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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Marital Satisfaction And Psychological Well-Being In Clinical And Non-Clinical Samples, Jennifer Suzanne Perrin Jan 2008

Marital Satisfaction And Psychological Well-Being In Clinical And Non-Clinical Samples, Jennifer Suzanne Perrin

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The study examined depression, anxiety, marital satisfaction in individuals from a clinical sample and individuals from a community sample. Gender was also considered in this study. Participants of this study consisted of 268 individuals; this sample was divided between a clinical and non-clinical sample from a community in the Midwest region of the United States. The study used the Brief Symptom Inventory to measure the levels of depression and anxiety, and the Dyadic Adjustment Scale to measure marital satisfaction. The hypotheses were tested using factorial analysis of variance. Overall results suggest that depression and marital satisfaction significantly impact each other ...


A Phenomenological Case Study Of An Adoptive Couple's Journey Through The Adoption Process Of A Child From An Asian Country, Shannon M. Wetzler Jan 2008

A Phenomenological Case Study Of An Adoptive Couple's Journey Through The Adoption Process Of A Child From An Asian Country, Shannon M. Wetzler

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

A journey of a Caucasian adoptive couple, residing in the Midwest, followed when they pursued the adoption of a child from South Korea. The history of transracial adoption (the placement of children with parents of another race) and international adoption was described in terms of how the early adoption policies currently influence adoptive parents today. Adoptive parent's choice to travel to the child's birth country, their experiences and introduction to adoption, and their attitude towards adoption were discussed. The importance of the adoptive parents having a social support network and understanding of the child's birth culture were ...


Gay Men's Experiences Of Alaskan Society In Their Coupled Relationships, Markie Louise Christianson Blumer Jan 2008

Gay Men's Experiences Of Alaskan Society In Their Coupled Relationships, Markie Louise Christianson Blumer

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Although it is true that male-male couples are more similar to rather than different from female-male couples, there are unique challenges and positive aspects for gay partnerships related to their existence in what continues to be a society of non-support. Little research exists on supportive and non-supportive experiences of gay males in society, particularly how these experiences affect their relationships, and information with regard to this topic is virtually non-existent in the remote state of Alaska. Therefore, this qualitative study, informed by constructionist frameworks, gave voice to eleven gay males currently involved in partnerships with a focus on exploring their ...


Pregnant And Parenting Teens' Attitudes Toward Pregnancy And Motherhood And Their Perceptions Of Social Support, Cindy Ngoc Vo Jan 2008

Pregnant And Parenting Teens' Attitudes Toward Pregnancy And Motherhood And Their Perceptions Of Social Support, Cindy Ngoc Vo

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This study investigated the social support network of pregnant (n=10) and parenting (n=22) teens recruited through local agencies. The support network was viewed both as support and as an agent of stress to adolescents. The pregnant and parenting teens' perceptions of motherhood and their attitudes toward being a parent were also studied. The teens had a variety of support types and support sources, but the two groups did not differ in those types and sources. They preferred support from boyfriend and mother over other sources and both groups had similar expectations and beliefs about motherhood and social support ...


Meaning Making Among Young Adult Cohabitors, Megan Elizabeth Nielsen Jan 2008

Meaning Making Among Young Adult Cohabitors, Megan Elizabeth Nielsen

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Despite the increased prevalence of cohabitation, our understanding has been limited by a primarily quantitative focus that neglects to capture the voices of actual cohabitors. Using a symbolic interactionist approach, my study explores the way in which cohabitors construct meaning from the perspective of young adult cohabitors. Based on in-depth interviews with both members of the cohabiting relationship, three different aspects of meaning-making are highlighted. First, I describe two major meanings of cohabitation---cohabitation as relationship and cohabitation as residence---that shape decisions to cohabit and the experience of cohabitation. Second, I explain the meaning of marriage for cohabitors by focusing specifically ...


