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Dissertations and Theses

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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Psychosocial Impacts And Employment Preparedness Of Participating In An Hiv Peer Program: Implications For Tailoring A Vocational Counseling Model For Plwh, Erin R. Mckinney-Prupis Jun 2020

Psychosocial Impacts And Employment Preparedness Of Participating In An Hiv Peer Program: Implications For Tailoring A Vocational Counseling Model For Plwh, Erin R. Mckinney-Prupis

Dissertations and Theses

Background:

Medical advancements in HIV care should have reduced barriers to employment for PLWH, yet in 2017 only 47.7% of PLWH reported being employed, as compared to 62.9% in the general population. Employment is a significant social determinant of health, it impacts a variety of factors related to health, including earned income, access to healthcare, and social connectedness. Quantitative and qualitative studies have identified several concerns PLWH have about entering the workforce; the most pressing being fear of losing benefits. Targeted work readiness programs for PLWH is an important approach to help PLWH overcome their unique barriers to ...


An Evaluation Of A Web-Based Tool To Improve Feeding Practices And The Home Environment Among Parents Of Low-Income Minority Preadolescents At-Risk For Childhood Obesity, Katrina F. Mateo Jun 2020

An Evaluation Of A Web-Based Tool To Improve Feeding Practices And The Home Environment Among Parents Of Low-Income Minority Preadolescents At-Risk For Childhood Obesity, Katrina F. Mateo

Dissertations and Theses

Background: Web-based/mHealth interventions may be an engaging approach to promote positive dietary-related behaviors among parents of youth at-risk for childhood obesity. Importantly, childhood obesity research highlights the role of parents as a key support mechanism in improving child dietary outcomes. Intervention INC is a childhood obesity intervention that comprises a unique, interactive web-based child nutrition comic aimed at improving dietary behaviors among urban Black/African American (AA) and Latino preadolescents, and also weekly online parent newsletters (with feeding tips, healthy printable recipes, links to coupons to support healthy eating/feeding and health-promoting local/community events, and access to the ...


The Rise Of Mono-Ethnic Religious Nationalism In Myanmar And Its Impacts On The Security Situation Of The South Asian Region, S M Anisuz Zaman Apr 2020

The Rise Of Mono-Ethnic Religious Nationalism In Myanmar And Its Impacts On The Security Situation Of The South Asian Region, S M Anisuz Zaman

Dissertations and Theses

Abstract

In spite of the technological advancement and progress of liberalism, religion has remained an essential aspect of individual and national life in many countries. In many societies, religion has manifested elements of extremism, which ultimately perpetuates violence and destruction. This radical religious phenomenon is much predominant in the Southeast and South Asian region, including the country known as Myanmar. Myanmar has become a classic example of the religious fusion of politics and social life. The hybrid form of emerging democratic tenets, albeit under military sponsorship in Myanmar, provides a breeding ground for religious nationalism, with dire consequences for religious ...


Know Your User: Building A Predictive Model Of Consumer Preference For Driverless Cars, Mattie Nicole Milner Apr 2020

Know Your User: Building A Predictive Model Of Consumer Preference For Driverless Cars, Mattie Nicole Milner

Dissertations and Theses

INTRODUCTION: This dissertation identifies factors significantly predicting participants' preference for riding in an autonomous vehicle rather than flying on a commercial aircraft. A plethora of research has investigated these two transportation industries independently; however, scarcely any research has considered the impact these two industries will have on each other. Travelers’ preference for riding in an autonomous vehicle rather than a commercial aircraft was investigated through four different scenarios.

METHOD: A regression equation was created to predict participants’ preferred travel method and validated through a two-stage process. Stage 1 involved the creation of the regression equation, and a total of 1 ...


Fixation Patterns Of Driving Scenes As A Function Of Task Load And Task Goal, Anastasia N. Diamond Feb 2020

Fixation Patterns Of Driving Scenes As A Function Of Task Load And Task Goal, Anastasia N. Diamond

Dissertations and Theses

Distracted driving has been a heavily researched area, and the negative impacts it has on driving performance is well known. Eye movement patterns of distracted drivers have also been studied, though insight into what the driver specifically looks at is not as well known. Researchers have studied eye movement metrics like average fixation durations, eyes-off-road glance times, time to first fixation, among other eye movement variables, over an entire drive, but not as much attention has been given to what the driver is looking at in a specific moment in time. The current study uses the Tobii Pro X2-60 eye ...


