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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Age Stereotypes And Attitudes Towards Welfare State Arrangements For The Old: A Multilevel Analysis Across Twenty-Nine Countries, Ferry Koster Jan 2018

Age Stereotypes And Attitudes Towards Welfare State Arrangements For The Old: A Multilevel Analysis Across Twenty-Nine Countries, Ferry Koster

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

This study investigates whether and how support for welfare state arrangements for the old relate to the stereotypes of the young and the old within society. It is hypothesized that the social status that these groups have in society affect these attitudes through different mechanisms, relating to the deservingness criteria that citizens apply. An empirical analysis of Round 4 of the European Social Survey (including 50,009 individuals from 29 European countries) shows that: (1) the social esteem of people over 70 predicts support for welfare state arrangements for the old; and (2) the social esteem of people in their ...


Educational Attainment In Young Adulthood, Depressive Symptoms, And Race-Ethnicity: The Long-Reach Of Parenting Styles In Adolescence, Brittany N. Hearne, C. André Christie-Mizell Jan 2018

Educational Attainment In Young Adulthood, Depressive Symptoms, And Race-Ethnicity: The Long-Reach Of Parenting Styles In Adolescence, Brittany N. Hearne, C. André Christie-Mizell

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

Utilizing four parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian, uninvolved, and permissive) and two types of educational achievement (years of education completed and completion of a college degree), we investigated whether mental health (i.e., depressive symptoms) mediates the relationship between parenting styles in adolescence and the educational attainment of young adults. We further assessed whether the relationships among parenting styles and educational attainment vary by race and ethnicity for African Americans, Hispanics, and whites. Compared to youth with authoritative parenting, those who experienced uninvolved or authoritarian parenting were more likely to experience depressive affect, and these symptoms of depression partially mediated the ...


"I Play Golf With My Kids, Not My Colleagues": Politicians, Parenting, And Unpaid Work As A Choice?, Cheryl Najarian Souza Jan 2017

"I Play Golf With My Kids, Not My Colleagues": Politicians, Parenting, And Unpaid Work As A Choice?, Cheryl Najarian Souza

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

Through in-depth interviews with thirty women and men politicians, this paper investigates their unpaid work as parents and their paid work. Using Goffman’s (1959) concepts of “front stage” and “back stage” performances, the author argues that the women and men developed strategies to do this work. Decisions about whether or not to run for their first job in politics were gendered. Another finding was that the experiences of their families and the making of public policies were gendered. The women organized their “village” while the men saw their fathering roles in terms of scheduling dad time. Finally, there were ...


When ‘Places’ Include Pets: Broadening The Scope Of Relational Approaches To Promoting Aging-In-Place, Ann M. Toohey, Jennifer A. Hewson, Cindy L. Adams, Melanie J. Rock Jan 2017

When ‘Places’ Include Pets: Broadening The Scope Of Relational Approaches To Promoting Aging-In-Place, Ann M. Toohey, Jennifer A. Hewson, Cindy L. Adams, Melanie J. Rock

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

Aging-in-place is a well-established concept, but discussions rarely consider that many older adults live with pets. In a ‘pet-friendly’ city, we conducted semi-structured interviews to explore perspectives of community-based social support agencies that promote aging-in-place, and those of animal welfare agencies. Applying a relational ecology theoretical framework, we found that pets may contribute to feeling socially- situated, yet may also exacerbate constraints on autonomy experienced by some older adults. Pet-related considerations at times led to discretionary acts of more-than-human solidarity, but also created paradoxical situations for service-providers, impacting their efforts to assist older adults. A shortage of pet-friendly affordable housing ...


Trading The Picket Fence: Perceptions Of Childbirth, Marriage, And Career, Wanda Parham-Payne, Bette J. Dickerson, Tekisha Dwan Everette Sep 2013

Trading The Picket Fence: Perceptions Of Childbirth, Marriage, And Career, Wanda Parham-Payne, Bette J. Dickerson, Tekisha Dwan Everette

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

While there was a slightly lower rate of out-of-wedlock births in 2009, 41 percent of all births were to unmarried women. Although there has been an increase across the board among older age groups, Black women continue to have children out of wedlock at a disproportionately higher rate than White and Asian women. This is of particular interest, considering African-American women are increasingly attaining higher levels of education in comparison to previous generations of African-American women. As such, the perceptions of childbirth, child-rearing, and marriage among a sample of African-American women matriculating within a postsecondary setting are explored.


