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Articles 1 - 30 of 42

Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Class Activist Lens For Teaching About Poverty, Susan Weinger, Linda C. Reeser Jan 2018

Class Activist Lens For Teaching About Poverty, Susan Weinger, Linda C. Reeser

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

The mission of social work is to serve the poor and oppressed and engage in social reform. This article proposes a conceptual framework, and teaching and practice strategies to equip students to understand poverty from a class perspective. The action component is to politicize practice and become allies with the poor in resisting injustice and promoting their social and economic development.


Blurring Professional Borders In Service Of Anti-Poverty Collaboration: Combining Social Work Skills And An Anti-Oppressive Feminist Lens With Legal Aid, Andrew C. Schoeneman Jan 2017

Blurring Professional Borders In Service Of Anti-Poverty Collaboration: Combining Social Work Skills And An Anti-Oppressive Feminist Lens With Legal Aid, Andrew C. Schoeneman

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

The history of legal aid is contested and gendered. Like social work, since the late 1800s professionalization and broader political forces have pushed legal aid toward greater focus on individual-level interventions to alleviate poverty. As a result, the capacity of contemporary legal aid programs to work collaboratively with low-income communities to address their legal and non-legal concerns is limited. This article traces the shared histories and commitments of legal aid and social work, calls for an increased collaboration between legal aid programs and social workers, and proposes an anti-oppressive, feminist theoretical perspective to guide this collaboration. By embracing collaboration across ...


Barriers To Food Security Experienced By Families Living In Extended Stay Motels, Stephanie Gonzalez Guittar Jan 2017

Barriers To Food Security Experienced By Families Living In Extended Stay Motels, Stephanie Gonzalez Guittar

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

Families who are food insecure do not have regular access to food, access to enough food to satisfy their hunger, or have to resort to extraordinary measures to access food such as traveling to food pantries and other emergency food sources. This article focuses on low-income families with children who live in extended stay motels and experienced food insecurity. Families reported several indicators of food insecurity and discussed the barriers to food security they experienced as a result of living in a motel. Families reported that the locations of the motels, lack of transportation, the lack of storage space and ...


Social Networks In The Context Of Microfinance And Intimate Partner Violence In Bangladesh: A Mixed-Methods Study, Nadine S. Murshid, Allison Zippay Jan 2017

Social Networks In The Context Of Microfinance And Intimate Partner Violence In Bangladesh: A Mixed-Methods Study, Nadine S. Murshid, Allison Zippay

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

This mixed-methods study draws from social network theory to examine disclosure and help seeking for intimate partner violence among microfinance participants in Bangladesh. This study uses data on women from the nationally representative Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey 2007 and from in-depth interviews with 30 microfinance participants in Dhaka. Propensity Score Matching analyses indicated that increase in social contacts due to microfinance participation was not associated with disclosing IPV. Responses from the urban sample indicated that reasons for nondisclosure include feelings of shame, stigma, and fear of being perceived as weak by others. Implications regarding how microfinance organizations can tap ...


Who Defines Need?: Low-Income Individuals’ Interpretations Of Need And The Implications For Participation In Public Assistance Programs, Kerri Leyda Nicoll Jan 2017

Who Defines Need?: Low-Income Individuals’ Interpretations Of Need And The Implications For Participation In Public Assistance Programs, Kerri Leyda Nicoll

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

Existing research into participation and nonparticipation in U.S. public assistance programs is nearly all rooted in the assumption that people who meet a program’s eligibility criteria are in need of that program’s assistance. Based on in-depth interviews with members of 75 low-income households, this study argues that the failure to give low-income individuals a voice in defining their own need prevents researchers from understanding how and why these individuals choose to participate, or not participate, in public programs. The disconnect between individual interpretations of need and program eligibility standards pushes us to rethink the design of participation ...


The Impact Of Concentrations Of African Americans And Latinos/Latinas On Neighborhood Social Cohesion In High Poverty United States Neighborhoods, Laurie A. Walker, Daniel Brisson Jan 2017

The Impact Of Concentrations Of African Americans And Latinos/Latinas On Neighborhood Social Cohesion In High Poverty United States Neighborhoods, Laurie A. Walker, Daniel Brisson

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

United States research concludes concentrations of Latinos/Latinas and African Americans have a negative impact on Neighborhood Social Cohesion (NSC); however, European research finds higher levels of NSC when controlling for measures of concentrated disadvantage. This study utilizes a longitudinal stratified random sample of 7,495 households in 430 Census Blocks within 10 United States cities that participated in the Making Connections Initiative. Results show higher NSC is associated with higher percentages of residents who are Latino/Latina, African American, and homeowners when controlling for measures of concentrated disadvantage. The study findings challenge the stigma associated with concentrations of racial ...


