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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Decision Making Limitations From Communication Barriers In Government Structures In Chinese Rural Energy Projects, Nathan Gregory Johnson Jan 2008

Decision Making Limitations From Communication Barriers In Government Structures In Chinese Rural Energy Projects, Nathan Gregory Johnson

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Field research was conducted in the Li Cheng District (about 1,200 km 2) of Shan Dong Province. Data collection occurred during a two-week period in July 2006. At that time, seven villages represented all relevant sites in the district that contained gasification technologies. Small-group interviews with village leaders, station managers, and community members were conducted locally. Contact with external government agencies and technology scientists completed the set of potential stakeholders.;This study analyzes the failure of state-owned energy development initiatives in China. Communication barriers in bureaucratic structures and culturally prescribed patterns of interaction were revealed as inhibiting information transfer ...


The Endangered Species Act, Local Power And Contested Issues On The Rural-Urban Interface, Kristen Marie Corey Jan 2007

The Endangered Species Act, Local Power And Contested Issues On The Rural-Urban Interface, Kristen Marie Corey

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This research project examines some of the effects that implementing the Endangered Species Act has on a rapidly growing community. This case study focuses on the eastern Nebraska saline wetlands near Lincoln in the Little Salt Creek watershed - home to the endangered Salt Creek tiger beetle. With the listing of the Salt Creek tiger beetle on the Federal Endangered Species list in 2005, the beetle has emerged as the central figure in a debate dividing those who wish to develop and those who aspire to protect these rare saline wetlands. Ethnographic data are used to study this situation. In-person interviews ...


An Examination Of Contributing Factors To Land Use/Land Cover Change In Southern Belize And The Use Of Satellite Image Analysis To Track Changes, Marissa Lenée Moore Jan 2007

An Examination Of Contributing Factors To Land Use/Land Cover Change In Southern Belize And The Use Of Satellite Image Analysis To Track Changes, Marissa Lenée Moore

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Land use and land cover change analyses are important tools for planning and development decisions. Tropical deforestation has both local and global implications. One main reason for deforestation is the conversion of forest to agricultural land. This study explores influences and potential causes for agricultural expansion and deforestation within the Toledo District in southern Belize, Central America. Many factors play into the deforestation and degradation of tropical forests in this district, including social, cultural, political and economic issues, all of which need serious consideration if planners and politicians are to combat the problem. Understanding the reasons for deforestation goes hand ...


Essays On Electricity Transmission Investment And Financial Transmission Rights , Wenzhuo Shang Jan 2006

Essays On Electricity Transmission Investment And Financial Transmission Rights , Wenzhuo Shang

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The U.S. electric power industry has been going through fundamental restructuring and realignment since the 1990's. Many issues and problems have emerged during the transition, and both economists and engineers have been looking for the solutions fervently. In this dissertation, which consists primarily of three essays, we apply economics theory and techniques to the power industry and address two related issues, transmission investment and financial transmission rights (FTRs). The first essay takes the decentralized perspective and investigates the efficiency attribute of market-based transmission investment under perfect competition. We clarify, for the first time, the nature of the externality ...


Testing Financial And Real Market Operations In Restructured Electricity Systems: Four Theoretical And Empirical Studies , Junjie Sun Jan 2006

Testing Financial And Real Market Operations In Restructured Electricity Systems: Four Theoretical And Empirical Studies , Junjie Sun

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

To facilitate the U.S. wholesale electric power restructuring process and promote competitive market outcomes, in April 2003 the U.S. Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) proposed a complicated market design called the Wholesale Power Market Platform (WPMP) for common adoption by all U.S. wholesale power markets. Despite the fact that versions of the WPMP have been widely implemented in many states, strong opposition to the WPMP persists among some industry stakeholders due largely to a perceived lack of adequate performance testing. In this dissertation, I apply analytical, statistical and agent-based computational simulation tools to analyze and test financial ...


An Analysis Of The Iowan Angler's Fishing License Renewal Decision, Ryan R. French Jan 2006

An Analysis Of The Iowan Angler's Fishing License Renewal Decision, Ryan R. French

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The number of annual fishing licenses sold in Iowa has been in decline for two decades and has limited the amount of funds available to the Iowa Department of Natural Resources for fisheries management. The Iowa DNR is focused on reversing this trend through targeted marketing and efficient management of fishing resources. An analysis of Iowa anglers is performed with these goals in mind using past surveys and current customer data. The product of this analysis is a model which predicts whether a past customer will renew their license in the upcoming year. A logit model is developed using license ...


