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Archaeological Anthropology

Lithics

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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Examining The Geometric And Visual Details Of High Resolution 3d Lithics, Michael J. Bennett Dec 2020

Examining The Geometric And Visual Details Of High Resolution 3d Lithics, Michael J. Bennett

Published Works

A technical white paper devoted to the application of various software applications for the close visual and geometric examination of high-resolution 3D lithic points. Both linear and angle measurements of textured meshes are discussed as well as the creation of cross-sections.


A Great Hunter Needs A Great Spear: Experimental Study Of Technological Considerations That Determine The Efficacy Of A Hunting Spear, Elizabeth M Hagan, Jordan Durham Jan 2020

A Great Hunter Needs A Great Spear: Experimental Study Of Technological Considerations That Determine The Efficacy Of A Hunting Spear, Elizabeth M Hagan, Jordan Durham

Undergraduate Arts and Research Showcase

This research project investigates prehistoric hunting practices, involving a hand-thrown spears, henceforth referred to as “Projectile Technology”. It aims to assess the influence of spear shaft size in the efficacy of spears as a whole during hunting pursuit. Moreover, we will evaluate how the hunter’s distance from the target may affect the efficacy of varying spear-sizes. The broader theoretical question we seek to address is what specific spear-size and throwing-location considerations determined the success of hunting with projectile weaponry. Projectile point technology has marked a major cultural innovation in human history in Africa around 200,000 years ago (Shea ...


Lithic Technological And Functional Variability Between Mesa And Riverine Environments In The Mid-Columbia River Basin, Josh Allen Jan 2020

Lithic Technological And Functional Variability Between Mesa And Riverine Environments In The Mid-Columbia River Basin, Josh Allen

All Master's Theses

This study develops a theoretically informed method and technique to compare variability between pre-contact riverine and hinterland Mesa archaeological resources of the mid-Columbian River Basin in Central Washington. To test the developed model, the study follows suggestions made by Dr. William Smith (1977:82) to “develop a testable hypothesis” using Mesa sites and other site types across environments with a more “sophisticated system for the classification of both artifacts and features.” Three sites (Mesa 06, 12, and 36) are compared to a riverine site (45DO673) to determine how the frequency of technological and functional traits of lithic stone tools and ...


South Bend And Ridge Pine 2: Fraternal Twins, Gabryell Kurtzrock Belyea Oct 2019

South Bend And Ridge Pine 2: Fraternal Twins, Gabryell Kurtzrock Belyea

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The Ridge Pine 2 and South Bend sites lie within four kilometres of each other, both date to the late Middle Archaic period (ca. 5500-4500 before present), and both contain significant amounts of nonlocal chert. This exploitation of nonlocal chert occurred despite the close proximity of the Kettle Point chert outcrop to both sites. Notwithstanding their similarities, the two sites differ dramatically. From the raw material breakdown to projectile point types the two assemblages are quite different. These differences raise questions surrounding the chert procurement strategy employed by the groups at Ridge Pine 2 and South Bend. In order to ...


Set In Stone: Recontextualizing The Lithic Assemblage Of A Seventeenth-Century Storage Cellar In Charlestown, Massachusetts, Anna M. Greco May 2019

Set In Stone: Recontextualizing The Lithic Assemblage Of A Seventeenth-Century Storage Cellar In Charlestown, Massachusetts, Anna M. Greco

Graduate Masters Theses

Feature 43 is a domestic structure that belonged to the wealthy seventeenth-century merchant community of Charlestown, Massachusetts, and was excavated in the early 1980s as part of the Maudlin Archaeological District. The extant collection has remained in storage for the last thirty years, demanding a recontextualization of the site, both in provenience and in historical context. Primary sources portray an image of a predominantly European settler household; however, a counter-narrative emerges from lithics found within the assemblage. While the ultimate goal is to analyze the patterns of lithic sourcing and production in the Massachusetts Bay Colony, the findings hinge on ...


