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Social and Behavioral Sciences Commons

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University of Iowa

2013

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Articles 1 - 30 of 137

Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Review: "The State Of Open Access," Interviews By Richard Poynder, Chris Diaz Dec 2013

Review: "The State Of Open Access," Interviews By Richard Poynder, Chris Diaz

University of Iowa Libraries Staff Publications

No abstract provided.


Makmende Amerudi: Kenya's Collective Reimagining As A Meme Of Aspiration, Brian Ekdale, Melissa Tully Dec 2013

Makmende Amerudi: Kenya's Collective Reimagining As A Meme Of Aspiration, Brian Ekdale, Melissa Tully

School of Journalism & Mass Communication Publications

In 2010, Kenya's first internet meme arrived in the form of a vigilante named Makmende, the action-hero-inspired protagonist of a music video. Within days of the video's release, fans started creating Makmende tales, videos, and artwork, and circulating these works online. In this article, we analyze the Makmende phenomenon to understand why this video inspired Kenya's first internet meme, what the meme says about contemporary Kenya and politics, and how this meme broadens our understanding of global participatory culture. We argue that a group of young, urban Kenyans seized the moment to reappropriate stereotypes of weakness into ...


Formative Evaluation Of Near-Semantic Search Interfaces, Jim Hahn, Chris Diaz Dec 2013

Formative Evaluation Of Near-Semantic Search Interfaces, Jim Hahn, Chris Diaz

University of Iowa Libraries Staff Publications

This paper reports findings from a usability study of an experimental near-semantic search interface. We present user preferences for exploring semantic recommendations and model a new user interface for subject suggestions based on the results. The resulting catalog search engine (Deneb 2.0) is in public beta implementation, available at: http://dunatis.grainger.uiuc.edu/deneb-2


Investigation Of Synergistic Efforts Of Warm Mix Asphalt And High Fractionated Reclaimed Asphalt For Safe, Environmentally Sustainable Highway, Hosin "David" Lee, Taha Ahmed Dec 2013

Investigation Of Synergistic Efforts Of Warm Mix Asphalt And High Fractionated Reclaimed Asphalt For Safe, Environmentally Sustainable Highway, Hosin "David" Lee, Taha Ahmed

Transportation & Vehicle Safety Policy

To increase RAP materials by up to 75% by binder replacement, a fractionation method was applied to the RAP stockpile by discarding RAP materials passing No. 16 sieve. This fractionation method was effective in improving volumetric properties of the HMA mixture with high RAP contents. The mix designs were then performed for both HMA and WMA with varying fractionated RAP amounts accounting for a replacement of 20, 30, 40, 50 and 75% of the mixture’s optimum asphalt binder content. All mix designs met the Iowa DOT mix design requirements except the one with 75% RAP materials by binder replacement ...


Second Language Identity Building Through Participation In Internet-Mediated Environments: A Critical Perspective, Liudmila Klimanova Dec 2013

Second Language Identity Building Through Participation In Internet-Mediated Environments: A Critical Perspective, Liudmila Klimanova

Theses and Dissertations

Using a data-driven qualitative approach and drawing from language socialization and communities of practice theories, this dissertation study examines the second language (L2) identity-building strategies of 22 American learners of Russian who engaged in a six-week telecollaborative project with Russian native speakers in two genres of Internet-mediated communication: in one-on-one interactions with an assigned native Russian speaking keypal and in selected virtual communities populated predominantly by native Russian speakers. The investigation of L2 identity enactment in Internet-mediated environments was guided by three research questions pertaining to (1) the nature of the discourse Russian (L2) learners use in interactions with native ...


The Role Of Context In Spatial Decision-Making In Giscience, Jerry Mount Dec 2013

The Role Of Context In Spatial Decision-Making In Giscience, Jerry Mount

Theses and Dissertations

Context is an important driver in decision-making processes and problem-solving. It provides opportunities and constraints that must be considered when decisions are made. However, context is also difficult to define due to limits to knowledge and understanding of previous, current and future conditions. Context is dynamic, emergent, subjective and specific to individuals or groups at a particular place and time. However, context is often relegated to static representations of environmental properties with little consideration for the relationships between an actor (or actors), their task and the environments in which they are situated.

This research introduces a new perspective for context ...


