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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

The Dairy Issue: ‘Practicing The Art Of War’, Melissa Boyde Jan 2018

The Dairy Issue: ‘Practicing The Art Of War’, Melissa Boyde

Animal Studies Journal

: This paper offers several stories in response to philosopher Vinciane Despret and sociologist Jocelyne Porcher’s considerations on ‘dairy’ cows and work. These include stories from the cows in the herd that I have lived alongside for 30 years, a kind of auto-ethnographic approach; and stories and a few facts about the dairy industry in Australia. These accounts are informed by another story, told by the feminist philosopher and writer Hélène Cixous. Three works by artist Yvette Watt tell more stories about the lives and deaths of cows. One of my underlying interests is in the possibilities of narrative to ...


From Rice Eaters To Soy Boys: Race, Gender, And Tropes Of ‘Plant Food Masculinity’, Iselin Gambert, Tobias Linné Jan 2018

From Rice Eaters To Soy Boys: Race, Gender, And Tropes Of ‘Plant Food Masculinity’, Iselin Gambert, Tobias Linné

Animal Studies Journal

Tropes of ‘effeminized’ masculinity have long been bound up with a plant-based diet, dating back to the ‘effeminate rice eater’ stereotype used to justify 19th-century colonialism in Asia to the altright’s use of the term ‘soy boy’ on Twitter and other social media today to call out men they perceive to be weak, effeminate, and politically correct (Gambert and Linné). This article explores tropes of ‘plant food masculinity’ throughout history, focusing on how while they have embodied different social, cultural, and political identities, they all serve as a tool to construct an archetypal masculine ideal. The analysis draws on ...


[Review] Devries, Scott M. Creature Discomfort: Fauna-Criticism, Ethics And The Representation Of Animals In Spanish American Fiction And Poetry. Leiden: Brill, 2016. Critical Animal Studies, 4. 328pp., Wendy Woodward Jan 2018

[Review] Devries, Scott M. Creature Discomfort: Fauna-Criticism, Ethics And The Representation Of Animals In Spanish American Fiction And Poetry. Leiden: Brill, 2016. Critical Animal Studies, 4. 328pp., Wendy Woodward

Animal Studies Journal

Scott M. DeVries’ exhaustive overview of Spanish American Literature serves as a substantial introduction to Spanish American literature in relation to Critical Animal Studies and what DeVries terms Traditional Animal Studies. Motivated by the lack of Spanish American literature featuring in animal studies, his survey convinces of the richness of this literature. The neologism ‘fauna-criticism’ is underpinned by TAS and CAS for their ‘ethical advocacy in defense of nonhumans’ and for their theorising about animals which generates a ‘proper understanding’ of animals (25). The term is intended to avoid the ‘slippages of meaning’ (32) and the ‘baggage’ that has accrued ...


[Review] Anna Barcz. Animal Narratives And Culture: Vulnerable Realism. Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2017. Xii,185pp., Sally Borrell Jan 2018

[Review] Anna Barcz. Animal Narratives And Culture: Vulnerable Realism. Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2017. Xii,185pp., Sally Borrell

Animal Studies Journal

Anna Barcz’s Animal Narratives and Culture: Vulnerable Realism sets out to answer two related questions: what do animals add when they are realistically included in cultural texts, and what is the role of fiction in particular? As part of the examination of these questions, the book identifies what Barcz terms ‘zoonarratives’ and develops the concept of zoocriticism itself. Barcz explains that a twentieth-century acceptance of what is likely (and not only what is definite) within understandings of realism has allowed increased scope to explore animal perspectives in fiction. The book’s focus on animal vulnerability in particular in one ...


The Ethics And Politics Of Drones In Animal Activism, Clare Mccausland, Susan Pyke, Siobhan O'Sullivan Jan 2018

The Ethics And Politics Of Drones In Animal Activism, Clare Mccausland, Susan Pyke, Siobhan O'Sullivan

Animal Studies Journal

This paper considers the use of drones in animal advocacy and aims to provide a moral and political justification for their use. We focus on animal protection groups who fly drones over farms to take pictures and videos of the way animals are used in agriculture and who then share these images publicly with a view to changing either consumer behaviour, the laws which regulate animal agriculture, or both. We identify unique moral issues associated with drone use and provide an argument to support their use in animal protection, in the ways spearheaded by Will Potter and other animal advocates ...