Integration Of Remote Sensing And Crop Growth Modeling For Nitrogen Management Decision Support In Corn , Kelly Robert Thorp Jan 2006

Integration Of Remote Sensing And Crop Growth Modeling For Nitrogen Management Decision Support In Corn , Kelly Robert Thorp

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation describes efforts to move toward a completely integrated remote sensing and crop growth modeling tool for developing precision nitrogen management recommendations for corn. Aerial hyperspectral remote sensing imagery collected throughout the 2004 growing season was used to estimate corn plant stand density, and a machine vision system was used to map corn population on the ground. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to assess the ability of all combinations of three reflectance bands to estimate corn plant population at resolutions of 2 m, 6 m, and 10 m. Coefficients of multiple determination of up to 0.82 were ...


The Structural Organization Of Cbnrm In Botswana , Kutlwano Mulale Jan 2005

The Structural Organization Of Cbnrm In Botswana , Kutlwano Mulale

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The devolution of natural resource management to local community groups is a dominant theme in contemporary discussion of common property natural resource management. Throughout much of Africa and other parts of the developing world Community Based Natural Resource Management (CBNRM) programs are being implemented. Though governments in Africa and other parts of the developing world embrace the idea of CBNRM, the actual process of devolution of natural resource management to local community groups is problematic. In some countries, like Zimbabwe for instance, the central government devolved natural resource management to district councils which are themselves arms of the central government ...


Rationality And Environmental Justice: The Visual Rhetoric Of A Culture At Risk , Tom Bowers Jan 2005

Rationality And Environmental Justice: The Visual Rhetoric Of A Culture At Risk , Tom Bowers

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Scholars in rhetoric have recently sought to expand their understanding of social movements and the public sphere by integrating studies of visual rhetoric. For scholars exploring the rhetoric of social movements and the public sphere, the environmental movement provides a fruitful avenue of research by which to consider the role of visual rhetoric in changing social consciousness. Drawing on a methodology that views social movements through a rhetorical lens, I explore how the visual rhetoric of the environmental justice movement challenges corporate practices and discourses that shape public perceptions of sustainable development and industry's commitment to open communication. In ...


Insuring Uncertainty In Value-Added Agriculture: Ethanol, Nicholas David Paulson Jan 2004

Insuring Uncertainty In Value-Added Agriculture: Ethanol, Nicholas David Paulson

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

A wide variety of insurance products are currently available for agricultural producers to insure against yield or price risks in the markets for the raw commodities they produce. Value-added enterprises, such as ethanol production, have become increasingly popular among farmers over the last decade; however, insurance against declines in the value-added portion of their crops is not yet available. This paper outlines the development of an insurance product aimed at corn producers who are members of an ethanol production cooperative. The product mimics the gross margin level of a typical ethanol production facility, and has the potential to provide producers ...


The Economic Potential Of Switchgrass As A Viable Biofuel Alternative, Jennifer E. Reutzel Jan 2004

The Economic Potential Of Switchgrass As A Viable Biofuel Alternative, Jennifer E. Reutzel

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

To be commercially viable as a bioenergy feedstock, switchgrass must be cost-competitive. Switchgrass production and delivery costs are calculated for the Chariton Valley Switchgrass Biomass Project located in the Chariton Valley, Iowa. Sensitivity analyses are performed to determine which variables have the greatest impact on cost. Switchgrass production costs would require higher than expected market prices, and therefore various incentive payment options are considered. The incentive payments attempt to encapsulate the positive environmental attributes from the production of switchgrass as well as using switchgrass as a clean energy coal substitute. A modified CRP payment, carbon payment, and green tag payment ...


Recreation Demand: On-Site Sampling And Responsiveness Of Trip Behavior To Physical Water Quality Measures , Kevin Joseph Egan Jan 2004

Recreation Demand: On-Site Sampling And Responsiveness Of Trip Behavior To Physical Water Quality Measures , Kevin Joseph Egan

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Valuing the improvement of water quality in Iowa lakes is the objective of this dissertation. In the first two essays, the focus is combining revealed preference and stated preference data from an intercept survey at a northcentral Iowa lake. In the first essay, the contingent behavior trips which are contingent on the price (i.e. travel cost) of the recreation trip are combined with observed trips. However, since this data set was collected on-site, the primary purpose of the first essay is to consider controlling for on-site sampling with a panel data set. A count data model is employed, specifically ...