Before And After The Storm: Interactions Between Tree-Fall Canopy Gaps, Plant Phenology, And Frugivorous Lemurs In Masoala National Park, Madagascar, Monica Sue Mogilewsky Jan 2020

Before And After The Storm: Interactions Between Tree-Fall Canopy Gaps, Plant Phenology, And Frugivorous Lemurs In Masoala National Park, Madagascar, Monica Sue Mogilewsky

Dissertations and Theses

Madagascar is one of Earth's top biodiversity hotspots, with 80% of life on the island considered endemic. Among the endemic species are lemurs, a diverse group of non-human primates. Unfortunately, Madagascar's diversity, including lemurs, is threatened by habitat degradation and loss. Despite intense anthropogenic pressure over the past 50 years, scientists have not detected any lemur extinctions during this period. Some researchers have proposed that lemurs' adaptations to natural disturbances have provided these taxa resiliency against anthropogenic disturbances. Certainly, Madagascar experiences an extreme disturbance regime: the island experiences an average of over three cyclones a year. These cyclones ...


Exploring How Community College Transfer Students Experience Connection In A Commuter University, Christa Michelle Zinke Jan 2020

Exploring How Community College Transfer Students Experience Connection In A Commuter University, Christa Michelle Zinke

Dissertations and Theses

Over the last 40 years, the expansion of the U.S. community college system resulted in a growing number of students choosing to begin their undergraduate education at a two-year institution and then transfer to a four-year institution. However, many students struggle to establish connection after transferring, especially if they transfer into a commuter university. For many college students, feelings of engagement and connection influence their persistence decisions. Using Tinto's (1975; 1993) and Astin's (1984) theories of student persistence as a framework, the purpose of this in-depth interview study is to explore how commuter community college students who ...


Competing Narratives: The Struggle For The Soul Of Egypt, Ahmed El Mansouri Jan 2020

Competing Narratives: The Struggle For The Soul Of Egypt, Ahmed El Mansouri

Dissertations and Theses

In January 2011, Egypt witnessed an uprising against ex-military president Hosni Mubarak, which resulted in his removal after ruling Egypt for thirty years. Yet, while the revolution targeted Mubarak, it also targeted to end the era of military rule, which started in 1952 with President Gamal Abdel Nasser, then was passed down to Anwar Sadat in 1970 and later to Hosni Mubarak in 1981. Thereafter, dissatisfied with existing national policies, political leaders and revolutionaries battled to redefine Egyptian national identity by contesting the writing of a new Egyptian constitution. The debates over the constitution exhibited an ample of destructive communication ...


Glacial Meltwater Modeling To Simulate Lake Water Budget (1996-2013) In Taylor Valley, Antarctica, Julian Michael Cross Jan 2020

Glacial Meltwater Modeling To Simulate Lake Water Budget (1996-2013) In Taylor Valley, Antarctica, Julian Michael Cross

Dissertations and Theses

The McMurdo Dry Valleys (MDV), the largest ice-free region (4,500 km2) in Antarctica, are a polar desert with an average annual temperature of -18ºC. In Taylor Valley, one of the MDV, closed-basin, perennially ice-covered lakes occupy the valley floor. Their water balance is controlled by inflow from glacial meltwater runoff and loss due to sublimation, making them sensitive indicators of climate. In this study, a physically-based model of glacier meltwater and lake ice sublimation is adapted to explain modern (1996 to 2013) lake-level variations. Meltwater model results were improved by the inclusion of MODIS remotely-sensed albedo measurements (E ...


Contemporary Art And Food: An Examination Of Three Case Studies Using Anthropology And Diaspora As Key., Viridiana S. Mayagoitia Jan 2020

Contemporary Art And Food: An Examination Of Three Case Studies Using Anthropology And Diaspora As Key., Viridiana S. Mayagoitia

Dissertations and Theses

Food-related artworks are as crucial to understanding culture as other mediums in art like painting, installation, sculpture, and drawings. From Greek and Roman mosaics, Egyptian banquet scenes, to Renaissance frescoes and Flemish still-life paintings, the depiction of food and meals has had multiple meanings. Food as a medium in Western contemporary art was introduced in the 1930s by the Italian Futurists’ banquets, which celebrated modernity and technology underlying social and political commentary. It continued throughout the 1960s with performance art, conceptual art, and happenings, and in the 1970s with the Fluxus movement’s exploration of the boundaries between art and ...


