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Articles 1 - 30 of 12774

Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Comparing Uganda's Indigenous Soil Classification System With World Reference Base And Usda Soil Taxonomy To Predict Soil Productivity, Stewart Kyebogola, C. Lee Burras, Bradley A. Miller, Onesimus Semalulu, Russell S. Yost, Moses M. Tenywa, Andrew W. Lenssen, Prossy Kyomuhendo, Christopher Smith, Charles K. Luswata, Mwanjalolo J. Gilbert Majaliwa, Lance Goettsch, Carol J. Pierce Colfer, Robert E. Mazur Sep 2020

Comparing Uganda's Indigenous Soil Classification System With World Reference Base And Usda Soil Taxonomy To Predict Soil Productivity, Stewart Kyebogola, C. Lee Burras, Bradley A. Miller, Onesimus Semalulu, Russell S. Yost, Moses M. Tenywa, Andrew W. Lenssen, Prossy Kyomuhendo, Christopher Smith, Charles K. Luswata, Mwanjalolo J. Gilbert Majaliwa, Lance Goettsch, Carol J. Pierce Colfer, Robert E. Mazur

Agronomy Publications

This study examines three soil classification systems - Buganda, World Reference Base, and US Soil Taxonomy - in order to evaluate their relative strengths and feasibility for making linkages between them. Nine field sites and 16 pedons were considered across the soil landscapes of the Buganda catena. Each identified field pedon diagnostic horizons and characteristics were described and their soils analyzed using standard pedological techniques and measurements. To document the indigenous use of the Buganda classification system, interviews and discussions were held with farmer groups and local extension specialists. Using this local expertise, five local soil units were identified. We also identified ...


A Database Of Two-Dimensional Images Of Footwear Outsole Impressions, Soyoung Park, Alicia L. Carriquiry Jun 2020

A Database Of Two-Dimensional Images Of Footwear Outsole Impressions, Soyoung Park, Alicia L. Carriquiry

CSAFE Publications

Footwear outsole images were obtained from 150 pairs of used shoes. The motivation for constructing the database was to enable a statistical analysis of two-dimensional (2D) images of shoe outsoles, to understand within shoe (between replicate images of the same shoe) and between shoe variability, and to develop methods for the evaluation of forensic pattern evidence of shoeprints. Since we scanned the outsole of the used shoes, the images capture not only the outsole pattern design but also the marks that arise from wear and tear and that may help identify the shoe that made the impression. Each shoe in ...


The Distributional Impacts Of Early Employment Losses From Covid-19, Seung Jin Cho, John V. Winters May 2020

The Distributional Impacts Of Early Employment Losses From Covid-19, Seung Jin Cho, John V. Winters

Economics Working Papers

COVID-19 substantially decreased employment, but the effects vary among demographic and socioeconomic groups. We document the employment losses in April 2020 across various groups using the U.S. Current Population Survey. The unemployment rate understates employment losses. We focus on the percentage of the civilian population that is employed and at work. Young persons experienced the largest employment losses. Individuals with less education and lower family income experienced much larger employment losses than their more educated and higher income counterparts. Hispanics and blacks were more adversely affected than whites.


Disparate Impacts Of Covid-19 Lockdowns In Pakistan Affecting Girls And Rural Residents, Syed Hasan, Attique Rehman, Wendong Zhang May 2020

Disparate Impacts Of Covid-19 Lockdowns In Pakistan Affecting Girls And Rural Residents, Syed Hasan, Attique Rehman, Wendong Zhang

Economics Working Papers

In this article, we examine the feasibility of working and studying from home in Pakistan. We take advantage of the 2018–19 Pakistan Social and Living Standards Measurement (PSLM) Survey, released only weeks ago. PSLM is a nationally representative household survey with extensive information on employment outcomes, children’s educational attainment, internet and TV access information, and hand-washing place. Following Dingel and Neiman (2020)’s approach, we define the feasibility of jobs that can be done from home for both urban and rural districts. We also investigate the possibilities for students to study from home via TV or internet. We ...


