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University of Pennsylvania

1999

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Articles 1 - 30 of 90

Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

The Family In The City, Frank F. Furstenberg Dec 1999

The Family In The City, Frank F. Furstenberg

Departmental Papers (Sociology)

Almost by definition the concentration of poverty is associated with the concentration of family problems and less well functioning communities. Researchers have had no problem documenting that crime, drug abuse, mental health problems, and school failure are all disproportionately located in the poorer communities in the United States, especially in very poor neighborhoods. However, for the author, that correlation of low income communities and problem behavior or low achievement among children does not necessarily demonstrate that families and children behave differently because they grow up in low income communities.


Estimating Adverse Selection Costs From Genetic Testing For Breast And Ovarian Cancer: The Case Of Life Insurance, Krupa Subramanian, Jean Lemaire, John C. Hershey, Mark Pauly Phd, Katrina Armstrong, David A. Asch Dec 1999

Estimating Adverse Selection Costs From Genetic Testing For Breast And Ovarian Cancer: The Case Of Life Insurance, Krupa Subramanian, Jean Lemaire, John C. Hershey, Mark Pauly Phd, Katrina Armstrong, David A. Asch

Business Economics and Public Policy Papers

No abstract provided.


The Economics Of Yield-Driven Processes, Roger E. Bohn, Christian Terwiesch Dec 1999

The Economics Of Yield-Driven Processes, Roger E. Bohn, Christian Terwiesch

Operations, Information and Decisions Papers

The economic performance of many modern production processes is substantially influenced by process yields. Their first effect is on product cost — in some cases, low-yields can cause costs to double or worse. Yet measuring only costs can substantially underestimate the importance of yield improvement. We show that yields are especially important in periods of constrained capacity, such as new product ramp-up. Our analysis is illustrated with numerical examples taken from hard disk drive manufacturing. A three percentage point increase in yields can be worth about 6% of gross revenue and 17% of contribution. In fact, an eight percentage point improvement ...


The Impact Of Cash Flow Volatility On Discretionary Investment And The Costs Of Debt And Equity Financing, Bernadette A. Minton, Catherine M. Schrand Dec 1999

The Impact Of Cash Flow Volatility On Discretionary Investment And The Costs Of Debt And Equity Financing, Bernadette A. Minton, Catherine M. Schrand

Accounting Papers

We show that higher cash flow volatility is associated with lower average levels of investment in capital expenditures, R&D, and advertising. This association suggests that firms do not use external capital markets to fully cover cash flow shortfalls but rather permanently forgo investment. Cash flow volatility also is associated with higher costs of accessing external capital. Moreover, these higher costs, as measured by some proxies, imply a greater sensitivity of investment to cash flow volatility. Thus, cash flow volatility not only increases the likelihood that a firm will need to access capital markets, it also increases the costs of ...


Women In The Middle East And North Africa, Heather J. Sharkey Dec 1999

Women In The Middle East And North Africa, Heather J. Sharkey

Departmental Papers (NELC)

No abstract provided.


Middle Eastern Women And The Invisible Economy, Heather J. Sharkey Dec 1999

Middle Eastern Women And The Invisible Economy, Heather J. Sharkey

Departmental Papers (NELC)

No abstract provided.


Help In Time: An Evaluation Of Philadelphia's Community-Based Homelessness Prevention Program, Yin-Ling I. Wong, Meg Koppel, Dennis P. Culhane, Stephen Metraux, David E. Eldridge, Amy Hillier, Helen R. Lee Dec 1999

Help In Time: An Evaluation Of Philadelphia's Community-Based Homelessness Prevention Program, Yin-Ling I. Wong, Meg Koppel, Dennis P. Culhane, Stephen Metraux, David E. Eldridge, Amy Hillier, Helen R. Lee

Departmental Papers (SPP)

This report provides an evaluation of Philadelphia's neighborhood-based homelessness prevention initiative. Results indicate that nearly all households served do not become homeless. But it is unclear if households would have become homeless had they not been served. Recommendations are made for targeting prevention interventions to families requesting shelter.