Land Preservation Decisions: Theoretical And Empirical Analysis , Shikha Marwah Jan 2004

Land Preservation Decisions: Theoretical And Empirical Analysis , Shikha Marwah

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

There is a great concern that human actions are leading to increased rates of extinction of species. Ecologists have pointed out that the most important threat to wildlife comes from habitat alteration. The rapidly increasing human population and the resulting pressing demand for food and living space are pushing highly diverse natural areas into agriculture and other alternative uses. Recognizing this, the Federal agencies and private organizations, such as the Nature Conservancy, are becoming increasingly engaged in programs for conservation of species, where habitat restoration is an important component. However, this conservation is costly and there is uncertainty in the ...


Factors Affecting Symbolic And Use Adoption Of Local Foods For Consumers In Black Hawk County, Iowa, Erin M. Tegtmeier Jan 2003

Factors Affecting Symbolic And Use Adoption Of Local Foods For Consumers In Black Hawk County, Iowa, Erin M. Tegtmeier

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

A local food system may be an alternative to the increasingly globalized and concentrated food market and a means to augment the availability of fresh foods, create economically viable options for farmers and enhance the health of local ecosystems. Consumers are a vital component of these systems. Insight into the decision-making process surrounding the purchase of local foods can aid in efforts to build thriving local food systems. Studies on consumer attitudes show that, in general, consumers are aware and supportive of local foods. Abstract or civic factors, such as concern for the environment or food safety, are often identified ...


Corn Rootworms (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) In Space And Time , Yong-Lak Park Jan 2003

Corn Rootworms (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) In Space And Time , Yong-Lak Park

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Spatial dispersion is a main characteristic of insect populations. Dispersion pattern provides useful information for developing effective sampling and scouting programs because it affects sampling accuracy, efficiency, and precision. Insect dispersion, however, is dynamic in space and time and largely dependent upon interactions among insect, plant and environmental factors. This study investigated the spatial and temporal dynamics of corn rootworm dispersion at different spatial scales by using the global positioning system, the geographic information system, and geoStatistics and Probability; Egg dispersion pattern was random or uniform in 8-ha cornfields, but could be aggregated at a smaller scale. Larval dispersion pattern ...


Establishment Of A High Accuracy Geoid Correction Model And Geodata Edge Match , Ruifeng Xi Jan 2003

Establishment Of A High Accuracy Geoid Correction Model And Geodata Edge Match , Ruifeng Xi

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This research has developed a theoretical and practical methodology for efficiently and accurately determining sub-decimeter level regional geoids and centimeter level local geoids to meet regional surveying and local engineering requirements. This research also provides a highly accurate static DGPS network data pre-processing, post-processing and adjustment method and a procedure for a large GPS network like the state level HRAN project. The research also developed an efficient and accurate methodology to join soil coverages in GIS ARE/INFO.;A total of 181 GPS stations has been pre-processed and post-processed to obtain an absolute accuracy better than 1.5cm at 95 ...


Emerging Bridges Over Contested Waters: Coalitions, Participatory Process, Social Capital And Community Capacity For Water Quality Protection , Stephen Philip Gasteyer Jan 2001

Emerging Bridges Over Contested Waters: Coalitions, Participatory Process, Social Capital And Community Capacity For Water Quality Protection , Stephen Philip Gasteyer

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Over the decade of the 1990s, there has been increasing attention to the factors that contribute to community organization for the protection of water quality. While much is theorized about the importance of education, leadership, and biophysical factors in this organization, few have laid out concrete models about the causal factors in creating community capacity for water quality protection. Building on research on social indicators, including indicators of community process, this research aims to demonstrate a clear relationship between attention to the social mobilization process and creation of community capacity to respond to water quality challenges. I use multivariate analysis ...


Photogrammetry And Remote Sensing For Visualization Of Spatial Data In A Virtual Reality Environment , Dwipen Bhagawati Jan 2001

Photogrammetry And Remote Sensing For Visualization Of Spatial Data In A Virtual Reality Environment , Dwipen Bhagawati

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Researchers in many disciplines have started using the tool of Virtual Reality (VR) to gain new insights into problems in their respective disciplines. Recent advances in computer graphics, software and hardware technologies have created many opportunities for VR systems, advanced scientific and engineering applications being among them. In Geometronics, generally photogrammetry and remote sensing are used for management of spatial data inventory. VR technology can be suitably used for management of spatial data inventory. This research demonstrates usefulness of VR technology for inventory management by taking the roadside features as a case study. Management of roadside feature inventory involves positioning ...