To Disclose Or Not To Disclose? Self-Disclosure Of Mental Health In The Workplace, Samantha Margaret Reynolds Dec 2019

To Disclose Or Not To Disclose? Self-Disclosure Of Mental Health In The Workplace, Samantha Margaret Reynolds

Dissertations and Theses

When making the decision to disclose a mental illness, individuals may be met with a number of factors that impact disclosure. This study examines the relationship between self-stigma, psychological safety, social support and self-disclosure of mental illness in the workplace. The present study surveyed 756 participants and found a positive relationship between stigma and self-disclosure as well as a positive relationship between social support and self-disclosure. For work outcomes, there was a negative relationship between both job satisfaction and productivity in relation to self-disclosure. This study potentiates the antecedents and consequences of self-disclosure of mental illness and how it impacts ...


Ethnonational Identity And Detached Lives In A Serbian Province: A Study Of Parallelism Among Vojvodina's Hungarian Community, Uros Prokic Dec 2019

Ethnonational Identity And Detached Lives In A Serbian Province: A Study Of Parallelism Among Vojvodina's Hungarian Community, Uros Prokic

Dissertations and Theses

Current theories of interethnic relations generally posit assimilation, integration and marginalization as possible outcomes between minority and dominant groups in Eastern Europe (Berry, 1974; Dimitras & Papanikolatos, 2002). However, there may be cases that are not adequately described by any of these existing interethnic relations paradigms. This dissertation explores one alternative, dubbed parallelism, which can be described as institutionally-driven self-isolation and detachment leading to communities living side by side on parallel trajectories and not interacting. Using the Hungarian ethnonational minority community in Serbia's autonomous northern province of Vojvodina as a case study, I examine the institutional factors that have led ...


The Combined Effects Of Parent And Teacher Involvement On The Development Of Adolescents' Academic Engagement, Nicolette Paige Rickert Dec 2019

The Combined Effects Of Parent And Teacher Involvement On The Development Of Adolescents' Academic Engagement, Nicolette Paige Rickert

Dissertations and Theses

The current dissertation includes two related studies designed to examine the combined effects of parent and teacher involvement on the development of adolescents' academic engagement as they transition to middle school. Previous studies have demonstrated the positive, individual effects of parent and teacher warm involvement on adolescents' engagement in school. However, this research is limited in its focus on only one social partner. Adolescent development is embedded within multiple, dynamic systems, necessitating the examination of both parent and teacher influences. The few studies that have examined parents and teachers together suggest that their combined effects are both cumulative (additive) and ...


Statistical Analysis Of Social Network Change, Teresa Danielle Schmidt Dec 2019

Statistical Analysis Of Social Network Change, Teresa Danielle Schmidt

Dissertations and Theses

This project explores two statistical methods that infer social network structures and statistically test those structures for change over time: regression-based differential network analysis (R-DNA) and information theory-based differential analysis (I-DNA). R-DNA is adapted from bioinformatics and I-DNA employs reconstructability analysis.

This project applies both R-DNA and I-DNA to analyze Medicaid claims data from one-year periods before (May 2011- Apr 2012) and after (Jan 2013-Dec 2013) the formation of the Health Share of Oregon Coordinated Care Organization (CCO). The formation of CCOs was legislated by the state of Oregon in 2012 with the triple aim of improving health outcomes, reducing ...


Acceptability Of A Vaginal Ring To Prevent Hiv And Pregnancy: Integrating Multiple Qualitative Methods, Dana Watnick Dec 2019

Acceptability Of A Vaginal Ring To Prevent Hiv And Pregnancy: Integrating Multiple Qualitative Methods, Dana Watnick

Dissertations and Theses

Heterosexual vaginal sex can simultaneously put women at risk for unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections, such as HIV, disproportionately impacting poor women around the world. Both unintended pregnancy and HIV are persistent public health concerns associated with negative outcomes for mothers, families and communities. The current mix of prevention tools available to women to protect against unintended pregnancy and HIV is limited. Multipurpose Prevention Technologies (MPTs) are innovative products that simultaneously offer protection against pregnancy and HIV. However, MPTs will only be effective in reducing unintended pregnancy and incident HIV if women are willing to use them. With an ...