The Decomposition Of Promotional Response: An Empirical Generalization, David R. Bell, Jeongwen Chiang, V. Padmanabhan Nov 1999

The Decomposition Of Promotional Response: An Empirical Generalization, David R. Bell, Jeongwen Chiang, V. Padmanabhan

Marketing Papers

Price promotions are used extensively in marketing for one simple reason—consumers respond. The sales increase for a brand on promotion could be due to consumers accelerating their purchases (i.e., buying earlier than usual and/or buying more than usual) and/or consumers switching their choice from other brands. Purchase acceleration and brand switching relate to the primary demand and secondary demand effects of a promotion. Gupta (1988) captures these effects in a single model and decomposes a brand's total price elasticity into these components. He reports, for the coffee product category, that the main impact of a ...


Theorizing Diffusion: Tarde And Sorokin Revisited, Elihu Katz Nov 1999

Theorizing Diffusion: Tarde And Sorokin Revisited, Elihu Katz

Departmental Papers (ASC)

This article is a call for volunteers to stand on the shoulders of Gabriel Tarde and Pitirim Sorokin, who dared to theorize the process of diffusion over a wide variety of disciplines. While all of the social sciences and humanities regularly produce case studies of diffusion, theorizing seems paralyzed. This paralysis stems from the ostensible incommensurability of diffusing items; their refusal to hold still in transit; the complexity of their interactions with the cultures, social structures, and media systems in which potential adopters are embedded; the difficulty of reconciling voluntary action and external imposition; and the lack of a disciplinary ...


Contracting As A Mechanism For Managing Education Services, Jane Hannaway Nov 1999

Contracting As A Mechanism For Managing Education Services, Jane Hannaway

CPRE Policy Briefs

Contracting with for-profit firms is one of the new organizational arrangements to emerge in public education in the nineties. Fueled by millions of new investment dollars and by demand for education management services from the burgeoning charter school movement, education contracting is growing. The Edison Project, for example, opened its first four schools in 1995 and now operates 77 schools serving approximately 37,000 students in twelve states. Contracting, like vouchers and charter schools, is a market-based reform presumed to promote improved performance through new accountability mechanisms and exploiting competition.

School districts have long contracted for building maintenance, transportation, and ...


A Proof Of Calibration Via Blackwell's Approachability Theorem, Dean P. Foster Oct 1999

A Proof Of Calibration Via Blackwell's Approachability Theorem, Dean P. Foster

Statistics Papers

Over the past few years many proofs of the existence of calibration have been discovered. Each of the following provides a different algorithm and proof of convergence: D. Foster and R. Vohra (1991, Technical Report, University of Chicago), (1998, Biometrika85, 379–390), S. Hart (1995, personal communication), D. Fudenberg and D. Levine (1999, Games Econ. Behavior29, 104–130), and S. Hart and A. Mas-Colell (1997, Technical Report, Hebrew University). Does the literature really need one more? Probably not. But the algorithm proposed here has two virtues. First, it only randomizes between two forecasts that are very close to ...


Regret In The On-Line Decision Problem, Dean P. Foster, Rakesh Vohra Oct 1999

Regret In The On-Line Decision Problem, Dean P. Foster, Rakesh Vohra

Statistics Papers

At each point in time a decision maker must make a decision. The payoff in a period from the decision made depends on the decision as well as on the state of the world that obtains at that time. The difficulty is that the decision must be made in advance of any knowledge, even probabilistic, about which state of the world will obtain. A range of problems from a variety of disciplines can be framed in this way. In this paper we survey the main results obtained, as well as some of their applications.