An Examination Of The Attachment Process From Childhood To Romantic Relationships Among Young Adults Raised In Long-Term And Adoptive Foster Care, Lucy Diane Ganem Jan 2008

An Examination Of The Attachment Process From Childhood To Romantic Relationships Among Young Adults Raised In Long-Term And Adoptive Foster Care, Lucy Diane Ganem

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This is a qualitative study that seeks to examine the foster care experience through the narratives of fifteen participants. This study specifically examines how foster care and family disruptions impact a young adult's ability to form and establish meaningful and trusting romantic relationships. The data were collected from interviews of young adults raised in long-term foster care and adoptive foster care placements. As I set out to explore the foster care experience, I noted the recurring themes that resonated from interviews with the participants. Participants' experiences and understandings of attachment are reflected in my findings.;Many researchers, such as ...


"It's Not Fair!" Mothers' Experiences With Perinatal Loss Upon Confirmation Of A Lethal Prenatal Diagnosis, Teske Renee Drake Jan 2008

"It's Not Fair!" Mothers' Experiences With Perinatal Loss Upon Confirmation Of A Lethal Prenatal Diagnosis, Teske Renee Drake

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The loss of a child does not agree with most people's perceptions of the natural order of life and death. It marks an end to the hopes and dreams that parents have made for their children (Znoj & Keller, 2002). This feminist narrative inquiry explores mothers' experiences with decision-making and grief after receiving a lethal prenatal diagnosis for their unborn child. In such circumstances, mothers are often faced with two options: (1) expectant management/continue the pregnancy, or (2) termination of the pregnancy (Rapp, 1999; Hoeldtke & Calhoun, 2001). Through interviewing, participant observation, and personal narrative, I uncover the grief experiences of mothers as they reflect on their child's terminal diagnosis, decision-making pertaining to pregnancy management, and the unavoidable death of their child. These women's stories inform policy, practice, and future research by providing insight into the support services offered, or lack thereof, depending on the ...


Understanding The Concept Of Adoption: A Qualitative Analysis With Adoptees And Their Parents, Diana L. Baltimore Jan 2008

Understanding The Concept Of Adoption: A Qualitative Analysis With Adoptees And Their Parents, Diana L. Baltimore

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to gain a better understanding of children's and adults' experiences with adoption. This qualitative study used individual interviews to examine 25 participants---8 adoptive mothers and fathers, and their 5- to 14-year-old sons (n=5) and daughters ( n=4) adopted before 18 months. Data were collected using a phenomenological methodology and analysis of the data was guided by the following research questions: (a) What are children's and parents' overall experiences with adoption? (b) What is the social construction of adoption? (c) What do children understand about the concept of adoption and how do ...


Dyadic Spousal Experiences Of Alzheimer's Disease: Marital Satisfaction, Caregiver Burden, And Coping, Amber Joy Bergman Jan 2008

Dyadic Spousal Experiences Of Alzheimer's Disease: Marital Satisfaction, Caregiver Burden, And Coping, Amber Joy Bergman

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to specifically examine three domains that affect a spousal relationship in the presence of the progressive deterioration associated with Alzheimer's disease. The three domains are marital satisfaction, caregiver burden, and coping strategies. The second purpose of this study was to explore the current resources that the spousal dyad is utilizing for the purpose of informing those who are new to the experience of working with this population. Understanding what resources these dyads are already using will allow those in the MFT field to better serve in the areas where resource voids still remain.


Families, Motivation, And Reading: Pre-Adolescent Students And Their Reading Motivation And Family Reading Habits, Jill L. Janes Jan 2008

Families, Motivation, And Reading: Pre-Adolescent Students And Their Reading Motivation And Family Reading Habits, Jill L. Janes

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Research indicates that reading motivation declines as elementary students grow older. This reading motivation is multi-faceted with a variety of influences. Additional research indicates that when families are involved with students' reading as well as with school activities, students can reap positive academic benefits. Involving families in reading, however, declines as students progress to the upper elementary and pre-adolescent years. There is a lack of research concerning family involvement in reading with pre-adolescent students, particularly in regard to the effect of family involvement on reading motivation.;The purpose of this study was to determine the reading motivation and family reading ...