Employee Benefits And Policies: Do They Make A Difference For Work/Family Conflict?, Dina Banerjee, Carolyn Cummings Perrucci Sep 2012

Employee Benefits And Policies: Do They Make A Difference For Work/Family Conflict?, Dina Banerjee, Carolyn Cummings Perrucci

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

This paper examines both the prevalence of employee benefits and whether the existence of any of numerous work/family policies is related to reduced perceived work/family conflict among a 2002 national sample of U.S. employees. We compare the impact of relatively standard employee benefits with more "controversial" work/family policies regarding flexible work time and child care. We determine whether the impact still remains when typical individual employee characteristics, human capital variables, workplace culture variables, and workplace support variables are controlled statistically in multiple regressions. We find that it is the relatively conventional benefits that are most available ...


Public Attitudes And Gender Policy Regimes: Coherence And Stability In Hard Times, Jing Guo, Neil Gilbert Jun 2012

Public Attitudes And Gender Policy Regimes: Coherence And Stability In Hard Times, Jing Guo, Neil Gilbert

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

Drawing upon data from the European Social Survey on public attitudes and social welfare, this paper analyzes the extent to which attitudes toward gender equality in work and family life vary among 13 countries which represent different welfare regimes. The analysis also examines how these attitudes have changed with the onset of the economic recession in 2007. The findings suggest that public attitudes toward gender issues are largely consistent with welfare regimes, and most notably, reveal a clear direction of moving away from traditional views of gender, family and work issues in economic hard times.


Food Stamps And Dependency: Disentangling The Short-Term And Long-Term Economic Effects Of Food Stamp Receipt And Low Income For Young Mothers, Thomas P. Vartanian, Linda Houser, Joseph Harkness Dec 2011

Food Stamps And Dependency: Disentangling The Short-Term And Long-Term Economic Effects Of Food Stamp Receipt And Low Income For Young Mothers, Thomas P. Vartanian, Linda Houser, Joseph Harkness

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

The Food Stamp Program (FSP) remains one of the most widely used of all U.S. social "safety net" programs. While a substantial body of research has developed around the primary goals of the program- improving food access, nutrition, and health among lowincome families-less attention has been paid to the broader goals of hardship and poverty reduction. Using 38 years of data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, we examine several immediate and longer-term economic outcomes of early adult FSP participation for a sample of3,848 young mothers. While FSP participation is associated with some negative outcomes in the ...


Impact Of Social Capital On Employment And Marriage Among Low Income Single Mothers, Jennifer A. Johnson, Julie A. Honnold, Perry Threlfall Dec 2011

Impact Of Social Capital On Employment And Marriage Among Low Income Single Mothers, Jennifer A. Johnson, Julie A. Honnold, Perry Threlfall

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

The 1996 Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 (PRWORA, P. L. 104-93) called primarily on women to achieve two goals: work and/or marriage. For low income single mothers with limited access to capital, the PRWORA presents a quagmire in that the public safety nets previously guaranteed by the policies of the New Deal were abruptly supplanted by policies with obligations that require various forms of capital. Using longitudinal data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing dataset, we examine the impact of social capital on the chances of marriage and employment among single, unemployed mothers. We ...


Perspectives Of Employed People Experiencing Homelessness Of Self And Being Homeless: Challenging Socially Constructed Perceptions And Stereotypes, Micheal L. Shier, Marion E. Jones, John R. Graham Dec 2010

Perspectives Of Employed People Experiencing Homelessness Of Self And Being Homeless: Challenging Socially Constructed Perceptions And Stereotypes, Micheal L. Shier, Marion E. Jones, John R. Graham

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

In a study that sought to identify the multiple factors resulting in homelessness from the perspective of 65 individuals in Calgary, Alberta, Canada who were both employed and homeless, we found that participants' perceptions of being homeless emerged as a major theme which impacts their entry to and exit from homelessness. Four sub-themes related to these perceptions were identified: (1) perceptions of self and situation; (2) impact of being homeless on self-reflection; (3) aspects of hope to consider; and (4) perspectives on having a permanent residence. Analytically, these findings help challenge present stereotypes about homelessness and usefully inform social service ...


Work Characteristics And Family Routines In Low-Wage Families, Amanda Sheely Sep 2010

Work Characteristics And Family Routines In Low-Wage Families, Amanda Sheely

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

The maintenance of routines is linked to positive outcomes in children and families. Role theory asserts that resources and constraints found in family and work environments will shape a parent's ability to successfully fulfill both roles. To date, there is scant research examining the maintenance of routines in lowincome families whose work environments are often characterized by temporary work, non-traditional shifts, and irregular hours. This study seeks to understand the relationship between employment characteristics on the maintenance of family routines in a sample of low-wage families. The results of this study support the findings of other researchers that low-wage ...