Effects Of Native American Geographical Location And Marital Status On Poverty, Tess Collett, Gordon Limb, Kevin Shafer Jan 2016

Effects Of Native American Geographical Location And Marital Status On Poverty, Tess Collett, Gordon Limb, Kevin Shafer

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

This study examined the association between geographic location (urban, rural, and tribal) and marital status on poverty among the Native American community. A sample of 5,110 Native Americans in the 2008-2010 American Community Survey were used for analyses. Results indicated that Native Americans were similar with the general population in their geographic location, marital status, and poverty. We found that the protective characteristics of marriage in the Native American community varied according to geographic location. We also discuss the impact this may have on the Native American community and what practitioners and policy makers should consider when working with ...


The Cost Of Free Assistance: Why Low-Income Individuals Do Not Access Food Pantries, Kelley Fong, Rachel Wright, Christopher Wimer Jan 2016

The Cost Of Free Assistance: Why Low-Income Individuals Do Not Access Food Pantries, Kelley Fong, Rachel Wright, Christopher Wimer

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

Non-governmental free food assistance is available to many lowincome Americans through food pantries. However, most do not use this assistance, even though it can be worth over $2,000 per year. Survey research suggests concrete barriers, such as lack of information, account for non-use. In contrast, qualitative studies focus on the role of cultural factors, such as stigma. Drawing on interviews with 53 low-income individuals in San Francisco who did not use food pantries, we reconcile these findings by illustrating how the two types of barriers are connected. Reasons for non-use such as need, information, long lines, and food quality ...


Assessing Access To Social Services In Emerging Systems: A Conceptual Approach, Steven G. Anderson, Meirong Liu, Xiang Gao Jan 2016

Assessing Access To Social Services In Emerging Systems: A Conceptual Approach, Steven G. Anderson, Meirong Liu, Xiang Gao

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

There has been considerable concern about systemic factors that serve as access barriers for vulnerable groups in need of services, but conceptual and empirical work related to such issues have been limited. This article presents a new conceptual approach for considering and assessing access, which we call the “Funnel Framework”. The framework is explicated abstractly, and is illustrated with use of the U.S. child care subsidy system. We argue that the framework can usefully guide the analysis of access to any social benefit system, and can be helpful to administrators and program developers as they design and implement benefit ...


Reimagining Equity And Egalitarianism: The Basic Income Debate In Australia, Jennifer M. Mays, Gregory Marston Jan 2016

Reimagining Equity And Egalitarianism: The Basic Income Debate In Australia, Jennifer M. Mays, Gregory Marston

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

Reimagining equity and egalitarianism calls for rethinking traditional welfare responses to poverty and economic security in Australia. Similar to other advanced Western democracies, Australia has pursued policies underpinned by neoliberal economics in an effort to curtail perceived excesses in public expenditure over the past three decades. In response to these policy settings, commentators and policy activists have increased their attention to the potential of a universal and unconditional basic income scheme to address economic insecurity. This paper positions basic income within the context of Australia's welfare state arrangements and explores the potential of the scheme to respond to economic ...


Who's Left Out: Characteristics Of Households In Economic Need Not Receiving Public Support, Vincent A. Fusaro Jan 2015

Who's Left Out: Characteristics Of Households In Economic Need Not Receiving Public Support, Vincent A. Fusaro

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

The American welfare state is often referred to as a social safety net, yet many in economic need do not receive public benefits. This article examines the characteristics of low-income households in the United States that do not participate in any of several public cash or near-cash support programs. Using the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) 2008 panel—a representative sample of U.S. households—households below the federal poverty threshold but not participating in any of eleven different income support programs were identified. Over a third (38.02%) of households in poverty did not receive any assistance ...


Weathering The Storm: Botswana's Culture Of Care, Lengwe-Katembula Mwansa, Gloria Jacques Jan 2014

Weathering The Storm: Botswana's Culture Of Care, Lengwe-Katembula Mwansa, Gloria Jacques

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

Botswana, a semi-desert southern African state ranked among the poorest in the world in the 1960s and 1970s, has emerged as an upper middle income country in the new millennium and a beacon of democracy and good governance on the continent and in the world. Since the discovery of diamonds, Botswana has prudently utilized the ensuing wealth to improve the lives of her citizens. Through a succession of National Development Plans the state has provided social services that have addressed many of the needs of the population. This trend has continued into the challenging era of the world economic crisis ...


