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Social and Behavioral Sciences Commons

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University of Pennsylvania

2016

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Articles 1 - 30 of 364

Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Who Are Korean Millennials?: Living Arrangement (Living Alone), Hyunjoon Park, Jaesung Choi Dec 2016

Who Are Korean Millennials?: Living Arrangement (Living Alone), Hyunjoon Park, Jaesung Choi

Korean Millennials Research Briefs

No abstract provided.


Sticky Leverage, Joao F. Gomes, Urban J. Jermann, Lukas Schmid Dec 2016

Sticky Leverage, Joao F. Gomes, Urban J. Jermann, Lukas Schmid

Finance Papers

We develop a tractable general equilibrium model that captures the interplay between nominal long-term corporate debt, inflation, and real aggregates. We show that unanticipated inflation changes the real burden of debt and, more significantly, leads to a debt overhang that distorts future investment and production decisions. For these effects to be both large and very persistent, it is essential that debt maturity exceeds one period. We also show that interest rate rules can help stabilize our economy.


"Pro-Poor" Tourism In Nicaragua: A Case Study Of The Telica Rota Natural Reserve, Megan M. Bridges Dec 2016

"Pro-Poor" Tourism In Nicaragua: A Case Study Of The Telica Rota Natural Reserve, Megan M. Bridges

Anthropology Senior Theses

The following paper is an ethnographic study that was conducted over the course of eleven months while working in León, Nicaragua, for an international NGO. It adds to existing literature that illustrate the shortfalls of community-based tourism projects, particularly when multiple stakeholders are involved. It focuses its attention on the cultural misunderstandings between the NGO, municipal government, and a rural tourism cooperative regarding tourism development and land management. Furthermore, it highlights the cooperative’s efforts in maintaining its agency when it felt as though its interests were being ignored by organizations with greater social, political, and economic capital than they ...


Older Peoples’ Willingness To Delay Social Security Claiming, Raimond Maurer, Olivia S. Mitchell Dec 2016

Older Peoples’ Willingness To Delay Social Security Claiming, Raimond Maurer, Olivia S. Mitchell

Wharton Pension Research Council Working Papers

We have designed and fielded an experimental module in the 2014 HRS which seeks to measure older persons’ willingness to voluntarily defer claiming of Social Security benefits. In addition, we evaluate the stated willingness of older individuals to work longer, depending on the Social Security incentives offered to delay claiming their benefits. Our project extends previous work by analyzing the results from our HRS module and comparing findings from other data sources which included very much smaller samples of older persons. We show that half of the respondents would delay claiming if no work requirement were in place under the ...


School Violence In China: A Multi-Level Analysis Of Student Victimization In Rural Middle Schools, Jennifer Adams, Emily C. Hannum Dec 2016

School Violence In China: A Multi-Level Analysis Of Student Victimization In Rural Middle Schools, Jennifer Adams, Emily C. Hannum

Gansu Survey of Children and Families Papers

Motivation: Physical victimization at school is little studied in impoverished developing country contexts. Moreover, the role of school and classroom contexts as risk factors remains poorly understood.

Purpose: The aim of the study is to investigate the prevalence of physical victimization in rural Chinese middle schools as well as the individual, teacher/classroom, and school level risk factors associated with experiencing physical victimization.

Design: We use two waves of longitudinal, representative survey data to perform a multi-level logistic regression analysis of physical victimization among middle school students from 100 villages in one of China’s poorest provinces. We focus on ...


Who Are Korean Millennials?: Demographics, Hyunjoon Park Dec 2016

Who Are Korean Millennials?: Demographics, Hyunjoon Park

Korean Millennials Research Briefs

No abstract provided.