Lithic Resources, Workshops, And Consumption In Northwestern Belize, Hollie Lincoln Dec 2018

Lithic Resources, Workshops, And Consumption In Northwestern Belize, Hollie Lincoln

Culminating Projects in Cultural Resource Management

Stone tools played an important role in the everyday life of the ancient Maya. Whether for ritual or domestic uses, stone tools were required to complete everyday tasks. Access to stone resources used to make tools, including chert, likely influenced the sociopolitical relationships between communities and cities across the ancient landscape. Through various methods including field survey, lab analysis, and statistical analysis, various chert resources in Northwestern Belize are identified and analyzed in order to recognize chert procurement locations and possible tool production sites or workshops. In addition, an overall analysis of chert quality is included to form a better ...


Early Formative Period Exchange, Crafting, And Subsistence: An Analysis Of La Consentida’S Chipped Stone Assemblage, Julian Eduardo Acuña Dec 2018

Early Formative Period Exchange, Crafting, And Subsistence: An Analysis Of La Consentida’S Chipped Stone Assemblage, Julian Eduardo Acuña

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

The primary concern of this thesis is to quantify and analyze the lithic (chipped stone) assemblage previously excavated by Hepp (2015) and the La Consentida Archaeological Project (LCAP) at the archaeological site of La Consentida in the lower Río Verde Valley, Oaxaca, Mexico. The lithic assemblage is comprised of over 500 artifacts mainly of obsidian and chert. This research represents a study of all primary context lithic artifacts from La Consentida and focuses on obsidian, the material most used at the site. In the first part of this thesis I provide an analysis of all lithic artifacts of this primary ...


Geometric Morphometrics Of Gary Dart Points From The Davy Crockett National Forest, David A. Foxe, Robert Z. Selden Jr., Juanita D. Garcia Jan 2018

Geometric Morphometrics Of Gary Dart Points From The Davy Crockett National Forest, David A. Foxe, Robert Z. Selden Jr., Juanita D. Garcia

CRHR: Archaeology

Three-dimensional scans of Gary dart points recovered from the Davy Crockett National Forest are employed in tests of basal morphology by site, size (allometry), and asymmetry. Variability in basal morphology for Gary points from sites on the Davy Crockett National Forest is presented and compared to specimens from the published type books. The hypothesis that Gary basal morphology differs between sites containing Woodland-era sand temped ceramics and those where no sand tempered ceramics were recovered is then tested and the results discussed.


Chipping Through Time: The Evolution Of Lithic Spatial Organization At The Bridge River Pithouse Village, British Columbia, Ethan P. Ryan Jan 2018

Chipping Through Time: The Evolution Of Lithic Spatial Organization At The Bridge River Pithouse Village, British Columbia, Ethan P. Ryan

Graduate Student Theses, Dissertations, & Professional Papers

Archaeological investigations at Housepit 54 within the Bridge River site have, to date, exposed 15 discreet floors primarily dating to ca. 1500-1000 cal. B.P. In this thesis, the spatial distributions of lithic artifacts from every floor are examined. Questions will be addressed specifically towards formation processes and the potential relationships between the patterning of lithic distributions as they relate to hearth-centered activity areas or domestic areas and fluctuations in estimated population. In addition, this thesis explores spatial organization as a cultural trait or concept that can be transmitted through time. Using the same methodological and theoretical approach for each ...


A Microdebitage Analysis Of The Winterville Mounds Site (22ws500), Stephanie Leigh-Ann Guest Dec 2017

A Microdebitage Analysis Of The Winterville Mounds Site (22ws500), Stephanie Leigh-Ann Guest

Master's Theses

The Winterville Mounds site (22WS500) was a civic ceremonial center of 23 mounds and is located near Greenville in northwest Mississippi. Winterville excavations as field schools are ongoing since 2005 under the direction of Dr. H. Edwin Jackson of The University of Southern Mississippi. Examination of the >1/4" (6.35 mm) mesh screened lithic material provided mixed results of reduction stages and lacked variety of non-local materials (Guest 2006, Winter 2009, McClendon 2012). Authors of these analyses called for the examination of the 1/16” (1.58 mm) water-screened lithic material to identify reduction stages and traces of non-local ...


