Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Social and Behavioral Sciences Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Articles 1 - 30 of 288

Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

An Exploration Of Decision Aid Effectiveness: The Impact Of Promoting Affective Vs. Deliberative Processing On A Health-Related Decision, Esther L. Davis, Kirsten Mccaffery, Barbara Mullan, Ilona Juraskova Jan 2014

An Exploration Of Decision Aid Effectiveness: The Impact Of Promoting Affective Vs. Deliberative Processing On A Health-Related Decision, Esther L. Davis, Kirsten Mccaffery, Barbara Mullan, Ilona Juraskova

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Decision aids (DAs) are non-directive communication tools that help patients make value-consistent health-care decisions. However, most DAs have been developed without an explicit theoretical framework, resulting in a lack of understanding of how DAs achieve outcomes.


How Western National Interest Drives Ebola Drug Development, Christopher J. Degeling Jan 2014

How Western National Interest Drives Ebola Drug Development, Christopher J. Degeling

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Ebola virus disease typically only occurs in rural and remote areas among resource-poor populations. Until the large, recent outbreak in West Africa, cases of the illness were a rarity.


Toward Stronger Theory In Critical Public Health: Insights From Debates Surrounding Posthumanism, Melanie Rock, Christopher J. Degeling, Gwendolyn Blue Jan 2014

Toward Stronger Theory In Critical Public Health: Insights From Debates Surrounding Posthumanism, Melanie Rock, Christopher J. Degeling, Gwendolyn Blue

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

The 'posthumanist turn' in critical theory comprises efforts to recognize and analyze the interdependence of human existence with non-human entities, including other animals, spaces, and technologies. Scholarship aligned to and debating posthumanism pertains to public health, but has yet to be clearly articulated for a public health audience. This commentary and an appended glossary illustrate the relevance of these ideas for enhancing critical theory in public health. 2013 Taylor & Francis.


Equity Under The Knife: Justice And Evidence In Surgery, Wendy Rogers, Christopher J. Degeling, Cynthia Townley Jan 2014

Equity Under The Knife: Justice And Evidence In Surgery, Wendy Rogers, Christopher J. Degeling, Cynthia Townley

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Surgery is an increasingly common and expensive mode of medical intervention. The ethical dimensions of the surgeon-patient relationship, including respect for personal autonomy and informed consent, are much discussed; but broader equity issues have not received the same attention. This paper extends the understanding of surgical ethics by considering the nature of evidence in surgery and its relationship to a just provision of healthcare for individuals and their populations. 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


Diversion Of Prescribed Opioids By People Living With Chronic Pain: Results From An Australian Community Sample, Jessica Belcher, Suzanne Nielsen, Gabrielle Campbell, Raimondo Bruno, Bianca Hoban, Briony K. Larance, Nicholas Lintzeris, Louisa Degenhardt Jan 2014

Diversion Of Prescribed Opioids By People Living With Chronic Pain: Results From An Australian Community Sample, Jessica Belcher, Suzanne Nielsen, Gabrielle Campbell, Raimondo Bruno, Bianca Hoban, Briony K. Larance, Nicholas Lintzeris, Louisa Degenhardt

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Introduction and Aims There has been an increase in prescription of opioids for chronic non‐cancer pain, and concern exists over possible diversion of prescription opioids to the illicit marketplace. Recent media coverage suggests that elderly patients sell their prescribed opioids for additional income. This study investigated the extent to which an Australian community sample of chronic pain patients prescribed opioids reported supplying their prescribed opioids to others. Design and Methods Participants living with chronic non‐cancer pain and prescribed opioids for their pain (n = 952) were recruited across Australia via advertisements at pharmacies. A telephone interview included questions about ...


We All Have A Role In Protecting Children: End The Silence On Abuse, Amy Conley Wright, Lynne M. Keevers Jan 2014

We All Have A Role In Protecting Children: End The Silence On Abuse, Amy Conley Wright, Lynne M. Keevers

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

The recent string of major child sexual assault scandals, in Australia and other countries, can create a feeling of disgust and an urge to look away from an ugly reality. Yet we must confront and take collective responsibility for child protection by acknowledging that it happens every day and that we have to talk about it. Societal silence on child sexual abuse protects perpetrators and enables abuse to continue. Child sexual assault is a lot more common than we may think. The Australian Institute of Family Studies reported in 2013 that as many as one in six boys and one ...