Bodily Encounter, Bearing Witness And The Engaged Activism Of The Global Save Movement, Alex Lockwood Jan 2018

Bodily Encounter, Bearing Witness And The Engaged Activism Of The Global Save Movement, Alex Lockwood

Animal Studies Journal

The global Save Movement, alongside other animal rights organisations and practices, has since 2010 sought to bring the experiences of nonhuman farmed animals into the public domain from privatized, usually hidden spaces of industrial procedure and slaughter. One key mechanism used is to conduct vigils held outside slaughterhouses, where activists gather to bear witness to the passing of nonhuman animals in trucks, and to raise awareness of the suffering of animals to passers-by. Central to the practice are the roles played by emotional engagement and bodily encounter with the nonhuman animals; the movement is founded on a self-styled ‘love-based’ compassion ...


Why Is It Important To Use Flagship Species In Community Education? The Koala As A Case Study, Rolf Schlagloth, Flavia Santamaria Dr., Barry Golding, Hedley Thomson Jan 2018

Why Is It Important To Use Flagship Species In Community Education? The Koala As A Case Study, Rolf Schlagloth, Flavia Santamaria Dr., Barry Golding, Hedley Thomson

Animal Studies Journal

Our paper investigates the conservation and planning implications of the use of an individual flagship species. The koala was chosen, as an example, in a community education intervention in a regional Australian city. Educating the community to accept changes in planning laws aimed at the protection of a single species such as the koala has never been an easy task. We examine the approach used to educate the Ballarat community in doing just that. We outline the power of this iconic Australian mammal, the koala, in promoting conservation and changes in planning regulations. We highlight the flow-on conservation and educational ...


Animals And Humans On Stage: Live Performances At Sea World On The Gold Coast, Rebecca Scollen Jan 2018

Animals And Humans On Stage: Live Performances At Sea World On The Gold Coast, Rebecca Scollen

Animal Studies Journal

The purpose of this study is to investigate animal and human relations as constructed, and as demonstrated, through the live performances at Sea World on the Gold Coast, Australia. Particular attention is placed upon the meanings generated by the intersection of the starring animals and humans in the two narrative-driven productions. The study employs participant observation at three performances of Fish Detectives and Affinity. Fish Detectives highlights the dangers of overfishing the Earth’s oceans in a play where the sea lions and pelican involved in the show perform alongside human actors. The animals do not perform their species but ...


Decolonising The Waters: Interspecies Encounters Between Sharks And Humans, Zan Hammerton, Akkadia Ford Dr Jan 2018

Decolonising The Waters: Interspecies Encounters Between Sharks And Humans, Zan Hammerton, Akkadia Ford Dr

Animal Studies Journal

Often portrayed as ‘man–eaters’, sharks are one of the most maligned apex species on earth. Media representation has fuelled public imagination, perpetuating fear and negative stereotypes of sharks and hysteria around human-shark interactions; whilst government initiatives such as beach netting and drum-lines target sharks for elimination. This interdisciplinary article, written from the points of view of environmental science and cultural studies, proposes humans as simply another species when entering the ocean, presenting a decolonising shift in paradigm that supports an interspecies ethics of engagement in understanding shark-human interactions. The shifting environmental, political, social and cultural realities of shark-human interactions ...


[Review] Creatural Fictions David Herman, Editor. Creatural Fictions: Human-Animal Relationships In Twentieth- And Twenty-First-Century Literature, Wendy Woodward Jan 2018

[Review] Creatural Fictions David Herman, Editor. Creatural Fictions: Human-Animal Relationships In Twentieth- And Twenty-First-Century Literature, Wendy Woodward

Animal Studies Journal

David Herman has put together a landmark collection of essays in the Palgrave Studies in Animals and Literature series. Drawing from the Animal Studies theories of Donna Haraway, John Berger, Jacques Derrida and Cary Wolfe, for instance, the collection has a lot to offer students new to Literary Animal Studies. Rigorous essays which further debates mean that the collection also has appeal for established scholars in the field. Creatural Fictions takes its title, Herman explains, partly from the creaturely theories Anat Pick turns to in Simone Weil, but the term ‘creatural’ is preferred in order to emphasise continuities between human ...