Economic Regulation In The Taxicab Industry: A Case Study Of Iowa City, Iowa, Michael Anthony Saponaro Dec 2013

Economic Regulation In The Taxicab Industry: A Case Study Of Iowa City, Iowa, Michael Anthony Saponaro

Theses and Dissertations

This thesis quantitatively and qualitatively analyzes the economic regulations that govern taxicab firms in Iowa City, Iowa. Based upon a review of the relevant literature, an economic analysis of regulations and market power, and conducted interviews among taxicab owners and drivers, city staff and planners, and members of the general public, this paper will analyze the costs and implications of economic regulations and risks of regulatory capture, and identify improvements to existing ordinances and city codes. Current economic theory argues that economic regulations create both real and perceived entry barriers, and impose costs to producers and consumers. Additionally, these regulations ...


Economic Change And Violence In Cross-National, Regional, And Local Perspectives, Matthew James Boswell Dec 2013

Economic Change And Violence In Cross-National, Regional, And Local Perspectives, Matthew James Boswell

Theses and Dissertations

This study examines the relationship between economic conditions and personal violence across three different contexts. It examines the relationship between the economy and both suicide and homicide in South Korea, in a data set of East Asian nations, and in a cross national sample. Regression analyses show that while there is a general inverse relationship between violence and economic conditions, this relationship is dependent on the form of violence and the specific context. In addition state policy efforts moderated some of the effects of the economy on violence.


Exploring The Implications Of Construal Level For Social Comparison Theory, Kathryn Irene Gaetz Bruchmann Dec 2013

Exploring The Implications Of Construal Level For Social Comparison Theory, Kathryn Irene Gaetz Bruchmann

Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation examines the relationship between two social psychological theories: Social Comparison Theory (Festinger, 1954) and Construal Level Theory (Liberman & Trope, 1998). More specifically, this research assesses how a person's level of mental abstraction (i.e., construal level) might influence the way social comparison information from individuals or aggregates is used to form self-evaluations. Typically, comparison information from individuals (versus information about aggregates) is given disproportionate weight when forming self-evaluations; in other words, there is a "local" (i.e., individual) dominance effect in the utilization of social comparison information (e.g., Zell & Alicke, 2010). It is predicted that with greater mental abstraction (i.e., higher construal level), this tendency will be reversed, and instead comparison information from aggregates will be relied upon more when evaluating the self. In other words, abstract mindsets (versus concrete mindsets) should result in a "global" (i.e., aggregate) dominance effect in the weighting of social comparison information.

Six studies examine the influence of construal level on the use of aggregate versus individual social comparison information. Two pilot studies provide initial evidence that abstract mindsets lead to a global dominance effect. The generalizability of these effects is tested by providing comparison feedback on different tasks (Study 1 and Study 4), testing the influence of different construal mindset manipulations (Study 2), as well as manipulating the psychological distance (an antecedent of construal level; e.g., Trope and Liberman, 2003) of social comparison targets (Studies 3 - 4). Additionally, the relative weighting of individual versus aggregate comparison targets is directly tested by comparing self-evaluations with only aggregate comparison information, and with both aggregate and individual comparison information (Study 2 and Study 4).

Results across all studies indicate that while social comparisons with better ...


Silver Screen Slashers And Psychopaths : A Content Analysis Of Schizophrenia In Recent Film, Kristen Elizabeth Chmielewski Dec 2013

Silver Screen Slashers And Psychopaths : A Content Analysis Of Schizophrenia In Recent Film, Kristen Elizabeth Chmielewski

Theses and Dissertations

Stigma proves to be a serious barrier for individuals living with mental illness, and research has shown that the media heavily contribute to and support damaging stereotypes about individuals with mental illness. This study examined how current films feed into fears about mental illness, especially the stereotype that individuals with serious mental illness are violent. A population of films released from 1990--2010 containing a character with schizophrenia or a related disorder was compiled and 30 films were randomly selected for viewing from this list. The films were scored for acts of violence committed by characters with and without mental illness ...