Family Characteristics, Public Program Participation, & Civic Engagement, Richard K. Caputo Jun 2010

Family Characteristics, Public Program Participation, & Civic Engagement, Richard K. Caputo

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

This study tested for differences on the type and extent of civic engagement between use of visible programs such as Food Stamps and Medicaid and less visible programs such as the Earned Income Tax Credit while accounting for family and socio demographic characteristics. Policy feedback theory guided the study which used data from the 1979 cohort of the National Longitudinal Surveys. Challenging prior research, means-tested Food Stamps, Medicaid, or EITC program participants were as likely as non-participants to devote time to activities aimed at changing social conditions. What social service agencies can do to enhance civic engagement is discussed.


Chat-Room Voices Of Divorced Non-Residential Fathers, Pauline Irit Erera, Nehami Baum Jun 2009

Chat-Room Voices Of Divorced Non-Residential Fathers, Pauline Irit Erera, Nehami Baum

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

This study uses postings by divorced fathers to an unmoderated Internet chat room to sound and analyze their voices. The findings show that the posters expressed an acute sense of powerlessness with respect to their status as non-residential fathers, the imposition of child support, the mothers of their children, the family courts, and lawyers and helping professionals. Although most of their grievances have already been reported in the literature on non-custodial post-divorce parenting, the anonymous postings allow us to hear an intensity of feeling that comes through much more faintly in studies based on interviews or focus groups. Since the ...


African American Grandmothers Providing Extensive Care To Their Grandchildren: Socio-Demographic And Health Determinants Of Life Satisfaction, Dorothy Smith-Ruiz Dec 2008

African American Grandmothers Providing Extensive Care To Their Grandchildren: Socio-Demographic And Health Determinants Of Life Satisfaction, Dorothy Smith-Ruiz

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

The article explores the relationships between grandmothers' socioeconomic and health characteristics in relation to life satisfaction. Reasons for caregiving, assumption of the caregiver role, and grandmothers'attitudes and experiences in custodial caregiving were discussed qualitatively from data gathered in detailed interviews of a convenience sample of 99 custodial African American grandmothers caringf or one or more grandchildreny ounger than 18 in North Carolina. Most grandmothers in this sample reported mixed feelings toward custodial caregiving, both as a burden as well as a blessing. They also reported a weak support system and relied on their faith more than family and friends ...


Incarceration And Unwed Fathers In Fragile Families, Charles E. Lewis Jr., Irwin Garfinkel, Qin Gao Sep 2007

Incarceration And Unwed Fathers In Fragile Families, Charles E. Lewis Jr., Irwin Garfinkel, Qin Gao

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

Criminal justice policies have resulted in millions of Americans being incarcerated over the past three decades in systems that provide little or no rehabilitation. This study uses a new dataset-The Fragile Families Study-to document poor labor market outcomes that are associated with incarceration. We find that fathers who had been incarcerated earned 28 percent less annually thanfathers who were never incarceratedT hese previously incarceratedfa thers worked less weeks per year, less hours per week and were less likely to be working during the week prior to their interview. We also found that fathers who had been incarcerated were more likely ...


Economic Mobility Of Single Mothers: The Role Of Assets And Human Capital Development, Min Zhan Dec 2006

Economic Mobility Of Single Mothers: The Role Of Assets And Human Capital Development, Min Zhan

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

This study examines the economic mobility of single mothers. It highlights the relationships between single mothers' financial assets and human capital development (educational advancement, job training, and work hours) with their economic mobility. Analysis of data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79) indicates that assets may help improve upward economic mobility. Assets, however, have differential impact on single mothers with different income levels. In addition, human capital development mediates the positive link between assets and the economic mobility for mothers living between the 100% and 200% federal poverty. These results support asset building as an investment strategy to ...


Altruism Or Self-Interest? Social Spending And The Life Course, Debra Street, Jeralynn Sittig Cossman Sep 2006

Altruism Or Self-Interest? Social Spending And The Life Course, Debra Street, Jeralynn Sittig Cossman

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

The primacy of self-interested individuals is often regarded as the appropriate basis for US social spending decisions. One thread of this argument has advanced age-based self-interest and politically powerful elderly to explain why Social Security and Medicare have thrived in a policy environment that has seen retrenchment in other programs. We argue that crude self-interest and individual programs considered in isolation are insufficient to understand social spending preferences. We use General Social Survey data to contrast conventional and critical explanations for understanding the role of age in preferences for social spending. Factor analyses demonstrate that social spending preferences cluster into ...