Cultural Organizations In The Network Society, Susan C. Seifert, Mark J. Stern Oct 1999

Cultural Organizations In The Network Society, Susan C. Seifert, Mark J. Stern

Culture Builds Community

Community arts programs are embedded in a variety of social networks, including those with institutions, artists, and participants. This paper uses data on the institutional networks for four community arts programs to understand how these programs use social networks. The database for this paper was compiled from organizational reports on their institutional contacts as well as a review of documents and observation. The data were then geocoded and linked to the SIAP’s other organizational databases, including data on the presence of other types of social organizations in their neighborhood.

Community arts organizations are under two—often contradictory—pressures. Efforts ...


Neo-Environmental Determinism And Agrarian "Collapse" In Andean Prehistory, Clark L. Erickson Sep 1999

Neo-Environmental Determinism And Agrarian "Collapse" In Andean Prehistory, Clark L. Erickson

Department of Anthropology Papers

No abstract provided.


Beyond Coherence, Klaus Krippendorff Aug 1999

Beyond Coherence, Klaus Krippendorff

Departmental Papers (ASC)

Much has happened since the 1960s and 1970s when the idea of self-organization emerged and began to alter our conceptions of human nature, of social organization, and of a social science that had heretofore been wedded to linear causal explanations. The experience that systems could organize themselves has been revolutionary and constitutes a paradigm shift that is still ongoing. In the following, I will (A) distinguish between indigenously and self-organizing systems, (B) consider autopoiesis as a biological step towards selfhood, (C) propose a way to distinguish selves and Others, and, based on this, (D) suggest self-organization to be a social ...


Instruction, Capacity, And Improvement, David K. Cohen, Deborah Loewenberb Ball Jun 1999

Instruction, Capacity, And Improvement, David K. Cohen, Deborah Loewenberb Ball

CPRE Research Reports

Since World War II, efforts to improve schools have numbered in the thousands. Most efforts have concentrated on improving the curriculum materials used in schools or on "training" teachers in new instructional methods. Many of these efforts have gone under the banner of "building instructional capacity," a term that for decades has been featured prominently in conversations about educational reform. Unfortunately, three decades of research has found that only a few interventions have had detectable effects on instruction and that, when such effects are detected, they rarely are sustained over time. A review of research and professional experience with school ...


Gender And Culture: International Experimental Evidence From Trust Games, Rachel Croson, Nancy Buchan May 1999

Gender And Culture: International Experimental Evidence From Trust Games, Rachel Croson, Nancy Buchan

Operations, Information and Decisions Papers

No abstract provided.


Is All The World Philadelphia?: A Multi-City Study Of Arts And Cultural Organizations, Diversity, And Urban Revitalization, Mark J. Stern May 1999

Is All The World Philadelphia?: A Multi-City Study Of Arts And Cultural Organizations, Diversity, And Urban Revitalization, Mark J. Stern

Culture Builds Community

This paper takes on the question—to what extent to are the relationships between diversity, social capital, and revitalization that SIAP has documented in Philadelphia present in other cities? This paper uses available data to give a first approximation of the relationship between these variables in other U.S. cities.

For this first multi-city investigation, SIAP chose four cities—Philadelphia, Chicago, Atlanta, and San Francisco—that share similarities but exhibit contrasts as well. They all have sizable ethnic minorities, although their ethnic composition varies greatly. They represent the four basic regions of the United States defined by the Census Bureau ...


The Effect Of Incomplete Information In A Threshold Public Goods Experiment, Melanie B. Marks, Rachel Croson Apr 1999

The Effect Of Incomplete Information In A Threshold Public Goods Experiment, Melanie B. Marks, Rachel Croson

Operations, Information and Decisions Papers

Fiscal stress and decreasing government budgets have led to renewed interest in voluntary contributions for the funding of public goods. This paper experimentally examines the Provision Point Mechanism (PPM), a voluntary contribution mechanism for the funding of lumpy public goods. Previous research has demonstrated the effectiveness of this mechanism at providing public goods, however all were conducted in an environment of complete information, which fails to capture the uncertainties of the real world. This study tests the efficacy of the PPM in informationally limited settings. We find no significant differences in the rate of successful provisions or level of group ...