A 30-Year Climatology Of Meteorological Conditions Associated With Lightning Days In The Western United States, Dmitri Alexander Kalashnikov Dec 2019

A 30-Year Climatology Of Meteorological Conditions Associated With Lightning Days In The Western United States, Dmitri Alexander Kalashnikov

Dissertations and Theses

A 30-year climatology of lightning and associated synoptic meteorological patterns are characterized across the Western United States (WUS), utilizing a comprehensive composite analysis. Results generally show a preferred synoptic meteorological setup with positive 500-hPa geopotential height anomalies to the northeast of the location experiencing a lightning day, and negative sea level pressure anomalies co-located and to the northwest. Variation in preferred anomaly patterns across the western US reflects the divide between those areas affected by the North American monsoon system and areas outside the monsoonal core. Locations in the western Great Basin and northern Rocky Mountains, which are outside the ...


Recruitment Marketing: How Do Wellness And Work-Life Benefits Influence Employer Image Perceptions, Organizational Attraction, And Job Pursuit Intentions?, Amy Christine Pytlovany Nov 2019

Recruitment Marketing: How Do Wellness And Work-Life Benefits Influence Employer Image Perceptions, Organizational Attraction, And Job Pursuit Intentions?, Amy Christine Pytlovany

Dissertations and Theses

A global talent shortage is motivating employers to change the way they approach recruitment. To stay competitive, business leaders are strategizing new ways to attract employees and market their organizations to prospective employees. This research examined the impact of work-life and wellness programs on employer image perceptions (instrumental, symbolic, and experiential) and recruitment outcomes (organizational attraction and job pursuit intentions). It integrated these literatures to inform evidence-based organizational decision-making.

Study materials were developed with pilot testing conducted using Amazon Mechanical Turk (MTurk). Pilot 1 (N = 40) assessed the value of 32 types of benefits across traditional (e.g., health insurance ...


Support From Inside Out: Exploring Whether Various Social Supports Assist In Reducing Prison Rule Violations, Sarah Renee Lazzari Nov 2019

Support From Inside Out: Exploring Whether Various Social Supports Assist In Reducing Prison Rule Violations, Sarah Renee Lazzari

Dissertations and Theses

Scholars argue that prison rule violations are a way to assess whether individuals are engaging in prosocial behaviors. Individuals who engage in prosocial behaviors, during periods of incarceration, are less likely to engage in behaviors that result in official rule violations. Decreasing rule violations is one way to work towards a safer prison environment, while also preparing individuals for release. The current study uses cross-sectional data form the 2004 Survey of Inmates in State and Federal Facilities, in order to examine whether multiple types of prisons programs, which will be framed as various types of social supports, influence the frequency ...


Attrition And Psychotherapy, Jesse Barrington Homan Nov 2019

Attrition And Psychotherapy, Jesse Barrington Homan

Dissertations and Theses

Attrition in psychotherapy, also known as dropout, is a problem that affects clients who terminate, their families, therapists, mental health systems, and the overall community. Research on attrition is vast. However, the majority of this research has been done post hoc, relied on quantitative methods, and looked primarily at client demographic variables as the predictors of attrition. This has resulted in inconsistent findings, offers little to no useful information about attrition, and appears to blame clients for failed therapy. There has been little research on attrition from the perspective of clients who terminate. This study was designed to answer the ...


What Happened To This Child? Identifying Factors That Influence The Identification And Categorization Of Child Maltreatment In The United States, Erika Tullberg Nov 2019

What Happened To This Child? Identifying Factors That Influence The Identification And Categorization Of Child Maltreatment In The United States, Erika Tullberg

Dissertations and Theses

Background: Research has shown that adverse childhood experiences are strongly linked with health outcomes over the life course, and that child maltreatment – generally defined as physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional maltreatment and neglect – can have an immediate, negative impact on child health and development and a longer-term impact on adolescent and adult health, including the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in the U.S. With such significant consequences, the accurate identification of child maltreatment is critical.

