ismail Olatunji Adeyemi

Library Philosophy and Practice (e-journal)

This study was carried out to investigate the psychosocial consequences of intensive internet use among undergraduate of universities in Ilorin metropolis, Kwara State. This study sought to determine the psychosocial consequences of intensive internet use on the basis on gender, age, level of study and marital status (University of Ilorin and AL-HIKMAH University) universities within Ilorin metropolis. A self-developed questionnaire tagged questionnaire on psychosocial consequences of intensive internet use (PCIIU) was used to collect data from the respondents for the study. Five research hypotheses were formulated and tested at 0.05 alpha level of significance, data collected were analyzed through ...


Invisibility Of Choice, Madison T. Ellis Mar 2018

Invisibility Of Choice, Madison T. Ellis

Proceedings of the Annual Thompson Rivers University Undergraduate Research and Innovation Conference

The purpose of this essay was to explore how dams have affected and shaped the town of Revelstoke, BC. In this piece, stories of long-term residents are juxtaposed with those of more recent immigrants to raise universal questions surrounding how all actions, big or small, field-planting or dam-building, resound with both benefits and detriments. Within the historical context of dam-building in a small mountain town, food security provides an especially vivid lens with which to consider our personal values as well as our obligations as local and global citizens. This creative nonfiction essay encapsulates both the author’s research and ...