From Self-Sufficiency To Personal And Family Sustainability: A New Paradigm For Social Policy, Robert Leibson Hawkins Dec 2005

From Self-Sufficiency To Personal And Family Sustainability: A New Paradigm For Social Policy, Robert Leibson Hawkins

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

Current social policy that affects welfare recipients focuses on the concept of "self-sufficiency" where leaving welfare for work is the goal. While this approach has reduced welfare rolls, it has not necessarily helped low-income people improve their economic, educational, or social outlook. This paper suggests that the concept of Personal and Family Sustainability (PFS) may be a better way to evaluate and direct social policy. A definition of PFS is developed from the environmental and community development roots of sustainability and four domains for creating PFS indicators are introduced.


Family Structure Effects On Parenting Stress And Practices In The African American Family, Daphne S. Cain, Terri Combs-Orme Jun 2005

Family Structure Effects On Parenting Stress And Practices In The African American Family, Daphne S. Cain, Terri Combs-Orme

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

The predominant approach to African-American parenting research focuses on disadvantages associated with single parenthood to the exclusion of other issues. The current research suggests that this does not represent the diversity in family structure configurations among African-American families, nor does it give voice to the parenting resilience of single mothers. We argue that rather than marital status or family configuration, more attention needs to be given to the inadequacy of resources for this population.

In the current study, we examined the parenting of infants by African- American mothers and found that mothers' marital status and family configuration did not affect ...


Engendering Citizenship? A Critical Feminist Analysis Of Canadian Welfare-To-Work Policies And The Employment Experiences Of Lone Mothers, Rhonda S. Breitkreuz Jun 2005

Engendering Citizenship? A Critical Feminist Analysis Of Canadian Welfare-To-Work Policies And The Employment Experiences Of Lone Mothers, Rhonda S. Breitkreuz

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

Like other liberal-welfare states, Canada, in a climate of balanced budgets and deficit reduction, has been active in developing policies intended to move welfare recipients into employment in order to achieve selfsufficiency. The purpose of this paper is to employ a critical feminist analysis to examine the extent to which these policies, developed under the ideological umbrella of neo-liberalism, are gender sensitive. Literature on the economic and non-economic impacts of welfare-to-work policies is reviewed to evaluate whether these initiatives, while mandating lone-mothers into employment, recognize the gendered nature of work, employment and poverty. Gaps in current research are identified and ...


Aging And Family Policy: A Sociological Excursion, Jason L. Powell Jun 2005

Aging And Family Policy: A Sociological Excursion, Jason L. Powell

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

The contemporary focus on family policy and old age has become increasingly important in social discourses on aging both within the discipline of Sociology and social policy practices of welfare institutions that attempt to define later life. Using the United Kingdom as a case study, sheds light on wider current trends associated with aging in United States, Canada, Europe and Australia. Social welfare is a pivotal domain where social discourses on aging have become located. Narratives are 'played out' with regard to the raw material supplied by family policy for identity performance of older people. Therefore, grounding developments in 'narrativity ...


Grandfathers And The Impact Of Raising Grandchildren, Karen Bullock Mar 2005

Grandfathers And The Impact Of Raising Grandchildren, Karen Bullock

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

Objectives. As grandparents are continuing to take on the responsible of raising their grandchildren in the absence of parents much attention in the literature is given to women. Little is known about the adjustment that older men make in these families. This study explored the experiences of grandfathers raising grandchildren.

Methods. Data were gathered by semi-structured interviews in a rural community in southeastern North Carolina and analyzed using a qualitative content analysis mode. Twenty-six men, age 65+, who were responsible for the care of at least one grandchild, participated.

Results. Eighty-one percent (N = 21) reported that their perception of powerlessness ...


The Peculiarities Of Men Aging: A Collection Of Anecdotes, Robert Blundo, Tamara Estes Mar 2005

The Peculiarities Of Men Aging: A Collection Of Anecdotes, Robert Blundo, Tamara Estes

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

Men are reticent to share with others the slow realization that with age they begin to confront a world that they had not expected. They had not expected to grow old. Now that this is happening, men have few relationships that permit them to share their thoughts and moments of recognition. The anecdotes that men share are revealing in that they demonstrate basic human uncertainties about the later part of life's cycle.