Child welfare caseworkers are charged with protecting the safety and fostering the well-being of children who have been identified as maltreated or at ...


Urbanicity As A Moderator Of The Relationship Between Stigma And Well-Being Outcomes For Individuals With Serious Mental Illnesses, Emily Leickly Oct 2019

Urbanicity As A Moderator Of The Relationship Between Stigma And Well-Being Outcomes For Individuals With Serious Mental Illnesses, Emily Leickly

Dissertations and Theses

During the deinstitutionalization movement in the 1960s, community mental health centers and supportive and affordable housing for people with serious mental illnesses (SMI) was concentrated in economically disadvantaged urban centers. Today, these urban centers are becoming increasingly gentrified and unaffordable for people with SMI. Affordability is no longer synonymous with urban living, and supportive housing for people with SMI is increasingly found in non-urban areas. Given this shift, it is important to understand the potential impacts of non-urban living on people with SMI. Non-urban environments provide potential benefits for the general population, including reduced traffic and increased proximity to the ...


The Influence Of Age At Migration On Criminal Offending Among Foreign-Born Immigrants, Omar Melchor-Ayala Sep 2019

The Influence Of Age At Migration On Criminal Offending Among Foreign-Born Immigrants, Omar Melchor-Ayala

Dissertations and Theses

Domestic and international events -- such as the recent migrant caravans from Central and South America, and the records number of migrant children detained at the border -- have brought renewed attention to the adaptation of immigrants in the United States. More specifically, questions regarding whether the population of immigrants is driving the "crime problem," have taken center stage. Immigrants vary significantly in terms of when they migrate into the country. According to the Current Population Survey (CPS), the population of approximately 12 million foreign-born immigrant children living in the United States is split in terms of their age and developmental stage ...


Manufacturing In Place: Industrial Preservation In The Us, Jamaal William Green Sep 2019

Manufacturing In Place: Industrial Preservation In The Us, Jamaal William Green

Dissertations and Theses

In the face of growing economic inequality and population growth, several large cities in the US have started to proactively protect vital industrial lands from conversion to non-industrial uses. These new policies signal a potentially dramatic shift in both land-use and economic development practices.

In the first essay of this dissertation I present a typology of existing industrial land protective policies after reviewing the comprehensive plans and zoning codes of the United States' fifty largest cities. I identify 11 cities with protective policies and highlight the variance of these policies by offering a simple two part typology based upon a ...


The Cosmological Empire Of Pliny The Elder: An Examination Of Political Themes In The Second Book Of The Historia Naturalis, Kevin Alan Mccormick Sep 2019

The Cosmological Empire Of Pliny The Elder: An Examination Of Political Themes In The Second Book Of The Historia Naturalis, Kevin Alan Mccormick

Dissertations and Theses

Pliny the Elder's Historia Naturalis, written in the 70s CE and perhaps left unfinished at its author's death in 79, is among the largest documents to have survived down to us from antiquity. It comprises some thirty-seven books on a breadth of topics about the natural world, and man's interaction with the world and marshalling of its resources. The work has often been referred to as the world's first encyclopedia. Recent scholarship has rescued Pliny's reputation from its degradation among the scholars of the early twentieth century, and modern scholars have approached the document via ...


Patient And Provider Perspectives On Sexual History Taking During Gynecological Care: A Pilot Study In An Academic Family Medical Setting In New York City, Ashley M. Chastain Sep 2019

Patient And Provider Perspectives On Sexual History Taking During Gynecological Care: A Pilot Study In An Academic Family Medical Setting In New York City, Ashley M. Chastain

Dissertations and Theses

Background: In the United States (US), women face a number of serious issues concerning sexual health. Current surveillance data indicates that overall rates of bacterial sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are increasing rapidly. While rates of new diagnoses have decreased, the risks of acquiring HIV are still relatively high for some females, specifically Black/African-American women. In New York City (NYC), where this dissertation research was conducted, similar HIV/STI rates exist among females of reproductive age (aged 15-44). Among women in the US, there are also high estimated rates of other sexual health problems, such as sexual anxiety, sexual dysfunction ...