Parent-Child Communication: Influences Of Maternal Sexual Experiences As A Teenager On The Occurrence Of Sexuality Communication With Their Adolescent, Crystal Marie Luckeroth Jan 2007

Parent-Child Communication: Influences Of Maternal Sexual Experiences As A Teenager On The Occurrence Of Sexuality Communication With Their Adolescent, Crystal Marie Luckeroth

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This study investigated factors that influence parent-child communication on sexual topics and sought to determine if maternal teenage sexual experiences influence mothers' discussions with their adolescent children. Randomly selected mothers of children ages 10-14 years were mailed questionnaires. Using a list of sexual topics, respondents reported the frequency of discussions with their adolescent and completed a checklist of their own teenage sexual experiences. Correlational research design was used to rank and list sexual topics by frequency. Although a majority of the respondents reported that their own teenage sexual experiences influenced the discussions they had with their adolescents, no statistically significant ...


The Relationship Of Decision-Making And Division Of Household Labor To Relationship Satisfaction, Tara Danielle Dekkers Jan 2007

The Relationship Of Decision-Making And Division Of Household Labor To Relationship Satisfaction, Tara Danielle Dekkers

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The influence of the division of household labor and decision making on relationship satisfaction was examined. Equality in income and education between partners was also taken into consideration. Participants of this study consisted of 63 couples recruited from a community in the Midwest. The study used the Family Responsibility Index to measure the division of household labor, the Marital Decision Making Scale to measure decision-making, a subscale of the Dyadic Adjustment Scale to measure relationship satisfaction. The hypotheses were tested using correlations and regressions. Overall results suggest that equality in the division of household labor was found to have significant ...


Dynamics Of Food Insecurity Of Families With Children, Shuxin Cui Jan 2007

Dynamics Of Food Insecurity Of Families With Children, Shuxin Cui

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Guided by family ecological theory, this paper empirically explored how family demographic, socioeconomic, and community characteristics, as well as public and government factors, are related to changes in a family's food insecurity status. Using 2001 and 2003 data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID), a multinomial logit model of food security status was estimated. About 33.16% of the families with children under age 18 that were food insecure in 2001 became food secure in 2003. Meanwhile, about 4.48% of the families who were food secure in 2001 became food insecure in 2003. Although the average ...


Redefining Independence: Voices Of Single Mothers On Welfare About Motherhood, Marriage, And Welfare Policy, Wan-Juo Cheng Jan 2007

Redefining Independence: Voices Of Single Mothers On Welfare About Motherhood, Marriage, And Welfare Policy, Wan-Juo Cheng

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The dependency discourse has become a prominent concern in discussions of welfare policies in the United States. To address the cultural fear of dependence on welfare, the 1996 welfare reform greatly emphasized work and marriage promotion. Poor single mothers on welfare were mandated to move into the workforce under a cultural belief held by the Administration that work leads to independence. Feminists suggest that independence upheld by welfare reform is discussed from a middle-class, patriarchal perspective with an emphasis on financial self-sufficiency, which largely overlooks issues of gender and social class intertwined with poverty. Additionally, marriage promotion is deemed by ...


Effects Of Contextual Socioeconomic Stressors On Adolescents: Mediation And Moderation By Marital And Parent-Child Relationships, Tony Easter Jung Jan 2007

Effects Of Contextual Socioeconomic Stressors On Adolescents: Mediation And Moderation By Marital And Parent-Child Relationships, Tony Easter Jung

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This study presents different methods of longitudinal data analysis used to model continuity and change in family research. Innovative modeling techniques such as auto-regressive models, cross-lagged models, latent growth curves, interlocking growth trajectories, latent class growth analysis, and general mixture modeling are used to model the mechanisms in the family stress model. According to the family stress paradigm, negative stressors such as economic stress, work-related stress, and negative life events lead to poor mental health in parents, negatively impact the marital relationship, and undermine effective parenting. In turn, poor parental mental health, marital distress, and ineffective parenting are expected to ...