Large-Scale Loan Portfolio Selection, Justin A. Srignano, Gerry Tsoukalas, Kay Giesecke Dec 2016

Large-Scale Loan Portfolio Selection, Justin A. Srignano, Gerry Tsoukalas, Kay Giesecke

Finance Papers

We consider the problem of optimally selecting a large portfolio of risky loans, such as mortgages, credit cards, auto loans, student loans, or business loans. Examples include loan portfolios held by financial institutions and fixed-income investors as well as pools of loans backing mortgage- and asset-backed securities. The size of these portfolios can range from the thousands to even hundreds of thousands. Optimal portfolio selection requires the solution of a high-dimensional nonlinear integer program and is extremely computationally challenging. For larger portfolios, this optimization problem is intractable. We propose an approximate optimization approach that yields an asymptotically optimal portfolio for ...


Sector Sustainability Check: Rural Open Defecation Free (Odf) & Rural (Drinking) Water Supply Schemes (Rwss) Punjab & Sindh Provinces, Cristina Bicchieri, Erik Thulin, Annalisa Marini, Nadeem Haider, Asmat Gill, Aziz Usmani, Faisal Shahzad, Ghulam Dastageer, Reema Kamal, Badr-Un-Nisa, Noor Gillani, Sher Jalal, Faisal Abbas, Sher Khan, Saud Khan, Noman Khanzada Dec 2016

Sector Sustainability Check: Rural Open Defecation Free (Odf) & Rural (Drinking) Water Supply Schemes (Rwss) Punjab & Sindh Provinces, Cristina Bicchieri, Erik Thulin, Annalisa Marini, Nadeem Haider, Asmat Gill, Aziz Usmani, Faisal Shahzad, Ghulam Dastageer, Reema Kamal, Badr-Un-Nisa, Noor Gillani, Sher Jalal, Faisal Abbas, Sher Khan, Saud Khan, Noman Khanzada

Penn Social Norms Group (PennSoNG)

This study focused on the behavioral sustainability of latrine use and continued functionality of rural water supply systems in ODF certified villages in the Sindh and Punjab provinces of Pakistan. Our chief role was to develop, integrate and analyze social norms measures as part of the larger sustainability check. This report presents those methods, measures and findings.

PennSONG served as an associate partner in the report, working with lead partner AAN Associates (www.aanassociates.com) and associate partner Institute of Environmental Sciences and Engineering (iese.nuse.edu.pk). The study was substantially supported by the Ministry of Climate Change (MOCC ...


Support Or Competition? How Online Social Networks Increase Physical Activity: A Randomized Controlled Trial, Jingwen Zhang, Devon Brackbill, Sijia Yang, Joshua Becker, Natalie Herbert, Damon Centola Dec 2016

Support Or Competition? How Online Social Networks Increase Physical Activity: A Randomized Controlled Trial, Jingwen Zhang, Devon Brackbill, Sijia Yang, Joshua Becker, Natalie Herbert, Damon Centola

Departmental Papers (ASC)

To identify what features of online social networks can increase physical activity, we conducted a 4-arm randomized controlled trial in 2014 in Philadelphia, PA. Students (n = 790, mean age = 25.2) at an university were randomly assigned to one of four conditions composed of either supportive or competitive relationships and either with individual or team incentives for attending exercise classes. The social comparison condition placed participants into 6-person competitive networks with individual incentives. The social support condition placed participants into 6-person teams with team incentives. The combined condition with both supportive and competitive relationships placed participants into 6-person teams, where ...


‘Not Essentially Different From [Her] Sex:’ A Literary Reading Of The Rebecca Buckley Ferguson Letters, Natalie Burke Dec 2016

‘Not Essentially Different From [Her] Sex:’ A Literary Reading Of The Rebecca Buckley Ferguson Letters, Natalie Burke

Journal of the Penn Manuscript Collective

The Rebecca Buckley Ferguson Letters, a collection of letters at the University of Pennsylvania’s Kislak Center for Rare Books & Manuscripts, detail an important eighteenth century correspondence between a young woman in Philadelphia and her family members at home and abroad. Spanning seventy-two years (1747-1819) and multiple cities, the letters provide important insight into the lives of eighteenth century American women and the slaves they held. The letters discuss major life events within the Buckley family, including births, marriages, and deaths, life on the plantation in British Guinea in the eighteenth century, exchanges and interactions among family slaves, and revolutionary sentiments, especially surrounding the ratification of the constitution in 1788. The letters also hold an especial significance at the University of Pennsylvania for their geographical situation as a part of Philadelphia cultural heritage.