How Much You Talk Matters: Cheap Talk And Collusion In A Bertrand Oligopoly Game, Jun Yeong Lee, Elizabeth Hoffman May 2020

How Much You Talk Matters: Cheap Talk And Collusion In A Bertrand Oligopoly Game, Jun Yeong Lee, Elizabeth Hoffman

Economics Working Papers

This study investigates the impact of cheap talk on price in a repeated Bertrand oligopoly experiment. Each participant plays 20 rounds. Participants are placed in three-person bidding groups where the lowest bid wins. During the first 10 rounds, participants are not allowed to communicate with each other. All three-person groups converged to the zero-profit equilibrium in the first 10 periods. We then play another 10 rounds where participants can text with one another using an instant message system. Some groups were allowed to text before every round, some to text before every other round, some to text every third round ...


Designing Direct Matching Mechanisms For India With Comprehensive Affirmative Action, Orhan Aygün, Bertan Turhan Apr 2020

Designing Direct Matching Mechanisms For India With Comprehensive Affirmative Action, Orhan Aygün, Bertan Turhan

Economics Working Papers

Since 1950, India has been implementing the most comprehensive affirmative action program in the world. Vertical reservations are provided to members of historically discriminated Scheduled Castes (SC), Scheduled Tribes (ST), and Other Backward Classes (OBC). Horizontal reservations are provided for other disadvantaged groups, such as women and disabled people, within each vertical category. As discussed in Sönmez and Yenmez (2019a), the lack of a well-defined procedure to implement horizontal reservations results in extensive confusion. Indirect mechanisms currently used in practice do not allow reserve category applicants to fully express their preferences. Moreover, the sequential processes in use for OBC de-reservations ...


Acrl Project Outcome, Greg Davis Apr 2020

Acrl Project Outcome, Greg Davis

Library Information Technology Services Conference Proceedings, Posters, and Presentations

No abstract provided.


Reference-Dependent Preferences, Time Inconsistency, And Unfunded Pensions, Torben M. Andersen, Joydeep Bhattacharya, Qing Liu Apr 2020

Reference-Dependent Preferences, Time Inconsistency, And Unfunded Pensions, Torben M. Andersen, Joydeep Bhattacharya, Qing Liu

Economics Working Papers

In the real world, public pay-as-you-go pension (PAYG) schemes are popular and co-exist with private, retirement-saving schemes. This is true even in dynamically efficient economies where such pensions offer a lower return. The classic Aaron- Samuelson result argues that, in theory, this is impossible. Later work has shown that it may be possible if agents, left on their own, undersave due to myopia or time-inconsistency. In that case, if the government is paternalistic, a welfare rationale for PAYG pensions arises but only if voluntary retirement saving is fully crowded out because of a binding borrowing constraint. This paper generalizes the ...


The Case For Remote Work, Matthew Clancy Apr 2020

The Case For Remote Work, Matthew Clancy

Economics Working Papers

The case for remote work goes well beyond its use during the covid-19 global pandemic. Over the last ten years, research from a variety of subdisciplines in economics and other social sciences collectively makes a strong case for the viability of remote work for the long-run. This paper brings this research together to argue remote work (also called telework) is likely to become far more common in the future for four reasons. First, the productivity of individual workers who switch to remote work is comparable or higher than their colocated peers, at least in some industries. Second, matching firms to ...