[Review] Stray: Human-Animal Ethics In The Anthropocene Barbara Creed, Stray: Human-Animal Ethics In The Anthropocene, Siobhan O'Sullivan Jan 2018

[Review] Stray: Human-Animal Ethics In The Anthropocene Barbara Creed, Stray: Human-Animal Ethics In The Anthropocene, Siobhan O'Sullivan

Animal Studies Journal

Barbara Creed is well known for her contribution to the field of Film Studies, as well as feminist thought more generally. Books such as The Monstrous-Feminine: Film, Feminism, Psychoanalysis (1993, Routledge) and Phallic Panic: Film, Horror and the Primal Uncanny (2005, University of Melbourne Press) established Creed as a leading international thinker. They also attest to Creed’s willingness to push boundaries and to take on challenging and controversial topics. In recent years Creed has turned her attention to the lives of nonhuman animals, and the multitude of ways in which humans engage with, oppress, and may learn from their ...


From Disability To Eco-Ability [Review] Anthony J. Nocella Ii, Amber E. George, And J. L. Schatz, Editors. The Intersectionality Of Critical Animal, Disability, And Environmental Studies: Toward Eco-Ability, Justice, And Liberation, Nathan Poirier Jan 2018

From Disability To Eco-Ability [Review] Anthony J. Nocella Ii, Amber E. George, And J. L. Schatz, Editors. The Intersectionality Of Critical Animal, Disability, And Environmental Studies: Toward Eco-Ability, Justice, And Liberation, Nathan Poirier

Animal Studies Journal

The Intersectionality of Critical Animal, Disability, and Environmental Studies: Toward Eco-ability, Justice, and Liberation (hereafter, Intersectionality), edited by critical scholars Anthony Nocella II, Amber E. George, and J.L. Schatz, is the follow-up collection to an earlier anthology edited by Nocella II, Judy Bentley and Janet Duncan. Published in 2012, Earth, Animal, and Disability Liberation: The Rise of the Eco-Ability Movement was visionary in illuminating entanglements of the struggles that people with disabilities share with environmental and nonhuman animal oppression (similar to the realization of the shared oppression of women, animals and the environment that sparked ecofeminism). This connection is ...


Provocations From The Field: Female Reproductive Exploitation Comes Home, Carol J. Adams Jan 2018

Provocations From The Field: Female Reproductive Exploitation Comes Home, Carol J. Adams

Animal Studies Journal

Sexual violation and reproductive exploitation happen to vulnerable bodies. After studying systems of female reproductive servitude and visiting ‘parlors’, exhibitions, and auctions where females are sold into captivity, Dr. Kathryn Gillespie of the University of Washington found relentless ‘sexually violent commodification of the female body’. Meet Carly (not her real name). Carly was torn from her mother shortly after birth, and while her umbilical cord hung from her, was auctioned off. She lived a life of physical and social isolation until her captors felt she was sexually mature. She was immobilized by chains or with a specially designed containment device ...


Bloodlines – Mammalian Motherhood, Biotechnologies And Other Entanglements, Lynn Mowson Jan 2018

Bloodlines – Mammalian Motherhood, Biotechnologies And Other Entanglements, Lynn Mowson

Animal Studies Journal

This paper outlines my current sculptural research project bloodlines focusing on the ways in which dairy cows are entangled with multiple biotechnologies and the wider environment. bloodlines brings extant works such as fleshlumps, boobscape and slink, together with new works, to represent the dairy industry, the environmental impacts of animal agriculture and the biotech innovations of in-vitro meat and bio-fabricated leather. These works are linked together by a web of interconnected fluids: excreta, milk and blood. In this new work, I hope to make the links between the dairy industry and these extended concerns both visceral and visible.


