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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Age Stereotypes And Attitudes Towards Welfare State Arrangements For The Old: A Multilevel Analysis Across Twenty-Nine Countries, Ferry Koster Jan 2018

Age Stereotypes And Attitudes Towards Welfare State Arrangements For The Old: A Multilevel Analysis Across Twenty-Nine Countries, Ferry Koster

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

This study investigates whether and how support for welfare state arrangements for the old relate to the stereotypes of the young and the old within society. It is hypothesized that the social status that these groups have in society affect these attitudes through different mechanisms, relating to the deservingness criteria that citizens apply. An empirical analysis of Round 4 of the European Social Survey (including 50,009 individuals from 29 European countries) shows that: (1) the social esteem of people over 70 predicts support for welfare state arrangements for the old; and (2) the social esteem of people in their ...


Are Older Adults Who Participate In The Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program Healthier Than Eligible Nonparticipants? Evidence From The Health And Retirement Study, Jin Kim Jan 2017

Are Older Adults Who Participate In The Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program Healthier Than Eligible Nonparticipants? Evidence From The Health And Retirement Study, Jin Kim

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

This research examined the impact of participation in the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program on the health of older adults. The study used panel data from the 2004-2012 Waves of the Rand version of the Health and Retirement Study to estimate regression models of self-reported health and the number of doctor-diagnosed conditions, controlling for individual characteristics and time fixed effects. The findings revealed that program participants did not maintain or improve their health status relative to non-participants during the study period. Thus, the study confirms that program participation confers negligible benefits in maintaining and improving the health status of older adults.


When ‘Places’ Include Pets: Broadening The Scope Of Relational Approaches To Promoting Aging-In-Place, Ann M. Toohey, Jennifer A. Hewson, Cindy L. Adams, Melanie J. Rock Jan 2017

When ‘Places’ Include Pets: Broadening The Scope Of Relational Approaches To Promoting Aging-In-Place, Ann M. Toohey, Jennifer A. Hewson, Cindy L. Adams, Melanie J. Rock

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

Aging-in-place is a well-established concept, but discussions rarely consider that many older adults live with pets. In a ‘pet-friendly’ city, we conducted semi-structured interviews to explore perspectives of community-based social support agencies that promote aging-in-place, and those of animal welfare agencies. Applying a relational ecology theoretical framework, we found that pets may contribute to feeling socially- situated, yet may also exacerbate constraints on autonomy experienced by some older adults. Pet-related considerations at times led to discretionary acts of more-than-human solidarity, but also created paradoxical situations for service-providers, impacting their efforts to assist older adults. A shortage of pet-friendly affordable housing ...


Value Discretion In A People-Changing Environment: Taking The Long View, Stephanie Baker Collins Jan 2016

Value Discretion In A People-Changing Environment: Taking The Long View, Stephanie Baker Collins

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

This article explores the normative value judgements (called value discretion) made by Ontario Works income assistance case managers in their people-changing roles. The focus of case management under welfare reform has moved from determining eligibility for income assistance—people processing, to moving recipients from assistance to employment—people changing. The article outlines case managers’ pursuit of “the long view” in working with recipients over time moving from assessment to crisis work to meeting workfare requirements. In taking the long view case managers expose a basic contradiction in welfare reform that people changing does not result in the shortest route to ...


Pathologies Of The Poor: What Do The War On Drugs And Welfare Reform Have In Common?, Kalynn Amundson, Anna M. Zajicek, Valerie H. Hunt Jan 2014

Pathologies Of The Poor: What Do The War On Drugs And Welfare Reform Have In Common?, Kalynn Amundson, Anna M. Zajicek, Valerie H. Hunt

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

The Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 (PRWORA) authorized drug testing of welfare recipients as a criterion for assistance eligibility. This raises the question of a possible confluence of War on Drugs and Welfare Reform policies, as indicated by continuity in policymakers’ rhetoric. We examine federal-level policymakers’ debates surrounding the authorization of drug testing welfare recipients. The analysis reveals that themes of social pathology were present in both policy areas. Crime, drug addiction, welfare dependency, and drug testing themes are comparable in both debates. Teen pregnancy, out-of-wedlock birth, and female-headed households themes were more prevalent in Welfare ...