Understanding The Politicization Of Oromo Identity In The Diaspora: Re/ Locating The Bones Of The Oromo, Madeline Jaye Bass Aug 2019

Understanding The Politicization Of Oromo Identity In The Diaspora: Re/ Locating The Bones Of The Oromo, Madeline Jaye Bass

Dissertations and Theses

The Oromo people of Ethiopia share a common language, worldview, set of sacred meanings, and a historic system of governance. The rise of the Abyssinian Empire in the late 1800s led to the colonization of the Oromo; their language and religion were made illegal, their homeland was expropriated and renamed, and they were forced to live as slaves on their own land. After the end of the Abyssinian colonial era, historic discrimination was institutionalized into the new Ethiopian state form through the politicization of identities. Ethnic identities become political identities when cultural traits are used by the state as criteria ...


The Tangle Of Institutional Care And Control At A Shelter For Commercially Sexually Exploited Youth, Liat Tzvia Mayer Aug 2019

The Tangle Of Institutional Care And Control At A Shelter For Commercially Sexually Exploited Youth, Liat Tzvia Mayer

Dissertations and Theses

My cultural anthropology master's thesis focuses on the workings of Inanna House, an emergency shelter/residential program for commercially sexually exploited (CSEC) youth in Portland, Oregon. In the summer of 2017, I did participant observation and interviewed youth and direct care staff members at the CSEC shelter I had been working at for 2 years. I begin by situating ideas about domestic minor sex trafficking (DMST) within larger historical, legal, economic, and political contexts. I consider concepts of childhood, race, class, gender, and sexuality on the story of DMST in the United States.

Next, I explore the ways humans ...


Differences In Syntactic Complexity In The Writing Of El1 And Ell Civil Engineering Students, Santiago Gustin Aug 2019

Differences In Syntactic Complexity In The Writing Of El1 And Ell Civil Engineering Students, Santiago Gustin

Dissertations and Theses

Traditional studies in syntactic complexity consider increased clausal complexity to be characteristic of development, proficiency and growth in written language production. However, this stereotypical view ignores two important facts. First, complexity differs by register (i.e. daily speech versus formal writing). Second, as the proficiency of writers increases, their complexity in formal writing changes from clausal complexity to phrasal complexity (i.e. lower-proficiency writers have more subordinate clauses whereas higher-proficiency writers tend to have more noun phrases). Therefore, in this study, I argue for the need to consider not just clausal complexity but also phrasal complexity measures when assessing development ...


The Relationship Between Undergraduate Research Training Programs And Motivational Resources For Underrepresented Minority Students In Stem: Program Participation, Self-Efficacy, A Sense Of Belonging, And Academic Performance, Jennifer Lindwall Aug 2019

The Relationship Between Undergraduate Research Training Programs And Motivational Resources For Underrepresented Minority Students In Stem: Program Participation, Self-Efficacy, A Sense Of Belonging, And Academic Performance, Jennifer Lindwall

Dissertations and Theses

Although calls for a more diverse workforce in biomedical fields have been widespread, racial and ethnic gaps in biomedical degree attainment persist. In order to succeed, URM STEM students must persevere despite numerous challenges and stay continuously motivated on the long road to degree attainment in biomedical disciplines. Past higher education research has identified two key self-appraisals, a sense of belonging and self-efficacy, as crucial for student success. These beliefs, which can serve as motivational resources for students, include students' convictions about whether they are a valued member of their academic community and whether they have what it takes to ...


Reproduciendo Otros Mundos: Indigenous Women's Struggles Against Neo-Extractivism And The Bolivian State, Gisela Victoria Rodriguez Fernandez Aug 2019

Reproduciendo Otros Mundos: Indigenous Women's Struggles Against Neo-Extractivism And The Bolivian State, Gisela Victoria Rodriguez Fernandez

Dissertations and Theses

Latin America is in a political crisis, yet Bolivia is still widely recognized as a beacon of hope for progressive change. The radical movements at the beginning of the 21st century against neoliberalism that paved the road for the election of Bolivia's first indigenous president, Evo Morales, beckoned a change from colonial rule towards a more just society. Paradoxically, in pursuing progress through economic growth, the Bolivian state led by President Morales has replicated the colonial division of labor through a development model known as neo-extractivism. Deeply rooted tensions have also emerged between indigenous communities and the Bolivian state ...