Doing Mothering From Prison: Using Narrative To Explore The Experiences Of Participants In A Mother-Child Support Program , Betty Chamness Trost Jan 2006

Doing Mothering From Prison: Using Narrative To Explore The Experiences Of Participants In A Mother-Child Support Program , Betty Chamness Trost

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Qualitative research was conducted at a Midwestern state women's prison to explore how six incarcerated and formerly incarcerated women created their mothering subjectivities prior to their imprisonment. It also investigated how their mothering subjectivities were affected by their experiences in the prison's intervention programs specifically with the Storybook Project of Iowa: a mother-child support program that focused on literacy. This feminist narrative research explored how prison intervention programs, when coupled with the mother-child support project, transformed the women's understandings of themselves and their mothering. This transformation was aided by the women's self-reflective use of narrative through ...


Residential Stability, Social Capital And Parenting Quality Among African-American Mothers , Gail Wallace Jan 2006

Residential Stability, Social Capital And Parenting Quality Among African-American Mothers , Gail Wallace

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This study examines neighborhood characteristics as predictors of parenting quality among African-American mothers. Drawing upon Wilson's (1996) ideas of how community conditions affect the urban poor, I examined protective qualities of community life including residential stability and social capital. I examined social capital in two separate social fields based on Wilkinson's (1970) field theory approach to community development. These two separate fields, community and organizational social capital were tested as predictors of African-American mothers' psychological well-being and parenting quality;Among the 759 African-American mothers who participated in this study, high residential stability significantly predicted community social capital but ...


Reaching Self-Sufficiency: A Life-Course Perspective , Jooyoung Sohn Jan 2006

Reaching Self-Sufficiency: A Life-Course Perspective , Jooyoung Sohn

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The main purpose of this study is to synthesize evidence concerning welfare participation behavior and the consequences of the behavior, both for participants and non-participants. Following the life-course theory view of family life, this study incorporates a dynamic model of family process and elaborates historical events into this model. Analyzing data from the NLSY79 (National Longitudinal Survey of Youth), which provides a history of labor force participation and information related to job and family relationships, this study finds that low-income families reach self-sufficiency mostly through marriage, getting a higher wage job, and working longer hours;In terms of determinants of ...


Stability And Changes In Problem Behavior During Adolescence: Multilevel Predictors And Moderators , Dan Okello Nyaronga Jan 2006

Stability And Changes In Problem Behavior During Adolescence: Multilevel Predictors And Moderators , Dan Okello Nyaronga

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This study predicted that community ethnic heterogeneity (controlling for community poverty), family adversity (i.e., family economic hardship and non-intact two-parent family/single parenthood), family social resources (i.e., parent-adolescent relationship, parental control, parental warmth, parental knowledge), and individual traits (i.e., racial minority status and gender) would influence adolescent problem behavior trajectories both additively and multiplicatively. In addition, the study predicted that there would be racial/ethnic and gender differences in problem behavior over time. An effective analysis of community influence on individual outcomes requires a multilevel analysis that includes community-level, family-level, and individual-level variables. This multilevel analysis used ...


A Bioecological Analysis Of Risk And Protective Factors Associated With Early Sexual Intercourse Of Young Adolescents , Tina Renae Jordahl Jan 2006

A Bioecological Analysis Of Risk And Protective Factors Associated With Early Sexual Intercourse Of Young Adolescents , Tina Renae Jordahl

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Risk and protective factors of the family and individual microsystems associated with early sexual intercourse among a sample of low-income adolescents were assessed using bioecological theory in combination with a risk and resiliency framework. The risk factors examined were adolescent race, gender, family structure, low maternal education, family welfare receipt, income, and delinquent behaviors. Protective factors explored included family routines, parental monitoring, parent-child relationships, father involvement, academic achievement and academic aspirations. Waves 1 and 2 of the Welfare, Children and Families: A Three-City Study were used (N=984, ages 10 to 14 years). Relationships between early sexual activity and sexual ...