Review Of The Impact Of Gender And Social Networks On Microenterprise Business Performance, Seon-Mi Kim, Margaret Sherraden Jan 2014

Review Of The Impact Of Gender And Social Networks On Microenterprise Business Performance, Seon-Mi Kim, Margaret Sherraden

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

Why are some people more successful than others in starting new businesses? Are women more or less successful than men? This study investigates relationships among gender, social networks, and microenterprise business performance. It examines existing theories and research on gender differences in social networks and whether gender differences affect female micro-entrepreneurs’ business performance. The purpose of this study is to help U.S. Microenterprise Development Programs create strategies to enhance the ability of female micro-entrepreneurs to gain economic benefits from their social networks. The paper identifies key gaps in theory, proposes an alternative research framework, and suggests directions for future ...


Individual And Country-Level Institutional Trust And Public Attitude To Welfare Expenditures In 24 Transitional Countries, Nazim Habibov Jan 2014

Individual And Country-Level Institutional Trust And Public Attitude To Welfare Expenditures In 24 Transitional Countries, Nazim Habibov

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

Does institutional trust on the individual and on the country level influence public attitudes to state social welfare expenditures in transitional countries of Central and Eastern Europe, the Caucasus and Central Asia? To answer this question, this study draws on a comparative survey conducted in 24 countries. Multilevel binomial logit regression was used to allow for the simultaneous inclusion of variables at the individual- and country-levels of analysis. Institutional trust is associated with positive attitudes to welfare expenditures on the individual level, but not on the country level. Women, older individuals, those who are less educated, and those of low-income ...


Remarital Chances, Choices, And Economic Consequences: Issues Of Social And Personal Welfare, Kevin Shafer, Todd M. Jensen May 2013

Remarital Chances, Choices, And Economic Consequences: Issues Of Social And Personal Welfare, Kevin Shafer, Todd M. Jensen

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

Many divorced women experience a significant decline in financial, social, physical, and psychological well-being following a divorce. Using data from the NLSY79 (n= 2,520) we compare welfare recipients, mothers, and impoverished women to less marginalized divorcees on remarriage chances. Furthermore, we look at the kinds of men these women marry by focusing on the employment and education of new spouses. Finally, we address how remarriage and spousal quality (as defined by education and employment) impact economic well-being after divorce. Our results show that remarriage has positive economic effects, but that is dependent upon spousal quality. However, such matches are ...


A Half-Century Of California Poverty, Robert G. Mogull May 2013

A Half-Century Of California Poverty, Robert G. Mogull

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

In this article, poverty statistics are examined over the past 50 years for insights on trends. Data were tabulated by Decennial Censuses for the state of California and categorized by demographic group. Trends are revealed by evidence from unique calculations of Poverty Indexes, that is, of 'fair shares" of poverty. By examining 5 decades of evidence, it is found that some groups have clearly progressed-specifically Asians & Pacific Islanders, Blacks, and Hispanics, while others have found their recent poverty status deteriorate- especially the elderly, Native Americans, and Whites.


The Potential Of Youth Savings Accounts In Three East African Countries: Kenya, Tanzania, And Uganda, Njeri Kagotho, Proscovia Nabunya, Fred Ssewamala, Vilma Ilic May 2013

The Potential Of Youth Savings Accounts In Three East African Countries: Kenya, Tanzania, And Uganda, Njeri Kagotho, Proscovia Nabunya, Fred Ssewamala, Vilma Ilic

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

This paper explores the potential of expanding a youth-focused asset-based intervention program for poor communities heavily affected by HIV and AIDS-currently underway in one East African country, Uganda-into similar communities in the other two East African countries: Kenya and Tanzania. This concept paper is informed by prior work on youth-focused asset-based programs first proposed in the United States of America and now successfully implemented in Uganda (Ssewamala, 2008; Ssewamala, Alicea, Bannon, & Ismayilova, 2008; Ssewamala & Ismayilova, 2008, 2009) and grounded in an asset-based development theoretical framework, which denotes an integrated approach to human, social, and economic capital development (Sherraden, 1990, 1991). Although each ...


Paperwork First, Not Work First: How Caseworkers Use Paperwork To Feel Effective, Tifany Taylor Mar 2013

Paperwork First, Not Work First: How Caseworkers Use Paperwork To Feel Effective, Tifany Taylor

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

A great deal of research has explored welfare agency caseworkers, especially how they use discretion. Paperwork in county welfare bureaucracies, however, is often taken-for-granted by caseworkers and researchers studying welfare. In this case study of a county welfare program in rural North Carolina, I focus on how caseworkers use paperwork through document analysis, interviews, and observation data. My findings illustrate caseworkers spend far more time on paperwork than they actually spend assisting program participants find employment. Finally, I show how caseworkers use paperwork to feel effective in a job that offers little to help clients move from welfare to work.