Modeling Geospatial Events During Flood Disasters For Response Decision-Making, Shane A. Hubbard Dec 2013

Modeling Geospatial Events During Flood Disasters For Response Decision-Making, Shane A. Hubbard

Theses and Dissertations

A model that emphasizes possible alternative sequences of events that occur over time is presented in paper 1 (chapter 2) of this dissertation. Representing alternative or branching events captures additional semantics unrealized by linear or non-branching approaches. Two basic elements of branching, divergence and convergence are discussed. From these elements, many complex branching models can be built capturing a perspective of events that take place in the future or have occurred in the past. This produces likely sequences of events that a user may compare and analyze using spatial or temporal criteria. The branching events model is especially useful for ...


Closing The Developmental Loop On The Behavioral And Neural Dynamics Of Flexible Rule-Use, Aaron Thomas Buss Dec 2013

Closing The Developmental Loop On The Behavioral And Neural Dynamics Of Flexible Rule-Use, Aaron Thomas Buss

Theses and Dissertations

Executive function (EF) is a central aspect of cognition that undergoes significant changes in early childhood. Changes in EF in early childhood are robustly predictive of academic achievement and general quality of life measures later in adulthood. I develop a dynamic neural field (DNF) model which provides a process-based account of behavior and developmental change in a key task used to probe the early development of executive function--the Dimensional Change Card Sort (DCCS) task. In the DCCS, children must flexibly switch from sorting cards either by shape or color to sorting by the other dimension. Typically, 3-year-olds, but not 5-year-olds ...


Teaching Respect: Language, Identity, And Ideology In American Sign Language Classes In The United States, Cindee Jean Calton Dec 2013

Teaching Respect: Language, Identity, And Ideology In American Sign Language Classes In The United States, Cindee Jean Calton

Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation examines the connection between language ideologies and second language learning, specifically in the case of American Sign Language.

I argue that students' and teachers' ideologies about American Sign Language (ASL) influence the goals and pedagogies of ASL teachers. ASL students enter the classroom with ideologies that conflate ASL with gesture or view it as simplified visual English. ASL students also view deafness as a disability that needs to be fixed.

This contrasts with ASL teachers' view that Deaf people are a distinct cultural minority who wish to remain Deaf. As a result, ASL teachers' goals focus on teaching ...


"Indicatorism": The Context, Politics And Effects Of Monitoring And Evaluation In The Kenya Education Sector Support Program, Douglas Michael Grane Dec 2013

"Indicatorism": The Context, Politics And Effects Of Monitoring And Evaluation In The Kenya Education Sector Support Program, Douglas Michael Grane

Theses and Dissertations

Donor-accountability demands have increased the importance of indicator-based Monitoring and Evaluation (M & E) for official development assistance (ODA). This unremitting pressure for aid- recipient countries to produce indicators and for donors to judge the success of aid exclusively by indicators is well documented by development scholars and practitioners. The research for this dissertation examined how this pressure reffered to as "indicatorism" influenced and was influenced by the implementation of donor development aid. The donor-funded Kenya Education Sector Support Program (KESSP) served as a case study to address this issue. It investigated the factors that formed "indicatorism" for KESSP; the actual production of indicators for KESSP; the influence of the politics of development aid on M & E; and whether Geographic Information (GI) served as an alternative to indicators in the M & E process. The case study used an archival review of KESSP documentation, detailed observation of KESSP project sites, focus group discussions with KESSP stakeholders at four field sites in Kenya, interviews with donor and government officials, an analysis of KESSP indicators, and an analysis of KESSP's school mapping project (SMP).

Through an examination of the historical ...


Small Finds And The Social Environment Of The Roman Baths, Alissa Marie Whitmore Dec 2013

Small Finds And The Social Environment Of The Roman Baths, Alissa Marie Whitmore

Theses and Dissertations

The public baths, functioning as a hygienic and social center, were among the most important public spaces in the Roman world. While ancient texts give scholars some indication of the social backdrop of the public baths, these records, written by upper class males, are largely silent on the activities of women, children, and the lower classes (cf. Allison 2007a:343, 346). As a result, scholars have only a partial understanding of the bath's social role in the lives of the ancient Romans.

Archaeological assemblages of objects which the Romans lost or left behind in the baths are an under-utilized ...