This project constitutes a critical re-reading of the letters, applying techniques from comparative literature to these historical documents in order to see what might be gleaned if they were creatively re-read as if they were an American womens’ epistolary novel. The effort draws inspiration from M. NourbeSe Philip’s Zong! and R. Mac Jones and Ray McManus’s Found Anew, hoping to build upon their suggestions of the powers of creative writing – and reading – to reinvigorate difficult historical materials. It responds to recent criticisms of the epistolary genre by Julie Gilbert, Anna Hulseberg, and Jeff Jenson, who argue for the “imagination ... of the reader” as scholarly lens. Sharon Harris and Theresa Gaul have also influenced the project; they write a “[rejection of] the view of letters as historical documents valuable only for revealing information about famous people or events,” rather “[according] letters an independent literary status.”


Climbing The Mountain Together: Social Workers’ Constructions Of Positive Reactions From Trauma Work, Meg A. Myers Dec 2016

Climbing The Mountain Together: Social Workers’ Constructions Of Positive Reactions From Trauma Work, Meg A. Myers

Doctorate in Social Work (DSW) Dissertations

This qualitative study explored with 15 social workers the positive reactions they experienced in their work with traumatized clients. All the interviewees described their positive reactions, growth, and satisfaction with their work. The social workers’ level of experience influenced the timing of their positive reactions and contributed to their confidence and timing in their clinical work with traumatized clients.

Participants also experienced negative reactions from their work with traumatized clients but their positive reactions seemed to help them to increase their resiliency in their work. The study also found most social workers reported using an evidence-based treatment and described an ...


Is Dynamic Competition Socially Beneficial? The Case Of Price As Investment, David Besanko, Ulrich Doraszelski, Yaroslav Kryukov Nov 2016

Is Dynamic Competition Socially Beneficial? The Case Of Price As Investment, David Besanko, Ulrich Doraszelski, Yaroslav Kryukov

Marketing Papers

We study industries where prices are not limited to their allocative and distributive roles, but also serve as an investment into lower costs or higher demand. While our model focuses on learning-by-doing and the cost advantage that it implies, our conclusions also apply to industries driven by network externalities. Existing literature does not have a clear verdict on whether the investment role of prices benefits or hurts the overall welfare, as there are a number of economic forces at work, e.g. motivation to move down the learning curve faster could be offset by the ease of driving a weaker ...


Will They Take The Money And Work? People's Willingness To Delay Claiming Social Security Benefits For A Lump Sum, Raimond Maurer, Olivia S. Mitchell, Ralph Rogalla, Tatjana Schimetschek Nov 2016

Will They Take The Money And Work? People's Willingness To Delay Claiming Social Security Benefits For A Lump Sum, Raimond Maurer, Olivia S. Mitchell, Ralph Rogalla, Tatjana Schimetschek

Business Economics and Public Policy Papers

This article investigates whether exchanging Social Security delayed retirement credits, currently paid as increases in lifelong benefits, for a lump sum would induce later claiming and additional work. We show that people would voluntarily claim about 6 months later if the lump sum were paid for claiming after the early retirement age, and about 8 months later if the lump sum were paid only for those claiming after their full retirement age. Overall, people will work one-third to one-half of the additional months. Those who would currently claim at the youngest ages are most responsive to the lump sum offer.


Mindfulness-Based Safety: Increasing Attention To Task In Alberta’S Oil And Gas Drilling And Completions Operations, Darrah E.M. Wolfe Nov 2016

Mindfulness-Based Safety: Increasing Attention To Task In Alberta’S Oil And Gas Drilling And Completions Operations, Darrah E.M. Wolfe

Master of Applied Positive Psychology (MAPP) Capstone Projects

With studies demonstrating mind-wandering to be associated with failure to perform monitoring procedural steps, a deficiency in being able to call information to mind, more false alarms, and a reduction in task performance, we cannot afford to continue to overlook the potential impact mind-wandering has on human behavior in high-risk environments within the Alberta oil and gas industry. This paper gives consideration to mindfulness-based interventions, a domain of positive psychology, for reducing the occurrence of mind-wandering and improving attention to a task. It is from a foundation of research explored in the literature reviews of mind-wandering and mindfulness, that I ...