Transcending Teacher Professional Development: From Determinism To Complexity, Abdul Rahman, Garry F. Hoban, Wendy S. Nielsen Jan 2014

Transcending Teacher Professional Development: From Determinism To Complexity, Abdul Rahman, Garry F. Hoban, Wendy S. Nielsen

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

There is a multiplicity of factors and actors that come into play to make teacher professional development (TPD) a strategic and powerful scheme for improving teacher practices. This multiplicity is evident in educational practices and theories. Consequently, traditional perspectives that take a simple view of TPD as a single, independent entity in teacher learning in isolation from other factors and actors are problematic. To better understand how TPD can bring about change in teacher practices-transforming teacher learning, there is a need to transcend the linear, causal, deterministic assumption about TPD. Here, in this discussion paper, I argue that powerful TPD ...


The Use Of Citizens' Juries In Health Policy Decision-Making: A Systematic Review, Jackie M. Street, Katherine M. Duszynski, Stephanie Krawczyk, Annette J. Braunack-Mayer Jan 2014

The Use Of Citizens' Juries In Health Policy Decision-Making: A Systematic Review, Jackie M. Street, Katherine M. Duszynski, Stephanie Krawczyk, Annette J. Braunack-Mayer

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Deliberative inclusive approaches, such as citizen juries, have been used to engage citizens on a range of issues in health care and public health. Researchers engaging with the public to inform policy and practice have adapted the citizen jury method in a variety of ways. The nature and impact of these adaptations has not been evaluated.

We systematically searched Medline (PubMED), CINAHL and Scopus databases to identify deliberative inclusive methods, particularly citizens' juries and their adaptations, deployed in health research. Identified studies were evaluated focussing on principles associated with deliberative democracy: inclusivity, deliberation and active citizenship. We examined overall process ...


Australian Health Policy And End Of Life Care For People With Chronic Disease: An Analysis, Teresa Burgess, Annette J. Braunack-Mayer, Gregory Crawford, Justin J. Beilby Jan 2014

Australian Health Policy And End Of Life Care For People With Chronic Disease: An Analysis, Teresa Burgess, Annette J. Braunack-Mayer, Gregory Crawford, Justin J. Beilby

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

End of life care for people with advanced chronic disease is a growing international imperative, with the majority of deaths in the world now related to chronic disease. The provision of care that meets the needs of people with advanced chronic disease must be guided by appropriate policy. The key policy areas impacting directly on end of life care are related to chronic disease, palliative care and, increasingly, aged care.

This paper describes the outcomes of an audit of Australian chronic disease and end of life/palliative care policies. We identified that chronic disease health policies/strategies demonstrate a focus ...


Incorporating Immunizations Into Routine Obstetric Care To Facilitate Health Care Practitioners In Implementing Maternal Immunization, Heather Webb, Jacqueline M. Street, Helen S. Marshall Jan 2014

Incorporating Immunizations Into Routine Obstetric Care To Facilitate Health Care Practitioners In Implementing Maternal Immunization, Heather Webb, Jacqueline M. Street, Helen S. Marshall

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Immunization against pertussis, influenza, and rubella reduces morbidity and mortality in pregnant women and their offspring. Health care professionals (HCPs) caring for women perinatally are uniquely placed to reduce maternal vaccine preventable diseases (VPDs). Despite guidelines recommending immunization during the perinatal period, maternal vaccine uptake remains low. This qualitative study explored the role of obstetricians, general practitioners, and midwives in maternal vaccine uptake. Semi-structured interviews (n = 15) were conducted with perinatal HCPs at a tertiary maternity hospital in South Australia. HCPs were asked to reflect on their knowledge, beliefs, and practice relating to immunization advice and vaccine provision. Interviews were ...


Faith-Based Perspectives On The Use Of Chimeric Organisms For Medical Research., Christopher J. Degeling, Rob Irvine, Ian Kerridge Jan 2014

Faith-Based Perspectives On The Use Of Chimeric Organisms For Medical Research., Christopher J. Degeling, Rob Irvine, Ian Kerridge

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Efforts to advance our understanding of neurodegenerative diseases involve the creation chimeric organisms from human neural stem cells and primate embryos--known as prenatal chimeras. The existence of potential mentally complex beings with human and non-human neural apparatus raises fundamental questions as to the ethical permissibility of chimeric research and the moral status of the creatures it creates. Even as bioethicists find fewer reasons to be troubled by most types of chimeric organisms, social attitudes towards the non-human world are often influenced by religious beliefs. In this paper scholars representing eight major religious traditions provide a brief commentary on a hypothetical ...