Household Chipped Stone Technology At South Cape (23cg8): A Mississippian Hinterland Site In Southeast Missouri, Deseray L. Helton Dec 2017

Household Chipped Stone Technology At South Cape (23cg8): A Mississippian Hinterland Site In Southeast Missouri, Deseray L. Helton

MSU Graduate Theses

Mississippian archaeology is characterized by a longstanding bias towards studying large, mound-bearing sites as opposed to small hinterland sites. Although this bias has diminished in recent decades, research on hinterland sites is still relatively uncommon. This study helps correct that bias through an analysis of flaked stone technological organization at South-Cape (23CG8), a Mississippian hinterland site in Cape Girardeau, Missouri. A sample of flaked stone artifacts from two house features at the site was analyzed. The results indicate that residents at South Cape generally acquired and consumed higher quantities of local lithic raw material than of supra-local lithic raw material ...


Novicehood: Exploring Skill Level And How It Relates To Mass Analysis, Justin V. Morales Jan 2017

Novicehood: Exploring Skill Level And How It Relates To Mass Analysis, Justin V. Morales

Honors College Theses

Lithic artifacts are among the most common remnants evidencing our ancestors’ intelligence and survivability. They can reflect many aspects of a culture’s practices and use of natural materials. The analysis of such remains is a mainstay of archaeology, but not all lithic analysis is the same. Analysis varies by method (mass flake analysis, individual flake analysis, etc.), and by the level of experience of the analysts themselves, creating debate on the comparability and the accuracy of each approach. This research is a case study of my effectiveness, being a novice level archaeologist, at Mass Flake analysis, using a contemporary ...


Twin Lakes Site: A Look Into Prehistoric Minnesota, Elizabeth K. Sharkey Aug 2016

Twin Lakes Site: A Look Into Prehistoric Minnesota, Elizabeth K. Sharkey

Culminating Projects in Cultural Resource Management

Middle Archaic archaeological sites in Minnesota are rarely discovered and the cultural context of this period is poorly known. This thesis presents the research conducted on a recently identified Middle Archaic site in central Minnesota called Twin Lakes. The site was dated using modern dating techniques. This along with the in depth lithic and statistical analysis adds to the interpretation of the lifeways of early Minnesota people and an elusive time period in the state’s archaeological record.


The Prehistoric Economics Of The Kautz Site: A Late Archaic And Woodland Site In Northeastern Illinois, Peter John Geraci May 2016

The Prehistoric Economics Of The Kautz Site: A Late Archaic And Woodland Site In Northeastern Illinois, Peter John Geraci

Theses and Dissertations

The Kautz Site (11DU1) is a multi-component archaeological site located in the DuPage River Valley in northeastern Illinois. It was inhabited at least six different times between the Late Archaic and Late Woodland periods ca. 6000-1000 B.P. The site was excavated over the course of three field seasons between 1958 and 1961, but the results were never made public. This thesis seeks to document the archaeology of the Kautz Site in order to better understand the site’s economic history. An environmental catchment analysis was conducted to evaluate the level of time and energy needed to acquire important resources ...


3d Scan Data For Selected Artifacts From Blackwater Draw National Historic Landmark (La3324), New Mexico, Usa, Robert Z. Selden Jr., George T. Crawford Jan 2016

3d Scan Data For Selected Artifacts From Blackwater Draw National Historic Landmark (La3324), New Mexico, Usa, Robert Z. Selden Jr., George T. Crawford

CRHR: Archaeology

Between February 8-11, 2016, selected artifacts from the Blackwater Draw National Historic Landmark (LA3324) were scanned in advance of a grant proposal to digitally aggregate the Clovis-era artifacts from the Clovis type site. These data were collected using a NextEngineHD running ScanStudioHD Pro, and were post-processed in Geomagic Design X 2016.0.1. All data associated with this project have been made publicly available (open access) and are accessible in Zenodo under a Creative Commons Attribution license, where they can be downloaded for use in additional projects and learning activities. These data have the capacity to augment a variety of ...