Wellness Design Assessment Criteria: Content Analysis Of Workplace Design Guidelines, Yongyeon Cho, Huiwon Lim, Hye Jeong Park Apr 2020

Wellness Design Assessment Criteria: Content Analysis Of Workplace Design Guidelines, Yongyeon Cho, Huiwon Lim, Hye Jeong Park

Interior Design Conference Proceedings, Presentations and Posters

ISSUE & PURPOSE OF RESEARCH Recent studies have addressed that design elements can enhance users’ health and well-being in their workplaces. In creating a mindful workplace, designers commonly refer to evidence-based guidelines, evaluation tools, and rating systems to supports each user’s physical, emotional, and social wellness. Although many rating systems are useful to experts, the systems are challenging to laypersons to use because of text-based content with jargon and complexity. Moreover, many such systems don’t tend to support non-expert users’ awareness of designing a workplace because all design elements are equally weighted even though some design elements are more essential than others. For this limitation, we focus on a design rating system for workplaces. This study is designed with three parts: The purpose of the first study is to develop inclusive wellness design criteria for office environments; the second study is to understand current office user’s perception of wellness regarding design features; the third study is to build a new framework to create a real-time based user-friendly mobile application for evaluating office users’ wellness about design experiences. This study is the first part of a total of three parts.


Students’ Integrated Sensory Analysis Results: A Case Study Of The Main Lobby Area In College Buildings, Yongyeon Cho Apr 2020

Students’ Integrated Sensory Analysis Results: A Case Study Of The Main Lobby Area In College Buildings, Yongyeon Cho

Interior Design Conference Proceedings, Presentations and Posters

ISSUE & PURPOSE A well-designed space influence on users’ overall positive sensory experience (Winer & Keim, 2018, August 7). Human sensory inputs have a stronger influence on both cognitive and emotional responses (Augustin et al., 2009) which closely related to design a learning environment. Although students’ sensory experiences are associated with their learning outcome, little research has been investigated student’s perception of sensory design elements in campus main lobby areas.


Time Inconsistency And Endogenous Borrowing Constraints, Joydeep Bhattacharya, Monisankar Bishnu, Min Wang Apr 2020

Time Inconsistency And Endogenous Borrowing Constraints, Joydeep Bhattacharya, Monisankar Bishnu, Min Wang

Economics Working Papers

This paper studies the welfare of time-inconsistent, partially sophisticated agents living under two different regimes, one with complete, unfettered credit markets (CM) and the other with endogenous borrowing constraints (EBC) where the borrowing limits are set to make agents indifferent between defaulting and paying back their unsecured loans. The CM regime cannot deliver the first best because partially sophisticated agents would undo plans laid out by previous selves and borrow too much. Somewhat counterintuitively, in some cases, the EBC regime may deliver higher welfare than the CM regime. These results speak to the academic debate surrounding the creation and functioning ...


Slot-Specific Priorities With Capacity Transfers, Michelle Avataneo, Bertan Turhan Apr 2020

Slot-Specific Priorities With Capacity Transfers, Michelle Avataneo, Bertan Turhan

Economics Working Papers

This paper studies two-sided, many-to-one matching markets in which agents match to institutions that may have multiple slots available to accept contracts. In many real-world institutions, there are restrictions for some slots (if not all) either on slot priorities or on the transferability of unfilled slots over others (or both). We construct a rich family of practical choice rules, slot-specific priorities with capacity transfers (SSPwCT), that utilize both independent slot priorities and transferability of vacant slots. We show that the cumulative offer mechanism (COM) is stable, strategy-proof and respects improvements with regards to SSPwCT choice rules. Transferring the capacity of ...


Minecraft As A Tool For Engaging Children In Urban Planning: A Case Study In Tirol Town, Brazil, Bruno De Andrade, Alenka Poplin, Ítalo Sousa De Sena Mar 2020

Minecraft As A Tool For Engaging Children In Urban Planning: A Case Study In Tirol Town, Brazil, Bruno De Andrade, Alenka Poplin, Ítalo Sousa De Sena

Community and Regional Planning Publications

The purpose of this paper is to explore the potential of Minecraft’s game environment for urban planning with older and younger children in a public school in Tirol town, Brazil. Minecraft is employed as an innovative tool to tackle the present lack of engagement and involvement of key societal actors such as children and young people in urban planning. Thus, how can games support children to co-design their future city? Which heritage values do they represent graphically in the game environment? Geogames are games that provide a visualization of a real spatial context and in this study, Minecraft is ...