Demystifying Dairy, Deidre Wicks Jan 2018

Demystifying Dairy, Deidre Wicks

Animal Studies Journal

In this paper, I examine the dairy cow, her body and disposition, with a specific focus on the way we humans have designed her for our purposes, through the use of selective breeding and reproductive technology. I will also examine the consequences of this design for the health and welfare of the dairy cow and her calf. I will conduct this examination through the concept of ‘naturalistic mystification’, which I will use to challenge the dominant, hegemonic message, which presents the cow as natural, and milk as a nonharm product. Rather, I will demonstrate that the cow and her milk ...


‘Machine Milking Is More Manly Than Hand Milking’: Multispecies Agencies And Gendered Practices In Finnish Cattle Tending From The 1950s To The 1970s, Taija Kaarlenkaski Jan 2018

‘Machine Milking Is More Manly Than Hand Milking’: Multispecies Agencies And Gendered Practices In Finnish Cattle Tending From The 1950s To The 1970s, Taija Kaarlenkaski

Animal Studies Journal

During the last hundred years, mechanization has significantly changed the working circumstances of both humans and animals in cattle husbandry. In Finland, cattle tending was regarded as women’s work up until the mid-20th century. According to a common view, the proliferation of milking machines, starting from the 1950s, caused men to start working in the cowsheds. In this paper, I will examine how the agencies of cattle tenders, cows, and milking machines were constructed during the mechanization process from the 1950s to the 1970s. Special attention will be paid to gendered representations, and changes in the gendered division of ...


‘White Power Milk’: Milk, Dietary Racism, And The ‘Alt-Right’, Vasile Stănescu Jan 2018

‘White Power Milk’: Milk, Dietary Racism, And The ‘Alt-Right’, Vasile Stănescu

Animal Studies Journal

This article analyzes why milk has been chosen as a symbol of racial purity by the ‘alt-right’. Specifically, this article argues the alt-right's current use of claims about milk, lactose tolerance, race, and masculinity can be connected to similar arguments originally made during the19th century against colonialized populations and immigration groups. In the 19th century, colonizing populations classified colonized populations as ‘effeminate corn and rice eaters’ because of their supposed lack of consumption of meat and dairy. This article argues that a similar practice continues today. It also argues that there is a relationship between the dietary racism ideas ...


What If I Want To Put A Cow Down With A Gun? Sociological Critical Media Analysis Of Non-Companion Animals’ Representation In Rural Australian News, Angela T. Ragusa Jan 2018

What If I Want To Put A Cow Down With A Gun? Sociological Critical Media Analysis Of Non-Companion Animals’ Representation In Rural Australian News, Angela T. Ragusa

Animal Studies Journal

Although sociology of animals is a contemporary specialisation examining human-animal interactions, little research explores rural animals. Content analysis of non-companion animals’ news visibility in a rural Australian newspaper in 2016-2017 found 311 articles represented 3 categories of news-reporting. Findings evidence human lexicon, not animal news-reporting, greatly reducing animals’ substantive media presence and socially-legitimated cultural attitudes and journalism practices normalised humans’ power to treat rural animals in ways benefiting humans. Animals were depicted as dangerous, harming humans and each other, requiring killing for environmental management (legitimated by culling and food production claims), as commodities for human entertainment, products, and/or cultural ...


Animal Utopia: Liberal, Communitarian, Libertarian Or…? [Review Essay] Wayne Gabardi. The Next Social Contract: Animals, The Anthropocene, And Biopolitics, Dinesh Wadiwel Jan 2018

Animal Utopia: Liberal, Communitarian, Libertarian Or…? [Review Essay] Wayne Gabardi. The Next Social Contract: Animals, The Anthropocene, And Biopolitics, Dinesh Wadiwel

Animal Studies Journal

It would be difficult to be optimistic in the face of the political challenges that confront us. Globally, we have seen stark intensifications of economic inequalities and social stratifications, coupled with the rise of new nationalist and proto-fascist political movements. The environmental challenges are daunting: we now face a future where anthropogenic climate change will inescapably and deeply impact the earth’s systems. As I write, armed conflict continues to shape human affairs, generating continued misery and displacement; and instabilities have posed the possibility of new global conflicts, including a renewed threat of nuclear war. For non-human animals globally, the ...