Casting Stones: An Analysis Of The Late Archaic Period At The Big Pine Tree Site, South Carolina, Based In Behavioral Ecology, Adam Daniel Russell Aug 2015

Casting Stones: An Analysis Of The Late Archaic Period At The Big Pine Tree Site, South Carolina, Based In Behavioral Ecology, Adam Daniel Russell

Masters Theses

The Big Pine Tree site (38AL143) is located in the Central Savannah River Valley in the coastal plain of South Carolina. A chert quarry site, it has been used since the Late Paleoindian period (12,850-11,200 cal yr BP) and is in fact still utilized to this day by employees of the nearby Archroma facility. The site has been extensively excavated under the direction of Albert C. Goodyear III for many years, resulting in a large assemblage. This research addresses an unusual 30-centimeter thick dark-brown soil stain located between 60-90 centimeters below ground surface that dates to the beginning ...


Continuity Of Lithic Practice From The Eighteenth To The Nineteenth Centuries At The Nipmuc Homestead Of Sarah Boston, Grafton, Massachusetts, Joseph M. Bagley, Stephen Mrozowski, Heather Law Pezzarossi, John Steinberg Jun 2015

Continuity Of Lithic Practice From The Eighteenth To The Nineteenth Centuries At The Nipmuc Homestead Of Sarah Boston, Grafton, Massachusetts, Joseph M. Bagley, Stephen Mrozowski, Heather Law Pezzarossi, John Steinberg

Northeast Historical Archaeology

Stone tools have been found at all Nipmuc-related house sites in central Massachusetts dating from the 17th through 20th centuries. This article explores in detail the lithic assemblage recovered from the kitchen midden of the late 18th and early 19th century Sarah Burnee/Sarah Boston farmstead in Grafton, Massachusetts. Quartz and quartzite lithics were found in similar concentrations as historic ceramics within the midden suggesting that these tools were in active use within the household. Ground-stone tools of ancient origin indicate curation and reuse of older materials, and knapped glass and re-worked gunflints suggest knowledge of flintknapping. This article argues ...


Chipped Stone Analysis Of The Yamashita Sites In Moapa Valley, Nevada: A Technological Organization Approach, Tatianna Menocal May 2015

Chipped Stone Analysis Of The Yamashita Sites In Moapa Valley, Nevada: A Technological Organization Approach, Tatianna Menocal

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Archaeological research on the lowland branch of the Virgin Branch Puebloan (VBP) has been conducted steadily throughout the 20th century. Much of this research occurred in the early half of the century with initial research conducted by Mark R. Harrington and later archaeology designed as salvage work due to public works projects, including the construction of Hoover Dam and the development of Lake Mead (Ahlstrom and Roberts 2012). The initial archaeology in the area was focused on classifying and characterizing the Puebloan occupation in the region, as the discovery of habitation sites in the area represented the farthest western extension ...


Differential Development Of Sickle Polish Due To Moisture Content Of Herbaceous Plant Material, Justin Jared Dubois May 2015

Differential Development Of Sickle Polish Due To Moisture Content Of Herbaceous Plant Material, Justin Jared Dubois

Theses and Dissertations

This experiment uses four experimental sickles containing flint and novaculite blades to harvest wet, growing grass and mature, dry rye in an effort to determine the differences in the development of sickle polish and other use wear traces caused by moisture content and other plant characteristics. During harvesting, samples of harvested material averaging about two handfuls were collected. These samples were massed, dried, and massed again to determine moisture content of the plants. The sickles were each used for approximately 13 hours. Each blade was then cast using high resolution dental epoxy for microscopic inspection. An edge survey was conducted ...