Institutionalization Of Children In The Czech Republic: A Case Of Path Dependency, Victoria Schmidt, Jo Daugherty Bailey Jan 2014

Institutionalization Of Children In The Czech Republic: A Case Of Path Dependency, Victoria Schmidt, Jo Daugherty Bailey

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

Despite the development of alternative forms of care, international and domestic pressures for change, and over 20 years of efforts at deinstitutionalization, the Czech Republic has one of the highest rates of institutionalization of children in Europe (UNICEF, 2012). The continuing reliance upon residential care for children by the child protection system, particularly for children who are disabled or of Roma descent, demonstrates a case of path dependency in which a solidification of the system’s response is rooted in its past. Understanding the impact of historical precedence is key to reforming the current system.


Sweden's Parental Leave Insurance: A Policy Analysis Of Strategies To Increase Gender Equality, Juliana Carlson May 2013

Sweden's Parental Leave Insurance: A Policy Analysis Of Strategies To Increase Gender Equality, Juliana Carlson

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

Sweden's parental leave insurance is recognized internationally as the premiere parental leave policy addressing gender equality. Since 1974, when the policy changed from maternal to parental leave, policy makers have employed a variety ofstrategies including inducements, rules, and rights, to increase more gender-equal leave taking. Using Stone's (2006) strategy conceptualization, together with the gender systems approach (Crompton, 1999) which frames the gendered and socially constructed nature of earner/caregiver, this analysis examines how each of Sweden's incremental reforms in parental leave policy moved toward the goal of gender equality, with particular attention to father participation in caregiving.


Remarital Chances, Choices, And Economic Consequences: Issues Of Social And Personal Welfare, Kevin Shafer, Todd M. Jensen May 2013

Remarital Chances, Choices, And Economic Consequences: Issues Of Social And Personal Welfare, Kevin Shafer, Todd M. Jensen

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

Many divorced women experience a significant decline in financial, social, physical, and psychological well-being following a divorce. Using data from the NLSY79 (n= 2,520) we compare welfare recipients, mothers, and impoverished women to less marginalized divorcees on remarriage chances. Furthermore, we look at the kinds of men these women marry by focusing on the employment and education of new spouses. Finally, we address how remarriage and spousal quality (as defined by education and employment) impact economic well-being after divorce. Our results show that remarriage has positive economic effects, but that is dependent upon spousal quality. However, such matches are ...


'We Are Radical': The Right To The City Alliance And The Future Of Community Organizing, Robert Fisher, Yuseph Katiya, Christopher Reid, Eric Shragge Mar 2013

'We Are Radical': The Right To The City Alliance And The Future Of Community Organizing, Robert Fisher, Yuseph Katiya, Christopher Reid, Eric Shragge

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

This paper seeks to situate current efforts of The Right to the City Alliance and selected member groups in a longitudinal and cross-sectional qualitative study of the limits and potential of contemporary organizing. For three decades politicians, policy makers, advocates, academics, and even activists have promoted community-based efforts as the primary vehicle for contemporary social change. Local organizing has been seen as the best site and strategy for initiatives as diverse as community economic development, public school reform, social service delivery, and challenging the powers that be. In almost all cases these efforts have been constrained and moderated by a ...


"Where Are My Rights?" Compromised Citizenship In Mixed-Status Marriage A Research Note, April M. Schueths Dec 2012

"Where Are My Rights?" Compromised Citizenship In Mixed-Status Marriage A Research Note, April M. Schueths

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

Immigration policy has shifted its focus from family reunification to strict enforcement of "illegal" immigration. It has become much more difficult for U.S. citizens to adjust their non-citizen spouses' legal status, especially spouses who are undocumented. This paper examines the vulnerabilities of female U.S. citizens married or partnered with undocumented Mexican men. Findings challenge the simplistic notion that marriage with a U.S. citizen creates automatic legalization for undocumented individuals and highlights the creation of a second class citizenry for native-born partners. This study argues that punitive immigration law and policies have profound negative implications for the lives ...