The Six Nation Education Research Project The United States: A Country Report - Language Education Of Language Minority Students In The United States, Nancy H. Hornberger, Leslie Harsch, Bruce Evans Apr 1999

The Six Nation Education Research Project The United States: A Country Report - Language Education Of Language Minority Students In The United States, Nancy H. Hornberger, Leslie Harsch, Bruce Evans

Working Papers in Educational Linguistics (WPEL)

No abstract provided.


Re-Presenting The City: Arts, Culture, And Diversity In Philadelphia, Mark J. Stern, Susan C. Seifert Apr 1999

Re-Presenting The City: Arts, Culture, And Diversity In Philadelphia, Mark J. Stern, Susan C. Seifert

Re-presenting the City: Arts, Culture, and Diversity in Philadelphia

Diversity is an essential feature of urbanism, as articulated by Louis Wirth in his classic 1938 essay, “Urbanism as a Way of Life.” This paper presents 1990s findings on the connection between social diversity and cultural engagement in Philadelphia neighborhoods to question the reality of “city trenches” (Ira Katznelson 1981) and dominant views about the limits of urban revitalization. The paper examines the links between civic engagement and ethnic and economic diversity in Philadelphia by analyzing the relationship of the geography of civic and community organizations to their socio-economic context. The authors argue that arts and cultural organizations and engagement ...


The Enthymeme Gap In The 1996 Presidential Campaign, Kathleen Hall Jamieson, Erika Falk, Susan Sherr Mar 1999

The Enthymeme Gap In The 1996 Presidential Campaign, Kathleen Hall Jamieson, Erika Falk, Susan Sherr

Departmental Papers (ASC)

As scholars puzzle over the so-called gender gap in the 1996 presidential election, we invite them to consider the ways in which communication by the Clinton campaign explicitly and implicitly told women that Clinton was a president more closely allied with their concerns than Dole. When we examined 111 Democratic and 79 Republican speeches and 56 Democratic and 31 Republicans ads that were delivered or appeared during the presidential campaign between the conventions and election day, we found Clinton blunting the traditional Republican argument that Democrats favor big intrusive government and oppose "family values" by arguing that he had used ...


When Accountability Knocks, Will Anyone Answer?, Charles Abelmann, Richard Elmore Mar 1999

When Accountability Knocks, Will Anyone Answer?, Charles Abelmann, Richard Elmore

CPRE Research Reports

Pressure for increased school accountability is a distinctive hallmark of the present period of educational reform. Accountability, as presently defined in state and local educational policy, includes four major ideas: the school is the basic unit for the delivery of education and hence the primary place where teachers and administrators are held to account; schools are primarily accountable for student performance, generally defined as measured achievement on tests in basic academic subjects; school-site student performance is evaluated against externally-set standards that define acceptable levels of student achievement as mandated by states or localities; and evaluation of school performance is typically ...


When Accountability Knocks, Will Anyone Answer?, Charles Abelmann, Richard Elmore Mar 1999

When Accountability Knocks, Will Anyone Answer?, Charles Abelmann, Richard Elmore

CPRE Research Reports

Pressure for increased school accountability is a distinctive hallmark of the present period of educational reform. Account- ability, as presently defined in state and local educational policy, includes four major ideas: the school is the basic unit for the delivery of education and hence the primary place where teachers and administrators are held to account; schools are primarily accountable for student performance, generally defined as measured achievement on tests in basic academic subjects; school-site student performance is evaluated against externally-set standards that define accept- able levels of student achievement as mandated by states or localities; and evaluation of school performance ...