Toolstone Use In Ozark Prehistory: Assessing Adaptations To A Lithic Dichotomy In The Boston Mountains And Springfield Plateau, Luke Allen Morris May 2015

Toolstone Use In Ozark Prehistory: Assessing Adaptations To A Lithic Dichotomy In The Boston Mountains And Springfield Plateau, Luke Allen Morris

Theses and Dissertations

Toolstone use in the Ozark Mountains is a reactionary process reliant on how the landscape provides or constrains chipped stone for prehistoric populations. These technological adaptations are recognized at sites throughout the area, but no regional assessment of lithic assemblages provides answers as to why certain stones are used at a particular location. This thesis employs a five step mass analysis of lithic assemblages, and GIS visualizations to observe how the organization of stone technologies vary based on location within contrasting geologic contexts. The chert-bearing Springfield Plateau, and the Boston Mountains with siltstone, are two neighboring dichotomous landscapes that illustrate ...


Determination Of Site Functionality And Subsistence Patterns At The Bray Archaeological Site (45pi1276) In Edgewood, Washington, David J. Sheldon Jan 2015

Determination Of Site Functionality And Subsistence Patterns At The Bray Archaeological Site (45pi1276) In Edgewood, Washington, David J. Sheldon

All Master's Theses

Resource intensification, or the logistical approach to the mass capture and extension of food resources through storage, is first evident for marine resources of the Northwest Coast during the Locarno Beach Phase (LBP) (ca. 3,500 BP to ca. 2,400 BP). Plant resource intensification is evident by 4,000 BP within the interior of the Pacific Northwest, but until recently there has been little evidence to support early intensification of plant use in the Puget Sound during the LBP. Test excavations conducted as part of a damage assessment of the Bray Site indicated that the site may contain the ...


Analysis Of Lithic Assemblages From Virgin Branch Puebloan Sites On The Shivwits Plateau, Thomas Carl Wambach Dec 2014

Analysis Of Lithic Assemblages From Virgin Branch Puebloan Sites On The Shivwits Plateau, Thomas Carl Wambach

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Flaked stone technology, as with any utilitarian technology, is studied by archaeologists for a number of reasons. Often lithics are studied to understand the activities of a prehistoric group. Everything from the final product to the waste material can, when recovered in suitable amounts, reflect the conscious decisions of its creator. Understanding this helps to embed all stages of stone tool (lithic) use into aspects of human behavior and in understanding the organization of technology.

The Virgin Branch Puebloans are the westernmost sub-branch of the Ancestral Puebloan culture of the American Southwest. While some of their expanse has been studied ...


A Flute Runs Through It, Sometimes… Understanding Folsom-Era Stone Tool Variation, Robert Detlef Lassen Dec 2013

A Flute Runs Through It, Sometimes… Understanding Folsom-Era Stone Tool Variation, Robert Detlef Lassen

Doctoral Dissertations

This dissertation addresses the “Folsom-Midland Problem,” in which two distinct varieties of stone projectile points occur together in many Folsom-age sites from the terminal Pleistocene in North America. In order to understand why these point types co-occur, a sample of measurements and photographs of 1,093 artifacts including points, preforms, and ultrathin bifaces has been amassed from 27 archaeological sites and three private collections across the Great Plains region of the United States. Analysis of the Folsom and Midland diagnostic artifacts from the Gault site in Central Texas provides the basis of subsequent analyses of the larger sample and indicates ...


Examining Household Identity Through Lithic Technology At The Harris Site, Justin Albert Demaio Dec 2013

Examining Household Identity Through Lithic Technology At The Harris Site, Justin Albert Demaio

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Utilitarian technology is often studied by archaeologists to understand what specific functions and activities these items represent in a past population's daily life. However, it is important not to forget that technology manufacture, use, and discard is embedded in a social context. Flintknapping is a skill that requires close instruction and training so that the desired outcome can be achieved. This training requires daily mentoring from other individuals in the community, many times within one's own family. These daily interactions create learning frameworks through which craft knowledge is transmitted. Technological style and domestic processing activities can be used ...