"Waiting For The White Man To Fix Things:" Rebuilding Black Poverty In New Orleans, Robert L. Hawkins, Katherine Maurer Mar 2012

"Waiting For The White Man To Fix Things:" Rebuilding Black Poverty In New Orleans, Robert L. Hawkins, Katherine Maurer

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

This paper revisits William Julius Wilson's thesis that class has surpassed race in significance of impact on African Americans. Our study uses qualitative data from a three-year ethnographic study of 40 largely low-income families in New Orleans following Hurricane Katrina. We also include a review of the recent U.S. Census study assessing New Orleans's current economic state. Participants in our study viewed race and class as major factors in four areas: (1) immediately following the devastation; (2) during relocation to other communities; (3) during the rebuilding process; and (4) historically and structurally throughout New Orleans. Our analysis ...


Doing A Little More For The Poor? Social Assistance In Shanghai, Zhang Haomiao Dec 2011

Doing A Little More For The Poor? Social Assistance In Shanghai, Zhang Haomiao

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

Shanghai was a leader in nation-wide social assistance reform. It has established an extensive and complex social assistance system. This paper offers a general overview of different major assistance programs in Shanghai and uses a recent survey ofMinimum Living Standard Guarantee System (MLSGS) recipients in urban Shanghai to briefly examine the performance of social assistance. It finds that on the program construction and administration level, Shanghai's social assistance is advanced. However, due to high living costs and relatively low values of social assistance, social assistance plays a limited role in relieving the distress of recipients. The paper analyzes the ...


If Not Welfare, Then What?: How Single Mothers Finance College Post-Welfare Reform, Kristin Wilson Dec 2011

If Not Welfare, Then What?: How Single Mothers Finance College Post-Welfare Reform, Kristin Wilson

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

The article follows previous work on TANF and AFDC by asking if not welfare, then what social programs and financial aid programs are low-income women using to support their college attendance, and what is the impact of these programs on the college-going decisions of low-income women? The study is based on case studies of 10 low-income women attending a community college. Results indicated that EITC, food stamps, and subsidized housing are stable sources of funding. However, each of these programs requires diferent application processes and compliance regulations. Only the Pell Grant was viewed as a dependable source of funding for ...


Surviving The Early Years Of The Personal Responsibility And Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act, Joyce Bialik Mar 2011

Surviving The Early Years Of The Personal Responsibility And Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act, Joyce Bialik

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

A system that increasingly stigmatized its recipients only became more stigmatizing with the enactment in 1996 of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA) program. This program has been so successful in deterring cashneedy people from applying for assistance that the decline in participation from the start of the program continues-even in times of economic downturn. The study reported here follows 150 impoverished families during the first three years of PRWORA, when the economy was booming. The data were derived from the Early Head Start Research and Evaluation Project of 1996-2001. Through this secondary analysis a construct was ...


Bringing The Organization Back In: The Role Of Bureaucratic Churning In Early Tanf Caseload Declines In Illinois, Chad Broughton Sep 2010

Bringing The Organization Back In: The Role Of Bureaucratic Churning In Early Tanf Caseload Declines In Illinois, Chad Broughton

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

Welfare reform legislation in the late 1990s lead to rapid declines in state welfare caseloads. In contrast to prevailing accounts that emphasize rapid job creation and those that pin caseload declines on successful work incentives and behavioral sanctions, this article argues that organizational rationing mechanisms explain a large portion of the sharp initial declines in Illinois. The article first highlights how street-level bureaucratic practices oriented toward caseload reduction arose in TANF implementing bodies from a reordered and narrow set of organizational incentives that had little to do with the symbolic goals of welfare reform. Based on an analysis of state-level ...


"Like A Prison!": Homeless Women's Narratives Of Surviving Shelter, Sarah L. Deward, Angela M. Moe Mar 2010

"Like A Prison!": Homeless Women's Narratives Of Surviving Shelter, Sarah L. Deward, Angela M. Moe

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

Relying on field observation and twenty qualitative interviews with shelter residents, this article examines how the bureaucracy and institutionalization within a homeless shelter fits various tenets of Goffman's (1961) "total institution," particularly with regard to systematic deterioration of personhood and loss of autonomy. Women's experiences as shelter residents are then explored via a typology of survival strategies: submission, adaptation, and resistance. This research contributes to existing literature on gendered poverty by analyzing the nuanced ways in which institutionalization affects and complicates women's efforts to survive homelessness.