Risk Premia And Term Premia In General Equilibrium, Andrew B. Abel Feb 1999

Risk Premia And Term Premia In General Equilibrium, Andrew B. Abel

Finance Papers

The equity premium consists of a term premium reflecting the longer maturity of equity relative to short-term bills, and a risk premium reflecting the stochastic nature of equity payoffs and the deterministic nature of payoffs on riskless bills. This paper analyzes term premia and risk premia in a general equilibrium model with catching up with the Joneses preferences and a novel formulation of leverage. Closed-form solutions for moments of asset returns are derived. First-order approximations illustrate the effects of parameters and provide an algorithm to match the means and variances of the riskless rate and the rate of return on ...


Changing The Price Of Pork: The Impact Of Local Cost Sharing On Legislators' Demands For Distributive Public Goods, Alison F. Delrossi, Robert P. Inman Feb 1999

Changing The Price Of Pork: The Impact Of Local Cost Sharing On Legislators' Demands For Distributive Public Goods, Alison F. Delrossi, Robert P. Inman

Business Economics and Public Policy Papers

The provision of public services through national legislatures gives legislators the chance to fund locally beneficial public projects using a shared national tax base. Nationally financed and provided local (congestible) public goods will be purchased at a subsidized price below marginal cost and may be inefficiently too large as a consequence. An important assumption behind this inefficiency is that national legislators in fact demand more of the locally beneficial project as the local price for projects declines. This paper provides the first direct test of this important assumption using legislators' project choices following the passage of the Water Resources Development ...


Correalism And Equipoise: Observations On The Sustainable, William Braham Jan 1999

Correalism And Equipoise: Observations On The Sustainable, William Braham

Departmental Papers (Architecture)

Modern environmentalism originates with the recognition of ecological connectivity and the negative effects of technological intervention. This paper examines critical concepts developed by the architect Frederick Kiesler and the critic-historian Siegfried Giedion for their relevance to that discourse. Kiesler’s principle of Correalism and Gieidon’s appeal for Equipoise offer both a prehistory to the current mandates about sustainability and cautions about its limitations. The sustainable is ultimately a social condition that cannot be applied therapeutically nor ever wholly institutionalized.


Plant Remains From Neolithic Gritille: Food And Fuel In The Context Of Animal Domestication, Naomi F. Miller Jan 1999

Plant Remains From Neolithic Gritille: Food And Fuel In The Context Of Animal Domestication, Naomi F. Miller

University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology Papers

The Neolithic excavation of the Pre-Pottery Neolithic B (PPNB)-related site of Gritille (7500–6500 cal. BC) was directed by Mary M. Voigt under the general direction of Richard Ellis, Bryn Mawr College. This report was completed in 1999, but the sample data have never been published. Although much more PPNB archaeobotanical information has become available in the intervening years, along with new approaches and interpretations. I have not updated this report, as the Gritille data themselves have not changed. The analysis (and the published version, Miller 2002) takes the depositional contexts of the Gritille archaeobotanical samples into account, distinguishing ...


Motc: An Interactive Aid For Multidimensional Hypothesis Generatio, Krishnamohan Balachandran, Jan Buzydlowski, Garett Dworman, Steven. O. Kimbrough, Tate Shafer, William J. Vachula Jan 1999

Motc: An Interactive Aid For Multidimensional Hypothesis Generatio, Krishnamohan Balachandran, Jan Buzydlowski, Garett Dworman, Steven. O. Kimbrough, Tate Shafer, William J. Vachula

Operations, Information and Decisions Papers

The paper reports on conceptual development in the areas of database mining and knowledge discovery in databases (KDD). Our efforts have also led to a prototype implementation, called MOTC, for exploring hypothesis space in large and complex data sets. Our KDD conceptual development rests on two main principles. First, we use the crosstab representation for working with qualitative data. This is by now standard in on-line analytical processing (OLAP) applications, and we reaffirm it with additional reasons. Second, and innovatively, we use prediction analysis as a measure of goodness for hypotheses. Prediction analysis is an established statistical technique for analysis ...


Front Matter Jan 1999

Front Matter

History of Anthropology Newsletter

No abstract provided.