Generation Planning For Electric Power Utilities Under Market Uncertainties: A Real Options Approach , Chung-Hsiao Wang Jan 2001

Generation Planning For Electric Power Utilities Under Market Uncertainties: A Real Options Approach , Chung-Hsiao Wang

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The generation business in the U.S. is currently undergoing a transition from a regulated monopoly toward an uncertain, competitive market. Under the competitive market, the price of electric power as well as the corresponding revenue may be much less certain than before. These market uncertainties have increased the significance of two critical factors in generation planning. These factors are financial risks and managerial flexibilities.;In order to quantitatively and objectively address these two factors in generation planning, in this dissertation, we design and analyze a series of mathematical models based on the real options approach for generation planning. Hence ...


Evaluation Of Selected Factors That May Influence The Application Of Electromagnetic Induction Technology To Soil Science Investigations In Iowa , Eric Charles Brevik Jan 2001

Evaluation Of Selected Factors That May Influence The Application Of Electromagnetic Induction Technology To Soil Science Investigations In Iowa , Eric Charles Brevik

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Many who engage in soil survey have long desired discovery of a remote sensing technique that differentiates individual soil series. As research in precision agriculture has begun, many other agricultural scientists have also begun evaluating remote sensing tools for soil mapping purposes. Soil electrical conductivity (EC), as measured by instruments including the Geonics RTM EM-38, has shown promise as a soil survey tool. Most of the work done along these fines to date has involved comparing soil EC patterns to Order 1 or 2 soil surveys. It is important that we understand how certain field conditions that might be encountered ...


Three Essays On Environmental Incentives: Dynamics, Asymmetric Information, And Dual Policy Goals , Hongli Feng Jan 2001

Three Essays On Environmental Incentives: Dynamics, Asymmetric Information, And Dual Policy Goals , Hongli Feng

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation has three essays. In the first essay, we develop a dynamic model to investigate the optimal time paths of carbon emissions, sequestration and the carbon stock. We show that carbon sinks should be utilized as early as possible, and carbon flow into sinks should last until the atmospheric carbon concentration is stabilized. We rule out any cyclical patterns of carbon sequestration and release. We propose and assess three mechanisms to efficiently introduce sequestration into a carbon permit trading market: a pay-as-you-go system, a variable-length-contract system and a carbon annuity account system. Although the three mechanisms may not be ...


Evaluation Of A Collaborative Approach To Mediate Conflict Between Parties With Interests In Wildlife And Livestock In Colorado , Gina Marie Mcandrews Jan 2001

Evaluation Of A Collaborative Approach To Mediate Conflict Between Parties With Interests In Wildlife And Livestock In Colorado , Gina Marie Mcandrews

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The Habitat Partnership Program (HPP) is a collaborative initiative of the Colorado Division of Wildlife and the Colorado Cattleman's Association. The program consists of 15 committees, distributed over western Colorado, representing the interests of public resource managers, livestock growers and hunters. Through partnerships and projects, each committee strives to reduce fence damage and forage loss from big game activity. Information gathered from interviews, documents, projects and observation was used to assess the effectiveness of HPP in meeting its stated goals: resolve conflicts, improve ecosystem health, raise local knowledge about resource management and improve communication and understanding. Over seven years ...


Historical Alterations Of Surface Hydrology In Iowa's Small Agricultural Watersheds, Katherine Louise Andersen Jan 2000

Historical Alterations Of Surface Hydrology In Iowa's Small Agricultural Watersheds, Katherine Louise Andersen

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Iowa's headwater prairie streams, once meandering within a landscape of tall grasses, marshes and wooded riparian borders, today exist in direct contact with an agricultural matrix. This study determined historic changes in surface water features of four small agricultural watersheds. Bear Creek watershed was once part of the "wet prairie" region located in the Des Moines Lobe landform of north-central Iowa. Storm Lake watershed, located in the Northwest Iowa Loess Prairies landform, was of a similar original condition with limited stream channel development. The Walnut Creek and Three Mile Creek watersheds are located in the Southern Iowa Rolling Loess ...


Economic Analysis Of Pesticide Regulation In The U.S. Apple Industry , Jutta Roosen Jan 1999

Economic Analysis Of Pesticide Regulation In The U.S. Apple Industry , Jutta Roosen

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Several particularities of apple production systems require careful consideration of the methods used to estimate impacts of pesticide regulation. Growing conditions are geographically diverse, quality considerations are of particular importance, and dynamic aspects need to be acknowledged in production systems of perennial crops;A partial-equilibrium model of the apple industry is estimated where orchards are modeled as multiproduct firms producing apples for fresh and processed consumption. Groups of growers are distinguished by region and by pesticide use patterns. The changes of quantities and prices in the markets for fresh and processed apples that follow a technology shift are derived. Economic ...