Deployment Of Risk Capital In Agriculture, Kevin Kimle, Joel Harris Mar 2020

Deployment Of Risk Capital In Agriculture, Kevin Kimle, Joel Harris

Economics Technical Reports and White Papers

The third annual Agricultural Entrepreneurship Unconference met on October 17, 2019 in Ames, Iowa. The event was co-sponsored by the Iowa State University Agricultural Entrepreneurship Initiative and the Ag Startup Engine.

This white paper attempts to summarize presentations and discussions that took place at the Unconference, though surely falls short of the richness and insight of the dialogue that occurred. The aim is to provide, for those who did not attend, a glimpse into the Unconference discussions which centered on the deployment of risk capital in agriculture.


Impacts Of African Swine Fever In Iowa And The United States, Miguel Carriquiry, Amani Elobeid, David Swenson, Dermot Hayes Mar 2020

Impacts Of African Swine Fever In Iowa And The United States, Miguel Carriquiry, Amani Elobeid, David Swenson, Dermot Hayes

CARD Working Papers

Our paper estimates the economic impact of an outbreak of African Swine Fever on US agriculture. The immediate impact of an outbreak would be the closure of international markets to US pork—even countries that have the disease prohibit pork imports from other countries with the disease. We evaluate two scenarios—one assumes that the disease spreads to feral swine and that the United States is unable to eliminate the disease over the ten-year projection period (the all-years scenario); and, the second scenario assumes that the United States gets the disease under control and reenters export markets within two years ...


Strips Collaborator Survey: 2019 Results, J. Gordon Arbuckle Jr. Mar 2020

Strips Collaborator Survey: 2019 Results, J. Gordon Arbuckle Jr.

Sociology Technical Reports

The STRIPS (Science-based Trials of Rowcrops Integrated with Prairie Strips) project has developed collaborative partnerships with more than 35 farmers and landowners who have integrated prairie strips into their farm landscapes. One of the STRIPS project’s guiding principles is to “create and maintain feedback loops for information sharing among team members, farmer/farm landowner adopters, and other stakeholders.” A major goal of these feedback loops is to learn from collaborators who have adopted prairie strips so project staff can help current (and future) collaborators to successfully establish and manage prairie strips.


Comparison Of Three Similarity Scores For Bullet Lea Matching, Susan Vanderplas, Melissa Nally, Tylor Klep, Cristina Cadevall, Heike Hofmann Mar 2020

Comparison Of Three Similarity Scores For Bullet Lea Matching, Susan Vanderplas, Melissa Nally, Tylor Klep, Cristina Cadevall, Heike Hofmann

CSAFE Publications

Recent advances in microscopy have made it possible to collect 3D topographic data, enabling more precise virtual comparisons based on the collected 3D data as a supplement to traditional comparison microscopy and 2D photography. Automatic comparison algorithms have been introduced for various scenarios, such as matching cartridge cases[1],[2] or matching bullet striae[3],[4],[5]. One key aspect of validating these automatic comparison algorithms is to evaluate the performance of the algorithm on external tests, that is, using data which were not used to train the algorithm. Here, we present a discussion of the performance of the matching ...


Generalized Instrumental Inequalities: Testing The Instrumental Variable Independence Assumption, Desire Kedagni, Ismael Mourifié Feb 2020

Generalized Instrumental Inequalities: Testing The Instrumental Variable Independence Assumption, Desire Kedagni, Ismael Mourifié

Economics Publications

This paper proposes a new set of testable implications of the instrumen- tal variable (IV) independence assumption: generalized instrumental inequalities. In our leading case with a binary outcome, we show that the generalized instrumen- tal inequalities are necessary and sufficient to detect all observable violations of the IV independence assumption. To test the generalized instrumental inequalities, we propose an approach combining a sample splitting procedure and intersection bounds inferential methods. This idea allows one to easily implement the test using the Stata package of Chernozhukov, Kim, Lee, and Rosen (2015).We apply our pro- posed strategy to assess the validity ...