Animal Studies Journal 2018 7 (2): Cover Page, Table Of Contents, Editorial And Notes On Contributors, Melissa Boyde Jan 2018

Animal Studies Journal 2018 7 (2): Cover Page, Table Of Contents, Editorial And Notes On Contributors, Melissa Boyde

Animal Studies Journal

Animal Studies Journal 2018 7 (1): Cover Page, Table of Contents, Editorial and Notes on Contributors


[Review] Peta Tait. Fighting Nature: Travelling Menageries, Animal Acts And War Shows. Sydney University Press, 2016., Nigel Rothfels Jan 2017

[Review] Peta Tait. Fighting Nature: Travelling Menageries, Animal Acts And War Shows. Sydney University Press, 2016., Nigel Rothfels

Animal Studies Journal

On October 23, 1903, William Temple Hornaday, the director of the New York Zoological Park, wrote to a Mr C. L. Williams, then responsible for ‘Hagenbeck’s Animal Show,’ which was touring the United States. At the time, the show was to be seen at the Grand Opera House in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, but it was missing one of its star performers, the famous lion-tiger hybrid ‘Prince’ who had been part of the show for over a decade, making his debut in the United States as part of Hagenbeck’s exhibit at the World’s Columbian Exposition in Chicago in 1893 ...


Captive Wildlife Sanctuaries: Definition, Ethical Considerations And Public Perception, Catherine Doyle Jan 2017

Captive Wildlife Sanctuaries: Definition, Ethical Considerations And Public Perception, Catherine Doyle

Animal Studies Journal

In its truest form, the modern captive wildlife sanctuary offers a lifelong home in a more natural environment for wild animals living in captivity. Tigers, lions, elephants, bears, chimpanzees and other animals are provided relative freedom and autonomy after years spent in zoos, circuses, laboratories, or private menageries. These sanctuaries provide specialized habitats in which wild animals can express more species-specific behaviors and experience a higher quality of life. Though they share some practical issues of caretaking with other forms of captivity – as well as many ethical problems – important distinctions separate them. Research suggests that public attitudes are moving toward ...


[Review] Annie Potts (Ed). Meat Culture, Carol Gigliotti Jan 2017

[Review] Annie Potts (Ed). Meat Culture, Carol Gigliotti

Animal Studies Journal

Annie Potts has curated a particularly strong and essential group of perspectives on ‘meat culture,’ described here as a coherent framework within which exist ‘a wide range of domains of production and consumption of animals.’ Meat Culture distinguishes itself in its clearheaded focus on the centrality of the misery and slaughter of animals without which the culture of eating meat would not exist.


Introduction: Interrogating Captive Freedom: The Possibilities And Limits Of Animal Sanctuaries, Elan Abrell Jan 2017

Introduction: Interrogating Captive Freedom: The Possibilities And Limits Of Animal Sanctuaries, Elan Abrell

Animal Studies Journal

In the last few decades, animal sanctuaries have proliferated around the world as advocates for animals have sought to save them from a wide array of contexts in which they are exploited, harmed, or killed by human actions. Sanctuaries take different forms and employ different approaches to animal care, varying in accordance to the kinds of species they save and the arenas of human animal-use they challenge. A non-exhaustive list of kinds of animal sanctuaries includes sanctuaries for farmed animal (rescued from agricultural contexts), ‘exotic’ animals (such as elephants or big cats, often rescued from being kept as pets or ...


A Guide For Modern Sanctuaries With Examples From A Captive Chimpanzee Sanctuary, Amy Fultz Jan 2017

A Guide For Modern Sanctuaries With Examples From A Captive Chimpanzee Sanctuary, Amy Fultz

Animal Studies Journal

As the need for animal sanctuaries continues to grow, and the numbers of species being housed increases, there is a desire from both current and future sanctuaries for guidance. Guidance from those with experience in the sanctuary, ethics, and animal welfare communities is important and helpful to the founders of new sanctuaries as well as current sanctuaries that may struggle with their identity. I will discuss some of the many definitions of sanctuary, and encourage organizations to consider which definition is the best fit for them. The ethos and philosophy a sanctuary embraces are likely to guide best practices, and ...