Explicating The Social Mechanisms Linking Alcohol Use Behaviors And Ecology To Child Maltreatment, Bridget Freisthler, Megan R. Holmes Dec 2012

Explicating The Social Mechanisms Linking Alcohol Use Behaviors And Ecology To Child Maltreatment, Bridget Freisthler, Megan R. Holmes

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

This paper begins to describe and explicate the specific mechanisms by which alcohol use and the alcohol use environment contribute to specific types of child maltreatment. These mechanisms relating alcohol outlet densities to child maltreatment described here include effects on social disorganization, parent's drinking behaviors, and parental supervision. By investigating potential mechanisms, new information could be obtained on the importance and role of alcohol and its availability in the etiology of child maltreatment. This knowledge can be used to further tailor interventions to those conditions most likely to prevent and reduce maltreatment.


A Social Justice Perspective On Medicare Part D In An Age Of Reform: Critical Implications Of Trends In Health Care Policy And Advocacy, Louanne Bakk, Marya R. Sosulski Sep 2012

A Social Justice Perspective On Medicare Part D In An Age Of Reform: Critical Implications Of Trends In Health Care Policy And Advocacy, Louanne Bakk, Marya R. Sosulski

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

This article examines the Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act of 2003 (MMA) in its current form and explains why a critical perspective is useful when analyzing the policy and reform efforts. Using this approach, we consider the development of the policy and describe ways that gender and racial differences may hinder equal access to medications for some of the most vulnerable older adults. This article explores the implications of gender and racial disparities under the MMA and ramifications of health care reform efforts that could potentially impede, rather than promote, a social justice agenda. Beyond the political advantage ...


Long Term Care Insurance Beyond The Class Program, Amy Restorick Roberts, David B. Miller, Merl C. "Terry" Hokenstad Jr. Sep 2012

Long Term Care Insurance Beyond The Class Program, Amy Restorick Roberts, David B. Miller, Merl C. "Terry" Hokenstad Jr.

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

The Community Living Assistance and Supports (CLASS) program, created under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, established a federally-administered, voluntary insurance program that allows for working adults to purchase insurance to cover the cost of long term support services. The CLASS program is the first step towards moving away from a welfare-based system, improving consumer choice, and creating a stable funding source for long term care needs. Enrollees in the CLASS program who meet benefit eligibility requirements and need care assistance will receive a cash benefit to pay for supportive services such as home health care, adult day services ...


If Not Welfare, Then What?: How Single Mothers Finance College Post-Welfare Reform, Kristin Wilson Dec 2011

If Not Welfare, Then What?: How Single Mothers Finance College Post-Welfare Reform, Kristin Wilson

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

The article follows previous work on TANF and AFDC by asking if not welfare, then what social programs and financial aid programs are low-income women using to support their college attendance, and what is the impact of these programs on the college-going decisions of low-income women? The study is based on case studies of 10 low-income women attending a community college. Results indicated that EITC, food stamps, and subsidized housing are stable sources of funding. However, each of these programs requires diferent application processes and compliance regulations. Only the Pell Grant was viewed as a dependable source of funding for ...


Analyzing The Poverty Reduction Effectiveness Of The Canadian Provinces: Do Political Parties Matter?, Robert D. Weaver, Nazim Habivov, Lida Fan Mar 2011

Analyzing The Poverty Reduction Effectiveness Of The Canadian Provinces: Do Political Parties Matter?, Robert D. Weaver, Nazim Habivov, Lida Fan

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

The implementation of the Canada Health and Social Transfer in 1996 marked a new era for the Canadian welfare state, as greater discretion in the area of social welfare policy and programming was granted to the provinces. In this study, the authors analyzed nationally representative data to determine if the governing provincial parties, characterized by distinct ideological and party platform positions, differed in regards to their poverty reduction effectiveness during 1996-2005. The authors' analysis yielded no differences between the governing provincial parties in terms of their poverty reduction effectiveness. The study's implications for future research, including research on subnational ...