Politics Of Natural Disaster : How Governments Maintain Legitimacy In The Wake Of Major Disasters, 1990-2010, Zahidul Arefin Choudhury Dec 2013

Politics Of Natural Disaster : How Governments Maintain Legitimacy In The Wake Of Major Disasters, 1990-2010, Zahidul Arefin Choudhury

Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation is about major natural disasters, and how they contribute to legitimacy crises of governments. Three major factors explain the emergence of a legitimacy crisis in a post-disaster context: the frequency of disaster occurrence, the quality of the government response to disasters, and the type of regime within which the government operates. Employing a large-N statistical analysis of data on major natural disasters and anti-government domestic political activities for the years between 1990 and 2010, I show that higher counts of disasters, as a rule, increase the risks of anti-government demonstrations, revolutions, riots, guerrilla warfare, and intrastate conflict. The ...


Imagining American Democracy: The Rhetoric Of New Conservative Populism, Paul E. Johnson Dec 2013

Imagining American Democracy: The Rhetoric Of New Conservative Populism, Paul E. Johnson

Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation studies historical and contemporary conservative rhetoric to argue that the political right's variant of American populism defines the rhetorical figure of "the people" as ontologically opposed to the state. This state-phobic rhetoric poses a threat to democratic deliberation, I argue, because it presumptively cancels the very appeals to shared space that tend to make democracy thrive. By turns examining the new right, the 2008 financial crisis, the 2008 presidential campaign, and the rise of the Tea Party, this dissertation suggests American democracy is trapped in a populist feedback loop that creates tragic modes of melancholic democratic politics ...


The Formation Of Issue Publics During The Great Recession: Examining The Influences Of News Media, Geography, And Demographics, Michael D. Sears Dec 2013

The Formation Of Issue Publics During The Great Recession: Examining The Influences Of News Media, Geography, And Demographics, Michael D. Sears

Theses and Dissertations

The Troubled Asset Relief Program (TARP) was among the first legislative responses to the financial and mortgage crises of 2008 and allowed the U.S. government to alleviate distressed financial institutions of equity and assets that were straining the housing and financial markets. However, the underlying economic events that precipitated the legislative intervention, including rising foreclosure rates in specific states, had been disproportionately affecting Americans months before the bill was signed into law.

The purpose of this dissertation was to determine the parameters of the issue public that was supportive of TARP by studying how demographic and geographic disparities of ...


Ila/Acrl Executive Board Minutes, November 30, 2013, Association Of College And Research Libraries. Iowa Chapter Nov 2013

Ila/Acrl Executive Board Minutes, November 30, 2013, Association Of College And Research Libraries. Iowa Chapter

ILA/ACRL Minutes and Reports

No abstract provided.


Information And Communication Technologies And The Digital Divide In Africa: A Review Of The Periodical Literature, 2000-2012, Susan E. Russell, Tom Steele Nov 2013

Information And Communication Technologies And The Digital Divide In Africa: A Review Of The Periodical Literature, 2000-2012, Susan E. Russell, Tom Steele

Electronic Journal of Africana Bibliography

The digital revolution has transformed much of the global economy. Information and communication technologies (ICTs) play a key role in this revolution. However, not everyone has equal access to these technologies. This gap exists on multiple levels, whether between individuals, small segments within a population, countries, or global regions. The term used to refer to this inequality is the digital divide. This bibliography focuses on recent literature written to describe the digital divide on the African continent.


Four Years Of Unmediated Demand-Driven Acquisition And 5,000 Ebooks Later: We Gave 'Em What They Wanted, Karen S Fischer, Chris Diaz Nov 2013

Four Years Of Unmediated Demand-Driven Acquisition And 5,000 Ebooks Later: We Gave 'Em What They Wanted, Karen S Fischer, Chris Diaz

University of Iowa Libraries Staff Publications

As one of ebrary’s largest academic library DDA customers, the program at the University of Iowa Libraries has been highly successful, though not without challenges. This presentation will present detailed findings from analyzing Iowa’s demand-driven acquisition e-book usage data from over 5,000 titles purchased over four years, including examining subject areas, prices, publishers, and other relevant metrics. This presentation will serve as update to a popular session at Charleston in 2010 (Give ‘Em What They Want: Patron-Driven Collection Development), where Iowa presented data from a one-year pilot program. Now, with four years of experience under our belts ...