Self-Determination Theory And Teacher Instruction: A Positive Partnership For Student Performance And Involvement, Dana Perlman Jan 2014

Self-Determination Theory And Teacher Instruction: A Positive Partnership For Student Performance And Involvement, Dana Perlman

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of distinct motivationally-based instructional approaches on student's game performance and involvement. 78 secondary physical education students were taught a unit of volleyball using one in either an autonomy-supportive, controlling or balanced instructional style. Using a pretest and posttest design, students were measured on their game performance and involvement during 20-minute game of volleyball. Data analysis indicated that students engaged in the autonomy-supportive context illustrated significantly higher levels of performance and involvement when compared with the other groups.


Socio-Emotional Connections: Identity, Belonging And Learning In Online Interactions. A Literature Review, Janine Delahunty, Irina Verenikina, Pauline Jones Jan 2014

Socio-Emotional Connections: Identity, Belonging And Learning In Online Interactions. A Literature Review, Janine Delahunty, Irina Verenikina, Pauline Jones

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

This review focuses on three interconnected socio-emotional aspects of online learning: interaction, sense of community and identity formation. In the intangible social space of the virtual classroom, students come together to learn through dialogic, often asynchronous, exchanges. This creates distinctive learning environments where learning goals, interpersonal relationships and emotions are no less important because of their 'virtualness', and for which traditional face-to-face pedagogies are not neatly transferrable. The literature reveals consistent connections between interaction and sense of community. Yet identity, which plausibly and naturally emerges from any social interaction, is much less explored in online learning. While it is widely ...


Relative Validity Of 3 Accelerometer Models For Estimating Energy Expenditure During Light Activity, Alexander Allan Wetten, Marijka Batterham, Sze Yen Tan, Linda Tapsell Jan 2014

Relative Validity Of 3 Accelerometer Models For Estimating Energy Expenditure During Light Activity, Alexander Allan Wetten, Marijka Batterham, Sze Yen Tan, Linda Tapsell

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Background: With physical inactivity inextricably linked to the increasing prevalence of obesity, there is a need for validated methods that measure free-living energy expenditure (EE) within sedentary environments. While accelerometers enable these measurements, few studies have compared device accuracy in such settings. The aim of this study was to investigate the relative validity of the Actigraph, RT3 and SenseWear Armband (SWA). Methods: Twenty-three (11 male, 12 female) participants (age: 25.3 ± 6.3 yr; BMI: 22.6 ± 2.7) wore 3 accelerometers at designated sites during a 4-hour stay in the Whole Room Calorimeter (WRC). Participants performed 2 10-minute bouts ...


Prevalence And Risk Factors Of Food Insecurity Among A Cohort Of Older Australians, Joanna Russell, Victoria M. Flood, Heather Yeatman, Paul Mitchell Jan 2014

Prevalence And Risk Factors Of Food Insecurity Among A Cohort Of Older Australians, Joanna Russell, Victoria M. Flood, Heather Yeatman, Paul Mitchell

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Objective

With ongoing national concern about food security, the aim of the study was to estimate the prevalence of food insecurity and to identify associated characteristics in a cohort of older Australians.

Design, setting and participants

The Blue Mountains Eye Study is a cohort study of community living participants aged 49 + years. The 12-item food security survey was completed by 3068 participants in the cross sectional study which comprised 2335 survivors from baseline and the recruitment of an additional 1174 eligible residents.

Main outcome measures

Prevalence of self reported food insecurity was calculated and multivariate logistic regression provided odds ratios ...


Midwives And Nutrition Education During Pregnancy: A Literature Review, Jamila Arrish, Heather Yeatman, Moira Williamson Jan 2014

Midwives And Nutrition Education During Pregnancy: A Literature Review, Jamila Arrish, Heather Yeatman, Moira Williamson

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Objectives This review explored the extent to which the role of midwives in nutrition education during pregnancy has been reported in the literature and areas requiring further research were identified. Review method A review of the literature was undertaken. Articles included in the review were published in English, in scholarly journals, and provided information about the knowledge, education, and attitudes of midwives towards nutrition during pregnancy. Results and discussion Few studies were identified. The included studies were exploratory and descriptive. Studies had reported that midwives lacked a basic knowledge of nutrition requirements during pregnancy. This might be attributed to inadequate ...