The Differentiated Impact Of Bridging And Bonding Social Capital On Economic Well-Being: An Individual Level Perspective, Saijun Zhang, Steven. G. Anderson, Min Zhan Mar 2011

The Differentiated Impact Of Bridging And Bonding Social Capital On Economic Well-Being: An Individual Level Perspective, Saijun Zhang, Steven. G. Anderson, Min Zhan

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

Social capital refers to trust, norms, and social networks. One of the most important features of social capital is its claimed capacity of promoting economic well-being. Theorists have assumed that any such effects vary according to the nature of different types of social capital. Using longitudinal data from a nationally representative dataset, this study investigates the differentiated effects of individual bonding and bridging social capital on subsequent personal income and income-to-needs ratios. The analyses demonstrate that bridging capital, indicated by involvement in various voluntary organizations, has small but significant effects on future economic wellbeing. However, bonding capital, indicated by connections ...


U.S. Immigration Policy And Immigrant Children's Well-Being: The Impact Of Policy Shifts, David K. Androff, Cecilia Ayon, David Becerra, Maria Gurrola, Lorraine Salas, Judy Krysik, Karen Gerdes, Elizabeth Segal Mar 2011

U.S. Immigration Policy And Immigrant Children's Well-Being: The Impact Of Policy Shifts, David K. Androff, Cecilia Ayon, David Becerra, Maria Gurrola, Lorraine Salas, Judy Krysik, Karen Gerdes, Elizabeth Segal

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

America is built upon a history of immigration; yet current immigration policy and anti-immigrant sentiment negatively affect the vulnerable population of immigrant families and children. Immigrant children face many problems, including economic insecurity, barriers to education, poor health outcomes, the arrest and deportation of family members, discrimination, and trauma and harm to their communities. These areas of immigrant children's economic and material well-being are examined in light of restrictive and punitive immigration policies at the federal and local level. Implications for social policy reform, such as decriminalization, are discussed.


Bringing The Organization Back In: The Role Of Bureaucratic Churning In Early Tanf Caseload Declines In Illinois, Chad Broughton Sep 2010

Bringing The Organization Back In: The Role Of Bureaucratic Churning In Early Tanf Caseload Declines In Illinois, Chad Broughton

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

Welfare reform legislation in the late 1990s lead to rapid declines in state welfare caseloads. In contrast to prevailing accounts that emphasize rapid job creation and those that pin caseload declines on successful work incentives and behavioral sanctions, this article argues that organizational rationing mechanisms explain a large portion of the sharp initial declines in Illinois. The article first highlights how street-level bureaucratic practices oriented toward caseload reduction arose in TANF implementing bodies from a reordered and narrow set of organizational incentives that had little to do with the symbolic goals of welfare reform. Based on an analysis of state-level ...


Child Care And Development Fund: A Policy Analysis, Colleen K. Vesely, Elaine A. Anderson Mar 2009

Child Care And Development Fund: A Policy Analysis, Colleen K. Vesely, Elaine A. Anderson

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

Legislated as part of welfare reform, the Child Care and Development Fund (CCDF) is the main source of child care government funding earmarked for low-income families. As a block grant, with broad federal guidelines, states have significant freedom in implementing this legislation to meet the needs of their citizens. This diverse implementation has challenged legislators and scholars trying to assess the success of CCDF across the United States. In considering the evaluation research of CCDF, as well as the original goals of this legislation, several major themes related to the diverse state implementation emerged, including access, equity, and stability. This ...