Cultural Continuity In A Nipmuc Landscape, Joseph Bagley Jun 2013

Cultural Continuity In A Nipmuc Landscape, Joseph Bagley

Graduate Masters Theses

This thesis examines the lithic assemblage from the 2005-2012 field seasons at the Sarah Boston site in Grafton, Massachusetts. The Sarah Boston site is associated with a multi-generational Nipmuc family living on the site during the late 18th through early 19th centuries. In total, 163 lithic artifacts, primarily quartz flakes and cores, were found throughout the site with concentrations north of a house foundation associated with the Nipmuc family. Reworked gunflints and worked glass were examined as examples of lithic practice associated with artifacts that are conclusively datable to the period after European arrival. Presence of quartz artifacts in an ...


Experiments To Measure The Effects Of Timber Harvesting Equipment On Surface Lithic Scatters, Douglas J. Baughman Jan 2013

Experiments To Measure The Effects Of Timber Harvesting Equipment On Surface Lithic Scatters, Douglas J. Baughman

All Master's Theses

The importance of cultural resource preservation cannot be overstated; however local economies are at least as important. Due to conservative archaeological site protection practices in Region 5 of the United States Forest Service, the economy of Northeastern California is being adversely affected. In an attempt to help the Forest Service make more informed management decisions and improve the Northeastern California economy, I undertook experiments on the effects of timber harvesting on lithic scatters on Modoc National Forest. The experiments involved placement of 225 glass tiles (proxy lithics) in each of three plots subject to vehicle traffic and log dragging by ...


The Mississauga At The Head-Of-The-Lake: Examiningresponses To Cultural Upheaval At The Close Of The Fur Trade, John R. Triggs Nov 2012

The Mississauga At The Head-Of-The-Lake: Examiningresponses To Cultural Upheaval At The Close Of The Fur Trade, John R. Triggs

Northeast Historical Archaeology

Between 1780 and 1810 the Missis~auga, a member of the Algonquian speaking family of native groups in southern Ontario, experienced the disintegration of a 150 year old subsistence economy based on aseasonal round of hunting, gathering, fishing, and participation in the fur trade. Faced with a decreasing demand for furs and the loss of land through a series of surrenders to the Crown, the Mississauga were excluded from participation in the new agricultural economy, and within a period of two decades they bet;ame a marginalized people within Upper Canadian society. Excavations at the Beasley site, in Hamilton, Ontario ...


15md158: Excavations And Lithic Analysis Of A Late Archaic/Early Woodland Lithic Workshop Site In Meade County, Kentucky., Lee Michael Creswell Jan 2012

15md158: Excavations And Lithic Analysis Of A Late Archaic/Early Woodland Lithic Workshop Site In Meade County, Kentucky., Lee Michael Creswell

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This thesis describes archaeological investigations carried out at 15Md158, a prehistoric lithic workshop site in Meade County, Kentucky. Although there has been a wide range of diagnostic projectile points as well as some late radiocarbon dates recovered from the site had been identified as a mostly Late Archaic special purpose site where mostly late-stage lithic reduction took place. The goals of this project were to develop a more secure chronology for the site, document a change in the use of the site in order to relate it to changes in mobility patterns of those who utilized the site, and document ...


Analysis Of Flaked Stone Lithics From Virgin Anasazi Sites Near Mt. Trumbull, Arizona Strip, Cheryl Marie Martin Jan 2009

Analysis Of Flaked Stone Lithics From Virgin Anasazi Sites Near Mt. Trumbull, Arizona Strip, Cheryl Marie Martin

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

This thesis examines flaked stone tools that were used by the Virgin Anasazi and the debitage resulting from their manufacture at six sites in the Mt. Trumbull region in order to infer past human behavior. The behaviors being examined include activities carried out at sites, the processing and use of raw stone materials, and patterns of regional exchange. I have applied obsidian sourcing technology and an analysis of flaked stone attributes. The research indicates a range of activities occurred at habitation sites at Mt. Trumbull, and toolmakers did not need to expend large amounts of time and energy on acquiring ...


Recent Excavations At Hacha In The Acari Valley, Peru, Roger W. Robinson Jan 1994

Recent Excavations At Hacha In The Acari Valley, Peru, Roger W. Robinson

Andean Past

No abstract provided.