Hunger In America: The Rise And Evolution Of America’S Public/Private Hunger Response Network, A Philadelphia Case Study, Jessica Abrams Nov 2016

Hunger In America: The Rise And Evolution Of America’S Public/Private Hunger Response Network, A Philadelphia Case Study, Jessica Abrams

Honors Theses (PPE)

Since their emergence in the 1980s, food banks across the country have transformed from small, independent, community-run operations into complex organizations that move millions of pounds of food. In its infancy, this type of hunger response was provided on an “emergency” basis; however, as “emergency food” increasingly became a fundamental part of people’s diets, charitable organizations partnered with large scale government programs, food industry corporations and millions of volunteers. As the system grew, it evolved from a network of church basements to substantial institutions that provide food choice as well as programs intended to address poverty (a root cause ...


The Virtual Field, Etienne S. Benson Nov 2016

The Virtual Field, Etienne S. Benson

Departmental Papers (HSS)

Sensing is an integral part of collecting data in the field. As apparatuses become more refined, they increase the capacity and precision of data that can be collected in even the most forbidding of zones. Historian of science Etienne Benson describes how the increasingly complex infrastructure of sensing is altering the experience of fieldwork, the persona of the scientist, and the nature of the knowledge that is produced.


Moral Competence And Brain Connectivity: A Resting-State Fmri Study, Wi Hoon Jung, Kristin Prehn, Zhuo Fang, Marc Korczykowski, Joseph W. Kable, Hengyi Rao, Diana C. Robertson Nov 2016

Moral Competence And Brain Connectivity: A Resting-State Fmri Study, Wi Hoon Jung, Kristin Prehn, Zhuo Fang, Marc Korczykowski, Joseph W. Kable, Hengyi Rao, Diana C. Robertson

Legal Studies and Business Ethics Papers

Moral competence (MC) refers to the ability to apply certain moral orientations in a consistent and differentiated manner when judging moral issues. People greatly differ in terms of MC, however, little is known about how these differences are implemented in the brain. To investigate this question, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging and examined resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) in n = 31 individuals with MC scores in the highest 15% of the population and n = 33 individuals with MC scores in the lowest 15%, selected from a large sample of 730 Master of Business Administration (MBA) students. Compared to individuals with ...


American Bishops And Religious Freedom: Legacy And Limits, Melissa J. Wilde Nov 2016

American Bishops And Religious Freedom: Legacy And Limits, Melissa J. Wilde

Departmental Papers (Sociology)

This paper explores continuity and change in the American Catholic hierarchy’s promotion of and later reliance on religious freedom. With an analysis spanning more than 50 years, it first traces the pressures for reform that created the Declaration more than 50 years ago, demonstrating that American bishops were crucial actors in the Declaration’s existence and passage, and that this was the case because of the strong legitimacy pressures they were under as Roman Catholic leaders in a predominantly Protestant country. The paper then turns to a summary of how the Birth Control Mandate of the Affordable Care Act ...


Accounting And Actuarial Smoothing Of Retirement Payouts In Participating Life Annuities, Raimond Maurer, Olivia S. Mitchell, Ralph Rogalla, Ivonne Siegelin Nov 2016

Accounting And Actuarial Smoothing Of Retirement Payouts In Participating Life Annuities, Raimond Maurer, Olivia S. Mitchell, Ralph Rogalla, Ivonne Siegelin

Business Economics and Public Policy Papers

Life insurers use accounting and actuarial techniques to smooth reporting of firm assets and liabilities, seeking to transfer surpluses in good years to cover benefit payouts in bad years. Yet these techniques have been criticized as they make it difficult to assess insurers’ true financial status. We develop stylized and realistically-calibrated models of a participating life annuity, an insurance product that pays retirees guaranteed lifelong benefits along with variable non-guaranteed surplus. Our goal is to illustrate how accounting and actuarial techniques for this type of financial contract shape policyholder wellbeing, along with insurer profitability and stability. Smoothing adds value to ...