Auction Development For The Price-Based Electric Power Industry , Somgiat Dekrajangpetch Jan 1999

Auction Development For The Price-Based Electric Power Industry , Somgiat Dekrajangpetch

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The restructuring of the electric power industry is to move away from the cost-based monopolistic environment of the past to the priced-based competitive environment. As the electric power industry is restructuring in many places, there are still many problems that need to be solved. The work in this dissertation contributes to solve some of the electric power auction problems. The majority of this work is aimed to help develop good markets;A LaGrangian relaxation (LR) Centralized Daily Commitment Auction (CDCA) has been implemented. It has been shown that the solution might not be optimal nor fair to some generation companies ...


Local Dependency: The Independent Farmer Myth , Eric Bruce Imerman Jan 1999

Local Dependency: The Independent Farmer Myth , Eric Bruce Imerman

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this dissertation is to achieve a higher level of understanding of the adoption and diffusion process of conservation technology on Iowa farms. The tools used in this discovery process are a qualitative analysis of farmers' perceptions of conservation technologies, an analysis of the adoption and diffusion model, and the formulation of a local dependency theory to explain the patterns of adoption on Iowa farms. Specifically, this investigation comes to the conclusion that the Iowa farmer is trapped in a dependency situation that is controlled by the government, trans-national corporations, and local capital, a triad known as the ...


Profiting From Competition: Financial Tools For Electric Generation Companies , Charles William Richter Jr. Jan 1998

Profiting From Competition: Financial Tools For Electric Generation Companies , Charles William Richter Jr.

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Regulations governing the operation of electric power systems in North America and many other areas of the world are undergoing major changes designed to promote competition. This process of change is often referred to as deregulation. Participants in deregulated electricity systems may find that their profits will greatly benefit from the implementation of successful bidding strategies. While the goal of the regulators may be to create rules which balance reliable power system operation with maximization of the total benefit to society, the goal of generation companies is to maximize their profit, i.e., return to their shareholders. The majority of ...


Rationalizing Nature: Attitudes Toward Land Tenure Change And The Environment In Three Communities In Central Quintana Roo, Mexico , Susan Kathryn Jarnagin Jan 1998

Rationalizing Nature: Attitudes Toward Land Tenure Change And The Environment In Three Communities In Central Quintana Roo, Mexico , Susan Kathryn Jarnagin

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Three studies were done to assess the attitudes of farmers in central Quintana Roo about changes in the land tenure system and toward their tropical forest environment. Three ejidos were selected, to represent the range of types of communities in the area;Recent visions of "modernization" in Mexico have involved a large amount of privatization, including encouraging privatization of ejido (community-owned) land. The attitudes of residents of three communities towards land privatization and tree planting and care were analyzed. The residents of the two more traditional Maya communities had strong feelings about the importance of maintaining the ejido system of ...


Bioregional Communication: Watersheds, Community Participation And Synchronicity, Corrintha Elizabeth Seaman Jan 1998

Bioregional Communication: Watersheds, Community Participation And Synchronicity, Corrintha Elizabeth Seaman

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This thesis is a qualitative study about community participation in watershed management. Specifically, it looks for evidence of bottom-up participation. The study is a meta-evaluation of eighteen watershed projects from the perspective of local change agents. The watershed projects are evaluated in terms of levels of participation from top-down to bottom-up. Agent understandings of participation, their processes of building citizen partnerships and their experiences of trust within communities are explored. The findings show that there is no consensus among agents on what bottom-up participation means, that participation falls along a continuum from ritual to authentic and that participation depends on ...


Valuing Environmental Amenities With Nonparametric And Semiparametric Methods , John Russell Crooker Jan 1998

Valuing Environmental Amenities With Nonparametric And Semiparametric Methods , John Russell Crooker

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The dissertation consists of three essays. Each essay is presented in its own chapter beginning with chapter II. While each chapter is written as a stand alone document, the essays complement each other in subject matter, methodology and relevance to the econometrics and natural resource economics literature. In particular, the most fundamental problem investigated is how can we, as precisely as possible, value non-market goods without making parametric assumptions that may influence welfare estimates;The three essays comprising this dissertation contribute to the knowledge of the economics valuation literature in several important ways. First, semi-nonparametric and nonparametric estimators are rigorously ...