Welcome To The Neighborhood: Does Where You Live Affect The Use Of Nutrition, Health, And Welfare Programs?, Molly De Marco, Allison C. De Marco Mar 2009

Welcome To The Neighborhood: Does Where You Live Affect The Use Of Nutrition, Health, And Welfare Programs?, Molly De Marco, Allison C. De Marco

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

Despite the recent upsurge in neighborhood effects research, few studies have examined the impact of neighborhood characteristics on the use of nutrition, health, and welfare programs. To explore these issues, this study used data from Welfare, Children, and Families: A Three-City Study, a longitudinal dataset comprised of low-income neighborhoods in Boston, San Antonio, and Chicago (n=1,712). Using hierarchical linear models, the results indicated that both individual (education, employment, and marriage) and perceived neighborhood disorder factors were related to social service use.


Testing The Relationship Of Formal Bonding, Informal Bonding, And Formal Bridging Social Capital On Key Outcomes For Families In Low-Income Neighborhoods, Daniel Brisson Mar 2009

Testing The Relationship Of Formal Bonding, Informal Bonding, And Formal Bridging Social Capital On Key Outcomes For Families In Low-Income Neighborhoods, Daniel Brisson

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

The development of social capital among families living in low income neighborhoods has become a popular poverty reduction and economic advancement strategy. However conceptual scholarship suggests the broad use of social capital has diminished its importance. Scholars have begun to identify the multiple and overlapping characteristics of social capital and the field now needs empirical studies to show how specific types of social capital are important for families living in low-income neighborhoods. This study tests the relationship between three types of social capital (informal bonding social capital, formal bonding social capital and formal bridging social capital) and important outcomes for ...


The Failures Of American Poverty Measures, Stephen Pimpare Mar 2009

The Failures Of American Poverty Measures, Stephen Pimpare

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

How we think about need or deprivation-how we judge its severity, its causes and effects, and the progress we have made (or not made) over time in reducing it-has much to do with how we define and then measure it. And, we measure it poorly. The insufficiencies of official data on American poverty are reasonably well known, yet they continue, nonetheless, to be the principal means by which we gauge need in the United States. After a review of such official measures, this article discusses alternative means of evaluating need in the United States, highlighting the benefits of examining poverty ...


Welfare And Family Economic Security: Toward A Place-Based Poverty Knowledge, Deborah A. Harris, Domenico Parisi Sep 2008

Welfare And Family Economic Security: Toward A Place-Based Poverty Knowledge, Deborah A. Harris, Domenico Parisi

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

The Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA) of 1996 is viewed by many as a resounding success. Its success, however, is predicated primarily on caseload reduction rather than improvement of family well-being. In addition, provisions in the act ignore the importance of place in shaping one's life chances. Using Alice O'Connor's influential book, Poverty Knowledge, as a framework, we discuss findings from a qualitative study that examines how low-income families plan for a life without welfare in places with different opportunities and structural constraints. We find that returns to TANF are common among welfare leavers ...


"It's All One Big Circle": Welfare Discourse And The Everyday Lives Of Urban Adolescents, Staci T. Lowe Sep 2008

"It's All One Big Circle": Welfare Discourse And The Everyday Lives Of Urban Adolescents, Staci T. Lowe

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

Welfare reform succeeded, in part, because of discourse that characterized the poverty problem as one of long-term dependency and personal irresponsibility. Adolescent pregnancy was targeted as both cause and manifestation of a welfare crisis. This study examined how welfare reform was perceived and experienced by lowincome, urban adolescents. Findings from interviews revealed that adolescents agreed with many of the basic tenets of welfare reform, largely because they had appropriated much of the discourse prevalent in wider society. However, their complex life stories contained a powerful subtext concerning structural determinants of poverty that ran counter to prevailing notions of "personal responsibility."


Lost In Appalachia: The Unexpected Impact Of Welfare Reform On Older Women In Rural Communities, Debra A. Henderson, Ann R. Tickamyer Sep 2008

Lost In Appalachia: The Unexpected Impact Of Welfare Reform On Older Women In Rural Communities, Debra A. Henderson, Ann R. Tickamyer

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

A primary goal of welfare reform was to overcome welfare dependency through the promotion of work and the setting of lifetime limits. While atf irst blush thisg oal may have appearedr easonablef or young recipients, it does not address the needs of older recipients, particularly women. Based on in-depth interviews with welfare recipients in four impoverished rural Appalachian counties over a four year time span (1999-2001; 2004), this paper evaluates the experiences of older women as they confront the changes brought on by welfare reform legislation. Findings suggest that impoverished older women in isolated rural communities experience multiple crises as ...