Money For Monkeys, And More: Ensuring Sanctuary Retirement Of Nonhuman Primates, Erika Fleury Jan 2017

Money For Monkeys, And More: Ensuring Sanctuary Retirement Of Nonhuman Primates, Erika Fleury

Animal Studies Journal

Reputable animal sanctuaries have existed for decades, yet it is only in more recent years that their work has been validated by the oversight of accreditation bodies and sanctuary coalitions. Through these relationships, sanctuaries are able to differentiate themselves from roadside zoos and private owners. Sanctuaries exist solely to provide enriched lifetime care to animals retired or rescued from exploitation or mistreatment, and thus their missions and facility management differ greatly from those of zoos, farms, circuses and other for-profit, entertainment, research and educational institutions. Primate sanctuaries specifically are more in demand than ever before due to the mass exodus ...


Duties To Socialise With Domesticated Animals: Farmed Animal Sanctuaries As Frontiers Of Friendship, Guy Scotton Jan 2017

Duties To Socialise With Domesticated Animals: Farmed Animal Sanctuaries As Frontiers Of Friendship, Guy Scotton

Animal Studies Journal

I argue that humans have a duty to socialise with domesticated animals, especially members of farmed animal species: to make efforts to include them in our social lives in circumstances that make friendships possible. Put another way, domesticated animals have a claim to opportunities to befriend humans, in addition to (and constrained by) a basic welfare-related right to socialise with members of their own and other species. This is because i) domesticated animals are in a currently unjust scheme of social cooperation with, and dependence upon, humans; and ii) ongoing human moral attention and ‘social capital’, of which personal friendships ...


Settler Sanctuaries And The Stoat-Free State, Anna Boswell Jan 2017

Settler Sanctuaries And The Stoat-Free State, Anna Boswell

Animal Studies Journal

Aotearoa/New Zealand has forged a contemporary international identity as a leader in the establishment and management of animal sanctuaries. This article treats Aotearoa/New Zealand as a ‘typically exceptional’ or ‘exceptionally typical’ example, seeking to unravel the deeper settler colonial investment in sanctuary as concept and practice. It is especially interested in what animal sanctuaries in Aotearoa/New Zealand might look like from the perspective of the stoat (Mustela erminea), and why such a perspective might matter. Acclimatised by Europeans from the 1880s onwards to help secure agronomic settlement, and more recently named as a so-called ‘animal pest’ to ...


What Is An Animal Sanctuary? Evidence From Applied Linguistics, Sabrina Fusari Jan 2017

What Is An Animal Sanctuary? Evidence From Applied Linguistics, Sabrina Fusari

Animal Studies Journal

This paper addresses the meaning of the word ‘sanctuary’ from the point of view of its usage in English, as it emerges from dictionary and corpus sources, in contexts related to nonhuman animals. Specific attention is paid to the semantic prosody (Louw; Stewart) and semantic preference (Sinclair ‘The Search’) of this word, as well as to the relationship between ‘sanctuaries’ and other semantically related lexical items that identify places where nonhuman animals are confined and/or protected (e.g. nature reserves, national parks, animal shelters, zoos). Firstly, the paper provides a general overview of the main theoretical issues behind the ...


Captive Wildlife At A Crossroads – Sanctuaries, Accreditation, And Humane-Washing, Delcianna J. Winders Jan 2017

Captive Wildlife At A Crossroads – Sanctuaries, Accreditation, And Humane-Washing, Delcianna J. Winders

Animal Studies Journal

We are living through a pivotal moment for captive wild animals in the United States, with increased attention to their wellbeing and major changes by businesses as a result. At the same time, a desire to get up close with wild animals persists and may even be on the rise. These two concurrent phenomena are resulting in a plethora of deceptive claims. Through ‘humane-washing’ – using unregulated terms like ‘sanctuary’ and participating in misleading accreditation programs – captive wildlife facilities are profiting from making consumers feel better. After detailing this state of affairs, this article raises important questions, the answers to which ...