The Benefits Of Marriage Reconsidered, Barbara Wells, Maxine Baca Zinn Dec 2004

The Benefits Of Marriage Reconsidered, Barbara Wells, Maxine Baca Zinn

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

This paper suggests that analyses of marriage experience take into account both structures of inequality and context. Although marriage is widely viewed as producing economic well-being and family stability, this analysis of a sample of White rural families finds the likelihood of realizing these benefits to be closely related to social class position. Marriage failed to produce these benefits for many working class and poor families. Although gains in economic self-sufficiency are viewed as an explanation for White women's perceived retreat from marriage, the limited opportunity structure for women in this rural place provides a context in which women ...


The Welfare Myth: Disentangling The Long-Term Effects Of Poverty And Welfare Receipt For Young Single Mothers, Thomas P. Vartanian, Justine M. Mcnamara Dec 2004

The Welfare Myth: Disentangling The Long-Term Effects Of Poverty And Welfare Receipt For Young Single Mothers, Thomas P. Vartanian, Justine M. Mcnamara

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

This study investigates the effects of receiving welfare as a young woman on long-term economic and marital outcomes. Specifically, we examine if there are differences between young, single mothers who receive welfare and young, single mothers who are poor but do not receive welfare. Using the 1968-1997 Panel Study of Income Dynamics, our findings suggest those who receive welfare for an extended period as young adults have the same pre-transfer income over a 10 to 20 year period as those who are poor but do not receive welfare as young adults. While we found some differences between the two groups ...


Adoption In The U.S.: The Emergence Of A Social Movement, Frances A. Dellacava, Norma Kolko Phillips, Madeline H. Engel Dec 2004

Adoption In The U.S.: The Emergence Of A Social Movement, Frances A. Dellacava, Norma Kolko Phillips, Madeline H. Engel

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

The Adoption Movement, which has been evolving in the U.S. since the late 1970s, is now fully formed. As a proactive, reformative social movement, adoption has reached the organizational, or institutional, stage. Evidence is seen in the roles assumed by government and voluntary agencies and organizations, as well as other systems in society, to support adoption, and in the extent to which adoption has been infused in the American culture, making it a part of our everyday landscape. Implications of the adoption movement for the helping professions are discussed, as is its impact on increasing cultural and racial diversity ...


Supportive Communities, An Optimum Arrangement For The Older Population?, Miriam Billig Sep 2004

Supportive Communities, An Optimum Arrangement For The Older Population?, Miriam Billig

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

The preference of older people to stay in their own natural environment requires a reassessment of the approach in dealing with this population group. This exploratory study examines a program conducted in Israel called the "Supportive Community", that provides an emergency call service and other essential services at the homes of older people. A case study was performed in two such supportive communities. Interviews conducted with those who operate the programs and with its members seem to indicate that supportive communities provide a satisfactory solution to the needs of older people who continue to live in their natural environment. Many ...


Review Of Social Identities Across The Life Course. Jenny Hockey And Alison James. Reviewed By Marvin D. Feit., Marvin D. Feit Sep 2004

Review Of Social Identities Across The Life Course. Jenny Hockey And Alison James. Reviewed By Marvin D. Feit., Marvin D. Feit

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

Book review of Jenny Hockey and Alison James, Social Identities across the Life Course. New York: Pagrave Macmillan, 2003. $75 hardcover, $24.95 papercover.


Sharing Power With The People: Family Group Conferencing As A Democratic Experiment, Lisa Merkel-Holguin Mar 2004

Sharing Power With The People: Family Group Conferencing As A Democratic Experiment, Lisa Merkel-Holguin

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

Can family group conferencing be leveraged to promote the democratic ideals of voice, freedom, justice, fairness, equality, and respect, and provide the citizenry with the opportunity to build a more just and civil society? This article reviews family group conferencing, and various model adaptations, from a democratic context and through the lens of responsive regulation.


Families And The Republic, John Braithwaite Mar 2004

Families And The Republic, John Braithwaite

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

Restorative and responsive justice can be a strategy of social work practice that builds democracy bottom-up by seeing families as building blocks of democracy and fonts of democratic sentiment. At the same time, because families are sites of the worst kinds of tyranny and the worst kinds of neglect, a rule of law is needed that imposes public human rights obligations on families. The republican ideal is that this rule of law that constrains people in families should come from the people. Restorative and responsive justice has a strategy for the justice of the people to bubble up into the ...