Do Workers Discriminate Against Their Out-Group Employers? Evidence From The Gig Economy, Sher Afghan Asad, Ritwik Banerjee, Joydeep Bhattacharya Feb 2020

Do Workers Discriminate Against Their Out-Group Employers? Evidence From The Gig Economy, Sher Afghan Asad, Ritwik Banerjee, Joydeep Bhattacharya

Economics Working Papers

We study possible worker-to-employer discrimination manifested via social preferences in an online labor market. Specifically, we ask, do workers exhibit positive social preferences for an out-race employer relative to an otherwise-identical, own-race one? We run a well-powered, model-based experiment wherein we recruit 6,000 workers from Amazon’s M-Turk platform for a real-effort task and randomly (and unobtrusively) reveal to them the racial identity of their non-fictitious employer. Strikingly, we find strong evidence of race-based altruism – white workers, even when they do not benefit personally, work relatively harder to generate more income for black employers. Self-declared white Republicans and Independents ...


An Algorithm To Compare Two‐Dimensional Footwear Outsole Images Using Maximum Cliques And Speeded‐Up Robust Feature, Soyoung Park, Alicia L. Carriquiry Feb 2020

An Algorithm To Compare Two‐Dimensional Footwear Outsole Images Using Maximum Cliques And Speeded‐Up Robust Feature, Soyoung Park, Alicia L. Carriquiry

CSAFE Publications

Footwear examiners are tasked with comparing an outsole impression (Q) left at a crime scene with an impression (K) from a database or from the suspect's shoe. We propose a method for comparing two shoe outsole impressions that relies on robust features (speeded‐up robust feature; SURF) on each impression and aligns them using a maximum clique (MC). After alignment, an algorithm we denote MC‐COMP is used to extract additional features that are then combined into a univariate similarity score using a random forest (RF). We use a database of shoe outsole impressions that includes images from two ...


Similarity Between Outsole Impressions Using Surf, Soyoung Park Feb 2020

Similarity Between Outsole Impressions Using Surf, Soyoung Park

CSAFE Presentations and Proceedings

Introduce an objective method to quantify the similarity between two outsole impressions.

Show that algorithm is accurate and reliable even when outsoles share class characteristics and degree of wear.

Show that algorithm is robust even when one image is degraded and partially observed.


A Wild Manhunt For Stego Images Created By Modbile Apps., Li Lin, Wenhao Chen, Stephanie Reinder, Min Wu, Jennifer Newman Feb 2020

A Wild Manhunt For Stego Images Created By Modbile Apps., Li Lin, Wenhao Chen, Stephanie Reinder, Min Wu, Jennifer Newman

CSAFE Presentations and Proceedings

Background: As mobile Internet and telecommunication technology develops at high speed, the digital image forensics academic community is facing a growing challenge. • Mobile applications (Apps) allow a user to easily edit/process an image for a variety of purposes. • Thanks to the improved cameras and editing apps on smartphones, the volume of images presented to digital image forensic practitioners increases every day. • Unfortunately, terrorists, spies and child pornography predators are also taking the advantage of the mobile app ecosystem to exchange illegal files and photos.


Statistical Learning Algorithms For Forensic Scientists, Alicia L. Carriquiry, Heike Hofmann, Michael J. Salyards, Robert M. Thompson Feb 2020

Statistical Learning Algorithms For Forensic Scientists, Alicia L. Carriquiry, Heike Hofmann, Michael J. Salyards, Robert M. Thompson

CSAFE Presentations and Proceedings

Learning Overview: The goals of this workshop are to: (1) introduce attendees to the basics of supervised learning algorithms in the context of forensic applications, including firearms and footwear examination and trace evidence, while placing emphasis on classification trees, random forests, and, time permitting, neural networks; (2) introduce the concept of a similarity score to quantify the similarity between two items; (3) show how learning algorithms can be trained to classify objects into pre-determined classes; (4) discuss limitations of Machine Learning (ML) algorithms and introduce methods for assessing their performance; and (5) discuss the concept of a Score-based Likelihood Ratio ...