Promoting Positive Outcomes For Healthy Youth Development: Utilizing Social Capital Theory, Julie Anne Laser, George Stuart Leibowitz Mar 2009

Promoting Positive Outcomes For Healthy Youth Development: Utilizing Social Capital Theory, Julie Anne Laser, George Stuart Leibowitz

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

This article discusses the central tenets of the theories of social capital, which include exchanges, trust, obligation, bonding, bridging, and issues concerning the marginalization of certain groups. Included is an exploration of the limitations of the approaches of the key theorists, followed by the presentation of a theoretical framework and model of the development of social capital among youth. Additionally, the article discusses the relevancy of social capital for social work practice.


The Failures Of American Poverty Measures, Stephen Pimpare Mar 2009

The Failures Of American Poverty Measures, Stephen Pimpare

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

How we think about need or deprivation-how we judge its severity, its causes and effects, and the progress we have made (or not made) over time in reducing it-has much to do with how we define and then measure it. And, we measure it poorly. The insufficiencies of official data on American poverty are reasonably well known, yet they continue, nonetheless, to be the principal means by which we gauge need in the United States. After a review of such official measures, this article discusses alternative means of evaluating need in the United States, highlighting the benefits of examining poverty ...


The Untold Story Of Welfare Fraud, Richelle S. Swan, Linda L. Shaw, Sharon Cullity, Joni Halpern, Juliana Humphrey, Wendy M. Limbert, Mary Roche Sep 2008

The Untold Story Of Welfare Fraud, Richelle S. Swan, Linda L. Shaw, Sharon Cullity, Joni Halpern, Juliana Humphrey, Wendy M. Limbert, Mary Roche

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

The experiences of women who have been charged with welfare fraud in the years following the passage of the 1996 Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act cast a shadow over the claim that welfare reform has been an unequivocal success. This article addresses this under-explored issue by considering the face of welfare fraud in San Diego, California after the change to federal welfare law. After a brief discussion of the socio-historical context of welfare fraud prosecution and a summary of the scholarly findings related to welfare fraud post-PRWORA, the aiticle details a new "poverty knowledge" about welfare fraud drawn ...


Tracking The Transition From Welfare To Work, Cynthia Needles Fletcher, Mary Winter, An-Ti Shih Sep 2008

Tracking The Transition From Welfare To Work, Cynthia Needles Fletcher, Mary Winter, An-Ti Shih

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

One of the primary goals of the 1996 federal welfare reform legislation was to reduce dependency on cash transfers and to promote self-sufficiency through employment in the paid labor force. This paper draws upon a qualitative study of 18 Iowa welfare recipients and tracks changes that occur over a three-year, post-reform period. Thick descriptions highlight the internal family dynamics of the choices made over time. The purposes of the study are twofold:first, to document changes in family composition, employment, housing, and program participation, and second, to report how recipients experience such changes. Findings reveal that the 11 families who ...


History Of Contemporary Social Policy: Introduction, Richard K. Caputo Mar 2008

History Of Contemporary Social Policy: Introduction, Richard K. Caputo

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

As the contributions to this special issue of ]SSW attest, much can be said about the nature of social welfare policies and programs over the past quarter century. Some changes are allegedly beneficial, some not, in regard to the welfare of the nation in general and to economically needy people in particular. The welfare program in the form of cash assistance primarily to lowincome mothers and their children as we had understood and implemented it since 1935 ended. Work effort became the sine qua non of cash assistance for all low-income families. Further, the very notion of the welfare state ...


Social Security Privatization: An Ideologically Structured Movement, Judie Svihula, Carroll L. Estes Mar 2008

Social Security Privatization: An Ideologically Structured Movement, Judie Svihula, Carroll L. Estes

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

We document the cumulative change in expressions of support for Social Security's social insurance ideals to privatization,from the late 1970s through 2007. Social Security's basic structure and principles generally were supported by the United States government and in amendments to the original Act of 1935. However, in the 1980s market arguments began to proliferate in government alongside pension privatization projects by international governmental organizations and conservative think tanks. Although in 1983 Commission members concluded "the Social Security system is sound in principle.. and... structure," four members wrote a supplemental statement that emphasized market rationalism. By 1994 dissension ...