A Comprehensive Investigation Of Change In Self-Reported Resources Of Older Adults, G. Kevin Randall Jan 2006

A Comprehensive Investigation Of Change In Self-Reported Resources Of Older Adults, G. Kevin Randall

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The focus of this study was on the mechanisms or resources that older individuals draw upon to adapt to the normative decrepitude of advanced age. To date, no studies have been found that systematically investigate the structural inter-relationships of the self-reported resources (i.e., social, economic, mental, physical, and functional) assessed by the Duke Older American Resources and Services (OARS) instrument among older adults. In particular, because the centenarian group typically struggles with increased hearing, vision, and functional health losses, social resources are especially salient for positive adaptation to these age-related losses. Because social resources has been specified as an ...


Patterns Of Absolute, Differential And Structural Continuity In Perceptions Of Nurturance In Mother-Daughter, Mother-Son, Father-Daughter And Father-Son Dyads , Phyllis G. Harris Jan 2006

Patterns Of Absolute, Differential And Structural Continuity In Perceptions Of Nurturance In Mother-Daughter, Mother-Son, Father-Daughter And Father-Son Dyads , Phyllis G. Harris

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Parents' and their adolescent children's perceptions have found to have both similar and different perceptions of their parent-adolescent relationship (Carlson, Cooper, & Spradling, 1991; Comstock, 1994) with changes in perceptions of nurturing and/or warmth becoming more apparent during the adolescent transitional phase and as a function of parent - adolescent gender differences (Clark-Lempers, Lempers, & Ho, 1991);Three waves of data were collected from Iowa parents with adolescent children in the sixth (11-to 13-years) or eighth grade (12-to 14-years) at the first wave of measurement responded at each wave of measurement to 21 parenting questionnaire items taken from Roberts, Block and Block (1984) Child Rearing ...


Interpersonal And Spiritual Resources In Late-Life Adaptation And Well-Being: A Study Of Elderly Men And Women Religious Residing Within Monastic Religious Communities , Alexander John Bishop Jan 2005

Interpersonal And Spiritual Resources In Late-Life Adaptation And Well-Being: A Study Of Elderly Men And Women Religious Residing Within Monastic Religious Communities , Alexander John Bishop

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this research study was to investigate how interpersonal and spiritual resources influence well-being in a sample of older men and women residing in religious monastic communities. Participants for this study included 235 (164 women and 71 men) individuals, age 64 and older, from the Religious Order of St. Benedict. Two (Age) X Two (Gender) Analyses of Variance were used to analyze mean differences. Young-old persons had higher mean scores on close friendship, coping behaviors, and personal growth than did old-old individuals. However, old-old individuals had higher average scores on religious coping behaviors and depression than did young-old ...


What Is Make-Believe Play?: Preschool Teachers' Perspectives , Joanna Jennifer Cemore Jan 2005

What Is Make-Believe Play?: Preschool Teachers' Perspectives , Joanna Jennifer Cemore

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this research was to explore preschool teachers' understanding of make-believe play in order to aid understanding and enhance further use of teachers as informants in research on children's play. Participants included preschool teachers (n = 10) and faculty members ( n = 3) who teach early childhood educators. Their descriptions of play and make-believe play were examined through qualitative research methods, including individual interviews. In-depth analysis of the emergent themes used to describe play and make-believe play were conducted. Preschool teachers defined make-believe play as representational play that is intrinsically motivated. This report includes examination of definitions, comparisons between ...


Acceptability Of Violence, Gender, And Dating Violence , Shelby Annette Kaura Jan 2005

Acceptability Of Violence, Gender, And Dating Violence , Shelby Annette Kaura

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This study contains two separate, yet related research projects. The first is a study on dating violence perpetration, with the associations of relationship commitment and jealousy on dating violence perpetration examined. Acceptability of violence, another variable related to violence perpetration, was examined as a potential moderator of relationship commitment and jealousy on dating violence perpetration. Using a sample of 155 male and 417 female college students, t-tests showed that women reported higher perpetration levels than men. Hierarchical regression analyses found that only jealousy was associated with dating violence perpetration---and only for women. Neither relationship commitment nor acceptability of violence was ...