Ephemeral Encounters And Material Evidence, Margaret Bruchac Nov 2016

Ephemeral Encounters And Material Evidence, Margaret Bruchac

Department of Anthropology Papers

No abstract provided.


The Economic Costs And Benefits Of Implementing The Clean Power Plan, Jose Miguel Abito, Christopher R. Knittel, Konstantinos Metaxoglou, Andre Trindade Nov 2016

The Economic Costs And Benefits Of Implementing The Clean Power Plan, Jose Miguel Abito, Christopher R. Knittel, Konstantinos Metaxoglou, Andre Trindade

Wharton Public Policy Initiative Issue Briefs

This brief looks at the costs of implementing the EPA’s Clean Power Plan. Specifically, it examines whether implementing the CPP on a state-by-state basis—that is, with each state meeting its own individual target for emissions reduction by 2030, rather than establishing regional targets—is economically efficient. The economic analysis uses data from electricity-generating firms participating in the Pennsylvania-New Jersey-Maryland (PJM) Interconnection to examine the relative economic efficiency of regional versus state-by-state implementation of the CPP. The research indicates that state-by-state implementation would yield the lowest electricity prices in 2030.


Excessive State Debt: A New Approach To A Growing Problem, Vincent Buccola Nov 2016

Excessive State Debt: A New Approach To A Growing Problem, Vincent Buccola

Wharton Public Policy Initiative Issue Briefs

Economists and political observers agree state governments defaulting on their debt obligations is a growing concern. How best to aid struggling states, however, is a point of contention. This Issue Brief makes a case against ex post restructuring measures, specifically bankruptcy modeled on Chapter 9 of the U.S. Bankruptcy Code, and in favor of ex ante debt mitigation action. In particular, it introduces tax-credit borrowing (TCB) as a potential commitment device for states that would allow for the creation of super-priority, risk-free debt. TCB ensures that states internalize the risk of default and avoids the moral hazard problem of ...


From Commons To Classroom: The Evolution Of Learning Spaces In Academic Libraries, Vickie Marre Karasic Nov 2016

From Commons To Classroom: The Evolution Of Learning Spaces In Academic Libraries, Vickie Marre Karasic

Scholarship at Penn Libraries

Over the past two decades, academic library spaces have evolved to meet the changing teaching and learning needs of diverse campus communities. The Information Commons combines the physical and virtual in an informal library space, whereas the recent Active Learning Classroom creates a more formal setting for collaboration. As scholarship has become increasingly digital and interactive, commons and classroom environments in academic libraries promote experimentation with new technology and accommodate millennial learning behaviors. The library, a centrally located and academically neutral campus space, provides an ideal place for classrooms and encourages interdisciplinary scholarship unbounded by specific academic departments.


Creative Commons: A License To Share, Sarah L. Wipperman Oct 2016

Creative Commons: A License To Share, Sarah L. Wipperman

Penn Open Access Events

Sarah Wipperman will be leading a discussion on Creative Commons (CC) licenses, how to assign them to your work, & how to find CC material –images, texts, & other original works—to use in your own teaching, writing, & scholarship.


Sharing Your Work Through Researchgate, Academia.Edu, And Scholarlycommons, Rebecca A. Stuhr Oct 2016

Sharing Your Work Through Researchgate, Academia.Edu, And Scholarlycommons, Rebecca A. Stuhr

Penn Open Access Events

Rebecca Stuhr will be presenting on some of the major academic sharing sites, Academia.edu and ResearchGate, as well as sharing on Penn's institutional repository, ScholarlyCommons. Participants will gain a familiarity with these sites and their audiences, understand how the sites differ from one another, and learn about the copyright/permissions service provided through the ScholarlyCommons office.