The Illusion Of Change, The Politics Of Illusion: Evolution Of The Family Support Act Of 1988, Luisa S. Deprez Mar 2008

The Illusion Of Change, The Politics Of Illusion: Evolution Of The Family Support Act Of 1988, Luisa S. Deprez

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

The enactment of the Family Support Act was the outcome of a six-year legislative and administrative review of, and debate about, welfare policy and programs. Heralded as the opportunity of the century, it did little, however, to alter existing policy. This article examines the evolution of the Family Support Act within the United States Congress, spotlighting two important time periods leading up to its enactment: 1981 to 1985 and 1986 to 1988. Original documentsfroin the files of the late Senator Moynihan, legislative sponsor of the Family Support Act, as well as a comprehensive investigation of Congressional records of hearings and ...


A Decent Home For Every Family? Housing Policy Initiatives Since The 1980s, Sondra J. Fogel, Marc T. Smith, Anne R. Williamson Mar 2008

A Decent Home For Every Family? Housing Policy Initiatives Since The 1980s, Sondra J. Fogel, Marc T. Smith, Anne R. Williamson

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

A fundamental economic and social principle embedded in the American psyche remains the value of shelter. However, housing policy is the result of a complex exchange among economic, political, and social agendas competing for attention within the multiple levels of local, state, and federal governments. This article intends to capture what we consider afea of the significant initiatives since 1980 that reflect these tensions and comprise our current housing policies and directions. Furthermore, we suggest additional housing issues that may need to be addressed by the next presidential administration.


Toward Global Welfare State Convergence?: Family Policy And Health Care In Sweden, Canada And The United States, Gregg M. Olsen Jun 2007

Toward Global Welfare State Convergence?: Family Policy And Health Care In Sweden, Canada And The United States, Gregg M. Olsen

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

Accounts of the welfare state and the dynamics governing its development have been pivotal and highly contentious in the social policy literature over the past few decades. Since the 1980s, research has suggested that, as a result of domestic pressures and strains and/or the impact of globalization, welfare states were declining in tandem. However, most of these studies were quantitativefocusing upon 18 or more advanced capitalist nations and, in their search to uncover broad cross-national trends, utilized narrow welfare state indicators. This study investigates the extent to which the social democratic welfare state in Sweden, the social liberal welfare ...


Globalization, Welfare Reform And The Social Economy: Developing An Alternative Approach To Analyzing Social Welfare Systems In The Post-Industrial Era, Vanna Gonzales Jun 2007

Globalization, Welfare Reform And The Social Economy: Developing An Alternative Approach To Analyzing Social Welfare Systems In The Post-Industrial Era, Vanna Gonzales

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

Our understanding of the relationship between globalization and contemporary social welfare systems is heavily influenced by three conventional approaches to studying welfare reform: the political economy, moral economy, and mixed economy approaches. In addition to analyzing the strengths and weaknesses of each of these approaches, a central aim of this article is to introduce the social economy approach as an emergent alternative. Drawing from a growing body of work on institutional innovation within the European third sector, I argue that the social economy approach makes a valuable contribution to understanding the role of welfare networks in reconfiguring globalizations' impact on ...


Foster Parents' Reasons For Fostering And Foster Family Utilization, Kathryn Rhodes, Mary Ellen Cox, John G. Orme, Tanya Coakley Dec 2006

Foster Parents' Reasons For Fostering And Foster Family Utilization, Kathryn Rhodes, Mary Ellen Cox, John G. Orme, Tanya Coakley

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

Better utilization of foster families might be linked to parents' reasons for fostering. This study used data from the National Survey of Current and Former Foster Parents to examine relationships between reasons for fostering and types of services and length of service foster parents provide. Top reasons for fostering were child-centered. The least endorsed reasons were self-oriented. Those who fostered to help children with special problems were more likely to have a child placed, had more children, and had fostered more types of special needs children. Parents who fostered because their children were grown were more likely to have a ...