Family Functioning And Adolescent Delinquency In Malaysia , Fauziah Hanim Abdul Jalal Jan 2005

Family Functioning And Adolescent Delinquency In Malaysia , Fauziah Hanim Abdul Jalal

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Malaysia is confronting a problem of increased adolescent delinquency. Despite these situations, there is very little research on adolescent delinquency. Some researchers have suggested that family functioning dimensions may become risk factors to the development of risky behaviors. The primary aim of this study is to examine perceived family functioning dimensions (problem solving, affective involvement, affective response, roles, communication, behavior control, general functioning, family time, religious belief, and religious practice) and their effect on the occurrence of adolescent delinquency. In addition, this study also investigates the effect of gender, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status on total delinquency scores of this group ...


Effects Of Boundary Regulation On Children's Academic Performance: A Systems Perspective Of Family Functioning , Jane Rose Muthoni Njue Jan 2005

Effects Of Boundary Regulation On Children's Academic Performance: A Systems Perspective Of Family Functioning , Jane Rose Muthoni Njue

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Systems theory was used to link family functioning in the task of boundary regulation to adolescents' academic performance. Boundary regulation, a family task defined in terms of proximity and generation hierarchy, is believed to be the most critical to family functioning because it sets a precondition for the execution of other family tasks. Data from Wave II of the National Survey of Families and Household (NSFH) were used to identify family interaction patterns that reflect proximity and generation hierarchy aspects of boundary regulation, utilizing both parent and adolescent responses. Proximity was measured by items representing physical and emotional closeness of ...


Community, Family And Individual Factors Influencing Adolescent Obesity: Mediating Role Of Parental Health And The Social And Mental Health Consequences Of Obesity In Young Adulthood , Michael John Merten Jan 2005

Community, Family And Individual Factors Influencing Adolescent Obesity: Mediating Role Of Parental Health And The Social And Mental Health Consequences Of Obesity In Young Adulthood , Michael John Merten

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This study explores both factors influencing obesity among adolescents as well as social and mental health consequences of obesity in young adulthood. Specifically this study investigates the influence of structural community adversity, family, and individual factors on parental general physical health and adolescent obesity. The findings generally support the hypothesized additive and multiplicative association of these factors with parental physical health outcomes and adolescent obesity. Community and family disadvantages uniquely influence the risk of poor general physical health among parents. Poor parental general health in turn is associated with adolescent obesity. Findings also suggest that the influence of community adversity ...


The Effect Of Resource Adequacy On Depression Among Adolescent Mothers In Urban And Non-Urban Environments , Elaine M. Eshbaugh Jan 2005

The Effect Of Resource Adequacy On Depression Among Adolescent Mothers In Urban And Non-Urban Environments , Elaine M. Eshbaugh

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

In recent decades, scholars and politicians have debated the socioeconomic effects of adolescent pregnancy for individuals, families, and society. Pregnant and parenting adolescents often must cope with a lack of resources as they struggle to negotiate the tasks of motherhood and adolescence. Previous research has determined that young mothers have an increased rate of depression when compared to older mothers (Sarri & Phillips, 2004).;In this study, self-perceived resource adequacy, income, and education at approximately six months after birth were investigated as predictors of depression at approximately 14 and 36 months after birth in adolescent mothers (N = 523). It was hypothesized that increased ...


Factors Affecting Housing Satisfaction Of Asian And Pacific Islander Households In The United States , Dongwang Liu Jan 2005

Factors Affecting Housing Satisfaction Of Asian And Pacific Islander Households In The United States , Dongwang Liu

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

According to the U.S. Census Bureau, there were 12.5 million Asian and Pacific Islanders living in the United States in March, 2002 accounting for 4.4 percent of America's total population. This study looked into the housing satisfaction among the Asian and Pacific Islander group in comparison to the non-Hispanic White group.;Since many Asian and Pacific Islanders in the U.S. are foreign-born, it is expected that their housing perception will be influenced by their experience with housing in their home countries. Using Morris and Winter's housing adjustment theory, the study investigated the effect of ...