Android™ App Forensic Evidence Database (Androidaed), Chen Shi, Chao-Chun Cheng, Connor Kocolowski, Emmett Kozlowski, Justin Kuennen, Matthew Lawlor, Mitchell Kerr, Jacob Stair, Zhonghao Liao, Zhenqiang Gong, Yong Guan Feb 2020

Android™ App Forensic Evidence Database (Androidaed), Chen Shi, Chao-Chun Cheng, Connor Kocolowski, Emmett Kozlowski, Justin Kuennen, Matthew Lawlor, Mitchell Kerr, Jacob Stair, Zhonghao Liao, Zhenqiang Gong, Yong Guan

CSAFE Presentations and Proceedings

Learning Overview: After attending this presentation, attendees will better understand how AndroidAED will be beneficial for academic researchers whose studies relate to mobile applications that grant them the ability to search through many of the available applications across various third-party app stores.


Statistical Analysis Of Handwriting: Probabilistic Outcomes For Closed-Set Writer Identification., Amy M. Crawford, Alicia L. Carriquiry, Danica Ommen Feb 2020

Statistical Analysis Of Handwriting: Probabilistic Outcomes For Closed-Set Writer Identification., Amy M. Crawford, Alicia L. Carriquiry, Danica Ommen

CSAFE Presentations and Proceedings

Learning Overview: The goal of this presentation is to provide insights into features of handwritten documents that are important for statistical modeling with the task of writer identification.


Applications Of A Cnn For Automatics Classifications Of Outsole Features, Miranda R. Tilton, Susan Vander Plas Feb 2020

Applications Of A Cnn For Automatics Classifications Of Outsole Features, Miranda R. Tilton, Susan Vander Plas

CSAFE Presentations and Proceedings

Learning Overview: After attending this presentation, attendees will be familiar with the ways that CNNs can be applied to classify forensic pattern evidence, specifically with shoe outsole features.


Teaching Primo To Every Student: Incorporating Primo Instruction Into An Online Information Literacy Course, Cara Stone, Erin Thomas, Kristine K. Stacy-Bates Feb 2020

Teaching Primo To Every Student: Incorporating Primo Instruction Into An Online Information Literacy Course, Cara Stone, Erin Thomas, Kristine K. Stacy-Bates

Reference and Instruction Conference Papers, Posters and Presentations

No abstract provided.


Comparative Profitability Of Product Disclosure Statements, Anastasia Burkovskaya, Jian Li Feb 2020

Comparative Profitability Of Product Disclosure Statements, Anastasia Burkovskaya, Jian Li

Economics Working Papers

In insurance industry, product disclosure statements (PDSs) consist of descriptions of uncertain contingencies by the insurance plans (e.g., “hospital coverage”, “dental coverage”, etc.) and are often very different. In this paper, we model PDSs as information partitions of the state space, which can influence how a consumer perceives the structure of her choice problem and hence her deductible choices. We study a model of an insurance company that aims to promote profit by designing the framing of its PDS. We compare the company’s profits under two PDSs, one of which is coarser than the other. Our main results ...


Design Fixation From Initial Examples: Provided Versus Self-Generated Ideas, Keelin Leahy, Shanna R. Daly, Seda Mckilligan, Colleen M. Seifert Feb 2020

Design Fixation From Initial Examples: Provided Versus Self-Generated Ideas, Keelin Leahy, Shanna R. Daly, Seda Mckilligan, Colleen M. Seifert

Industrial Design Publications

Jansson and Smith [1] demonstrated that design fixation occurs when an example solution is provided along with a design problem. As a result of seeing an example concept -- even with its flaws pointed out -- new designs often share its features. In Jansson and Smith’s studies, a control group saw no example and showed less fixation to the example provided in the other group. However, another source of fixation from an initial example may arise in the control group from the designer’s own first-generated concept. We conducted a large-scale experiment with beginning engineers to investigate whether design fixation occurs ...