Ila/Acrl Newsletter, Vol. 23, No. 6, November 2013, Association Of College And Research Libraries. Iowa Chapter Nov 2013

Ila/Acrl Newsletter, Vol. 23, No. 6, November 2013, Association Of College And Research Libraries. Iowa Chapter

ILA/ACRL Newsletter

No abstract provided.


Ila/Acrl Executive Board Minutes, October 17, 2013, Association Of College And Research Libraries. Iowa Chapter Oct 2013

Ila/Acrl Executive Board Minutes, October 17, 2013, Association Of College And Research Libraries. Iowa Chapter

ILA/ACRL Minutes and Reports

No abstract provided.


Bridging The Gap From Concepts To Practice, Jennifer Deberg Oct 2013

Bridging The Gap From Concepts To Practice, Jennifer Deberg

University of Iowa Libraries Staff Publications

No abstract provided.


Spaces Of Encounter: Community And The Public Library, Bennett C. Magnino Oct 2013

Spaces Of Encounter: Community And The Public Library, Bennett C. Magnino

B Sides: FieldWork

In our increasingly globalized world, the space of the public library is changing. This poster sheds light on and discusses two different sorts of negotiations of space and how they relate to the public library. The first is the concept of the low-intensive meeting place, in which people are exposed to ideas and values different from their own. The second is the idea of Third Space, where people encounter a culture and redefine themselves in relation to the discourse of the space. Taken together, these two models suggest how public library users relate to the space of the library and ...


Ila/Acrl Executive Board Minutes, September 25, 2013, Association Of College And Research Libraries. Iowa Chapter Sep 2013

Ila/Acrl Executive Board Minutes, September 25, 2013, Association Of College And Research Libraries. Iowa Chapter

ILA/ACRL Minutes and Reports

No abstract provided.


Increasing Affordable Housing In Iowa City, Sally Scott, Jerry Anthony, Steven Williams Sep 2013

Increasing Affordable Housing In Iowa City, Sally Scott, Jerry Anthony, Steven Williams

Social & Education Policy

This policy paper is a concise exploration of the available data for affordable housing problem in Iowa City. The affordable housing that currently exists in Iowa City is financed primarily by federal dollars and charitable donations. The research in this paper suggests that the private sector can and should join the public and nonprofit sectors in maintaining and increasing the supply of affordable housing in Iowa City. As the economy continues to pick up steam, it may be useful to require private developers to set aside a percentage of each development as affordable housing, in return for clearly defined incentives ...


Ila/Acrl Newsletter, Vol. 23, No. 5, September 2013, Association Of College And Research Libraries. Iowa Chapter Sep 2013

Ila/Acrl Newsletter, Vol. 23, No. 5, September 2013, Association Of College And Research Libraries. Iowa Chapter

ILA/ACRL Newsletter

No abstract provided.


Head Of The Jews In Spain In Comparison To Head Of The Jews In Egypt, Elinoar Bareket Aug 2013

Head Of The Jews In Spain In Comparison To Head Of The Jews In Egypt, Elinoar Bareket

Journal of Islamic and Middle Eastern Multidisciplinary Studies

Two big Jewish settlements were sitting on the shores of the Mediterranean in the 11th century: one in Fatimid Egypt, mainly in the city of Fustat, close to Cairo, the second in Muslim-Suni Spain, mainly in the cities of Cordova – the capital of the Umyyads caliphs, and Granada – the capital of the Granada Emirate.

How related were those two settlements to each other by means of communication, mutual influences, similar behavior and the main aspect: relying on a Muslim rule which might be similar in its basis but completely different in its outlook. This article aims to look at ...


The Rhetoric Of Agitation And Control: Impact In Scholarly Works, Jacqueline J. Schmidt Aug 2013

The Rhetoric Of Agitation And Control: Impact In Scholarly Works, Jacqueline J. Schmidt

Poroi

The Rhetoric of Agitation and Control was first published in 1971 by Bowers and Ochs. The text was revised in 1993 adding Richard Jensen as an author and in 2010 adding David Schulz as the fourth author. This paper addresses impact of this text by examining the number of times the work has been referred to in other scholarly works from 1971 until September 2012 using Google Scholar as the database. Citations were analyzed to determine how many works cited The Rhetoric of Agitation and Control, what types of publications they were, the general theme of the scholarly work in ...