Nutrition During Pregnancy - Exploring Women's Knowledge And Models Of Nutrition Communication, Khlood Bookari, Heather Yeatman, Moira Williamson Jan 2014

Nutrition During Pregnancy - Exploring Women's Knowledge And Models Of Nutrition Communication, Khlood Bookari, Heather Yeatman, Moira Williamson

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Abstract of paper presented at the ICM 30th Triennial Congress - Midwives: Improving Women's Health Globally, 1-5 June 2014, Prague, Czech Republic


A Protocol For The Delivery Of Cannabidiol (Cbd) And Combined Cbd And ∆9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (Thc) By Vaporisation, Nadia Solowij, Samantha Broyd, Hendrika H. Van Hell, Arno Hazekamp Jan 2014

A Protocol For The Delivery Of Cannabidiol (Cbd) And Combined Cbd And ∆9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (Thc) By Vaporisation, Nadia Solowij, Samantha Broyd, Hendrika H. Van Hell, Arno Hazekamp

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Significant interest has emerged in the therapeutic and interactive effects of different cannabinoids. Cannabidiol (CBD) has been shown to have anxiolytic and antipsychotic effects with high doses administered orally. We report a series of studies conducted to determine the vaporisation efficiency of high doses of CBD, alone and in combination with Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), to achieve faster onset effects in experimental and clinical trials and emulate smoked cannabis.

Methods:Purified THC and CBD (40 mg/ml and 100 mg/ml respectively) were loaded onto a liquid absorbing pad in a Volcano® vaporiser, vaporised and the vapours quantitatively analysed. Preliminary studies determined ...


Transformative Learning: Simulations In Social Work Education, Lesley L. Cooper, Lynne Briggs Jan 2014

Transformative Learning: Simulations In Social Work Education, Lesley L. Cooper, Lynne Briggs

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Abstract presented at the Joint World Conference on Social Work, Education and Social Development 2014, 9-12 July 2014, Melbourne, Australia


Making Country Good: Stewardship And Environmental Change In Central Australian Pastoral Culture, Nicholas Gill Jan 2014

Making Country Good: Stewardship And Environmental Change In Central Australian Pastoral Culture, Nicholas Gill

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Rural stewardship has been a focus of much natural resource management policy in Australia and elsewhere. Despite landowners professing stewardship, some researchers have cast doubt on the utility of the concept due to its vagueness and difficulties of associating attitudes with behaviour. In contrast I argue that stewardship should remain an important concept for understanding rural cultures, landholder practices and the politics of land. Stewardship, however, needs to be understood as emergent, as a 'dwelt achievement', as having temporal depth and as being part of the production of socio-natures. Moreover, as a key vernacular practice, its capacities and vulnerabilities require ...


Most Measures Are Still Uncommon: The Need For Comparability, Jon Twing, Jim S. Tognolini Jan 2014

Most Measures Are Still Uncommon: The Need For Comparability, Jon Twing, Jim S. Tognolini

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

This paper makes explicit the desire and need to link disparate assessments in large-scale assessments. Furthermore, it shows that well established and well-defended studies (like the Anchor Test Study and those associated with the Voluntary National Tests in the US), disagree regarding the viability, validity and practicality of linking disparate assessments. We point out what is now a common procedure in Australia for linking disparate statewide assessments. Furthermore, we present a scenario in India in which we make the argument that such a linking is better than no linking at all. We demonstrate outcomes of one implementation of this linking ...


Supporting The First Year Students From A Diverse Range Of Backgrounds, Valerie Harwood, Sarah Elizabeth O'Shea Jan 2014

Supporting The First Year Students From A Diverse Range Of Backgrounds, Valerie Harwood, Sarah Elizabeth O'Shea

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Presentation made at the Flinders University 2nd First Year Forum for 2014


Digital Storytelling: Capturing The Stories Of Mentors In Australian Indigenous Mentoring Experience, Lisa Kervin, Samantha Mcmahon, Sarah Elizabeth O'Shea, Valerie Harwood Jan 2014

Digital Storytelling: Capturing The Stories Of Mentors In Australian Indigenous Mentoring Experience, Lisa Kervin, Samantha Mcmahon, Sarah Elizabeth O'Shea, Valerie Harwood

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Digital stories are often considered in terms of artistic forms, as teaching and learning tools, and for their emancipatory capacity to capture the stories and experiences of marginalised social groups. This case joins the recent move to reconceptualise the digital story by positing it as a useful research method that generates rich multimodal narrative data. As a new method in social science research, it seems, at least so far, to raise more questions than it answers. Such methodological questions might include the following: What 'type' of digital story to use? How do you analyse, theorise and/or account for the ...