Japanese Lucky Almanacs And Their Knockoffs, Michael P. Williams Oct 2016

Japanese Lucky Almanacs And Their Knockoffs, Michael P. Williams

Unique at Penn

Essay on modern Japanese fortune-telling almanacs.


The Opaqueness Of Structured Bonds: Evidence From The U.S. Insurance Industry, Sojung Carol Park, Jean Lemaire, Xiaoying Xie Oct 2016

The Opaqueness Of Structured Bonds: Evidence From The U.S. Insurance Industry, Sojung Carol Park, Jean Lemaire, Xiaoying Xie

Business Economics and Public Policy Papers

It has been argued that the opaqueness of structured bonds, such as mortgage-backed securities, asset-backed securities and collateral debt obligations, was one of the major causes of the recent financial crisis that started in late 2007. We analyse the evolving nature of information asymmetry inherent in various types of structured bonds by examining the U.S. insurers’ assets. We show that, prior to 2004, structured bonds were not associated with greater information asymmetry; however, holding more multi-class structured bonds, especially privately placed bonds, increased the information asymmetry when evaluating insurers’ assets post-2004. The effect of information asymmetry was more significant ...


El Papel De La L1 En La Construcción De La Auto-Identificación Cultural: Análisis De Las Trayectorias De Jóvenes Rumanos En Cataluña, Cristina PetreñAs, Cecilio Lapestra, Ángel Huguet Oct 2016

El Papel De La L1 En La Construcción De La Auto-Identificación Cultural: Análisis De Las Trayectorias De Jóvenes Rumanos En Cataluña, Cristina PetreñAs, Cecilio Lapestra, Ángel Huguet

Working Papers in Educational Linguistics (WPEL)

Analizamos el papel de la L1, sus usos y la valoración social de las lenguas en la construcción identitaria de los jóvenes rumanos desde el interaccionismo simbólico y una perspectiva sociocultural en función de su asistencia o no al Programa de Lengua, Civilización y Cultura Rumana (LCCR). A través de entrevistas en profundidad y un análisis cualitativo, se estudian las trayectorias de 5 jóvenes que residen en Cataluña, un contexto multilingüe y multicultural. Los resultados muestran un progresivo abandono de la L1, utilizada en el contexto familiar y a la que atribuyen una dimensión emocional anclada en el origen. El ...


Bilingual Colombia Program: Curriculum As Product, Only?, Norbella Miranda Oct 2016

Bilingual Colombia Program: Curriculum As Product, Only?, Norbella Miranda

Working Papers in Educational Linguistics (WPEL)

Bilingual Colombia Program (BCP), the current educational language policy, aims to develop English language proficiency at an independent user level, equivalent to B1 in the Common European Framework. Previous studies of the BCP have revealed a limited conceptualization of bilingualism, unfavorable school conditions for its implementation and school practices not contributing to its main goals. The ideological view of curriculum embodied in policy documents of the BCP has not been analyzed yet. Based on Shirley Grundy’s (1987) heuristics for understanding curriculum theory and practice and supported by research in the field of language policy, the paper unveils the product-oriented ...


Who And What Is The Field Of Applied Linguistics Overlooking?: Why This Matters And How Educational Linguistics Can Help, Kendall A. King Oct 2016

Who And What Is The Field Of Applied Linguistics Overlooking?: Why This Matters And How Educational Linguistics Can Help, Kendall A. King

Working Papers in Educational Linguistics (WPEL)

Thousands of individuals in the United States, Canada, and elsewhere are currently endeavoring to learn highly endangered, Indigenous languages, most laboring under conditions that are radically different from the majority of world language learners. These learning contexts are defined not only by shortages of materials, limited domains of use, few proficient speakers, and wide dialectal variation, but by histories of colonialism, racism, and oppression. To date, there has been relatively limited interaction between applied linguistics scholarship on language learning on the one hand, and Indigenous language education on the other. Concomitantly, despite massive worldwide demographic shifts of recent decades, applied ...