Training-Induced Improvements In Inhibitor Control, Nicholas Benikos, Stuart Johnstone, Steven Roodenrys Jan 2014

Training-Induced Improvements In Inhibitor Control, Nicholas Benikos, Stuart Johnstone, Steven Roodenrys

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Abstract presented at the 17th World Congress of Psychophysiology (IOP2014) of the International Organization of Psychophysiology (IOP) Hiroshima, Japan, September 23rd to 27th, 2014


The Composite Effect In Static And Dynamic Familiar Face Perception, Simone Favelle, Alanna Tobin, Daniel Piepers, Rachel Robbins, Darren Burke Jan 2014

The Composite Effect In Static And Dynamic Familiar Face Perception, Simone Favelle, Alanna Tobin, Daniel Piepers, Rachel Robbins, Darren Burke

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Abstract presented at The Asia-Pacific Conference on Vision (APCV) 2014 19-22 July 2014, Takamatsu, Japan


Content Analysis Of Food Advertising In Iranian Children's Television Programs, Maryam Amini, Nasrin Omidvar, Heather Yeatman, Shadab Shariat-Jafari, Maryam Eslami-Amirabadi, Malihe Zahedirad Jan 2014

Content Analysis Of Food Advertising In Iranian Children's Television Programs, Maryam Amini, Nasrin Omidvar, Heather Yeatman, Shadab Shariat-Jafari, Maryam Eslami-Amirabadi, Malihe Zahedirad

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Background: Advertisements can influence children's health related behaviors. Television advertisements are the main avenues directing commercials at children in Iran. This study aimed to explore the content of food advertisement during children's television programs in 2007-8 and to compare it with those reported in 2000. Methods: All advertisements broadcasted before, during, and after children's programs aired on two major Iran national television networks were videotaped for a period of 4 weeks during 2007- 8. For each advertisement, type of product(s) and mode of presentation (s) were coded. Results: A total of 229 television advertisements were broadcasted ...


Vegetal Politics: Belonging, Practices And Places, Lesley Head, Jennifer Atchison, Catherine Phillips, Kathleen Buckingham Jan 2014

Vegetal Politics: Belonging, Practices And Places, Lesley Head, Jennifer Atchison, Catherine Phillips, Kathleen Buckingham

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Cultural geography has a long and proud tradition of research into human-plant relations. However, until recently, that tradition has been somewhat disconnected from conceptual advances in the social sciences, even those to which cultural geographers have made significant contributions. With a number of important exceptions, plant studies have been less explicitly part of more-than-human geographies than have animal studies. This special issue aims to redress this gap, recognising plants and their multiple engagements with and beyond humans. Plants are not only fundamental to human survival, they play a key role in many of the most important environmental political issues of ...


Warning! : Packaging Can Damage Your Health, Alaster Yoxall, Alison Bell, Karen Walton Jan 2014

Warning! : Packaging Can Damage Your Health, Alaster Yoxall, Alison Bell, Karen Walton

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Previous work by the authors has shown that access to packaging in hospitals can influence the nutritional status of patients. This work indicated that five particular pack forms performed badly and that the issue surrounding poor access was both linked to strength and dexterity. The study presented here looks at initial work undertaken to examine the dexterity needed to access these problematic packaging and examine methods for measuring users dexterity. To that end a Purdue Pegboard, questionnaires, HSV and task analysis were used. This work showed that there was a direct link between the reduction in dexterity and the time ...


Single-Sex After-School Physical Activity Programs For Overweight And At-Risk Children: The Wollongong Sport Pilot Randomised Controlled Trial, Dylan Cliff, Jacqueline Kelly, Rachel Jones, Anthony D. Okely Jan 2014

Single-Sex After-School Physical Activity Programs For Overweight And At-Risk Children: The Wollongong Sport Pilot Randomised Controlled Trial, Dylan Cliff, Jacqueline Kelly, Rachel Jones, Anthony D. Okely

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Abstract presented at the 2014 Global Summit on the Physical Activity of Children, held in Toronto, May 19-22, 2014.


Investigation Of Chinese University Students' Attributions Of English Language Learning, Jinjin Lu, Stuart Woodcock, Han Jiang Jan 2014

Investigation Of Chinese University Students' Attributions Of English Language Learning, Jinjin Lu, Stuart Woodcock, Han Jiang

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Despite the importance of developing students' learning autonomy in Chinese schools similar to Western cultured schools, many concerns are raised regarding the influence and effectiveness that learner autonomy has on students' academic achievements. The aim of this study was to identify the attribution patterns of Chinese university students for success and failure toward students who learnt through autonomy learning (student-centered approaches) compared with students who learnt through teacher-centered approaches. Within this study, mixed research methods were adopted, and students used a reflective method to distinguish whether they were taught English through a traditional or student-centered method. The findings of the ...