Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Social and Behavioral Sciences Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Archaeological Anthropology

2018

Theses/Dissertations

Institution
Keyword
Publication

Articles 1 - 30 of 95

Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Lithic Resources, Workshops, And Consumption In Northwestern Belize, Hollie Lincoln Dec 2018

Lithic Resources, Workshops, And Consumption In Northwestern Belize, Hollie Lincoln

Culminating Projects in Cultural Resource Management

Stone tools played an important role in the everyday life of the ancient Maya. Whether for ritual or domestic uses, stone tools were required to complete everyday tasks. Access to stone resources used to make tools, including chert, likely influenced the sociopolitical relationships between communities and cities across the ancient landscape. Through various methods including field survey, lab analysis, and statistical analysis, various chert resources in Northwestern Belize are identified and analyzed in order to recognize chert procurement locations and possible tool production sites or workshops. In addition, an overall analysis of chert quality is included to form a better ...


Mcc Nipissing East 2 (20.Ir.253) And Mcc Nipissing East 3 (20.Ir.254): A Cross Site Comparison Of Archaic Sites On Isle Royale National Park, Samantha J. Olson Dec 2018

Mcc Nipissing East 2 (20.Ir.253) And Mcc Nipissing East 3 (20.Ir.254): A Cross Site Comparison Of Archaic Sites On Isle Royale National Park, Samantha J. Olson

Culminating Projects in Cultural Resource Management

This thesis will discuss recent excavations and subsequent analysis, of two previously unknown sites located on Mid-Late Archaic relict beach shores at Isle Royale National Park. The sites are believed to possibly be connected to the Minong Mine, the oldest and largest precontact copper mine in North America to date, located in the McCargoe Cove area of the island. At these sites, lithics and copper were recovered as the only cultural remains of the people who inhabited these two areas. The sites were compared, not only to each other, but also to other Archaic sites found on similar relict beaches ...


Being And Becoming: Learning, Skill, And Cognition As Exhibited On Painted White Ware Pottery At Sand Canyon Pueblo (5mt765), A Pueblo Iii Era Community Center In Southwestern Colorado, Jonathan Schwartz Dec 2018

Being And Becoming: Learning, Skill, And Cognition As Exhibited On Painted White Ware Pottery At Sand Canyon Pueblo (5mt765), A Pueblo Iii Era Community Center In Southwestern Colorado, Jonathan Schwartz

Culminating Projects in Cultural Resource Management

The theory of conceptual metaphor through material culture posits that human physical experience with natural and cultural materials serves as the basis for the development of abstract knowledge (Tilley 1999). Apprenticeship theories in archaeology (e.g. Walleart ed. 2012) study how craft knowledge is transmitted generationally. Combining these approaches, this thesis seeks to understand if the “container metaphor” (sensu Ortman 2000a, 2012) was taught by adults and learned by children at the Sand Canyon Pueblo archaeological site in southwest Colorado, by comparing white ware pottery produced by children to those produced by adults. Patricia Crown’s (1999, 2001, 2002) 18-point ...


Early Formative Period Exchange, Crafting, And Subsistence: An Analysis Of La Consentida’S Chipped Stone Assemblage, Julian Eduardo Acuña Dec 2018

Early Formative Period Exchange, Crafting, And Subsistence: An Analysis Of La Consentida’S Chipped Stone Assemblage, Julian Eduardo Acuña

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

The primary concern of this thesis is to quantify and analyze the lithic (chipped stone) assemblage previously excavated by Hepp (2015) and the La Consentida Archaeological Project (LCAP) at the archaeological site of La Consentida in the lower Río Verde Valley, Oaxaca, Mexico. The lithic assemblage is comprised of over 500 artifacts mainly of obsidian and chert. This research represents a study of all primary context lithic artifacts from La Consentida and focuses on obsidian, the material most used at the site. In the first part of this thesis I provide an analysis of all lithic artifacts of this primary ...


The Endurance Of Tell Qarqur: Settlement Resilience In Northwestern Syria During The Late Bronze And Iron Ages (Ca. 1200 – 700 Bc), Eric Robert Jensen Dec 2018

The Endurance Of Tell Qarqur: Settlement Resilience In Northwestern Syria During The Late Bronze And Iron Ages (Ca. 1200 – 700 Bc), Eric Robert Jensen

Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation analyzes the material culture, paleobotanical, and faunal remains excavated at the site of Tell Qarqur, Syria, recovered from occupational levels dating from the end of the Late Bronze Age to the Iron II period (from approximately 1200 to 700 BC). Based on archaeological evidence and ancient textual sources, many ancient Near Eastern kingdoms and polities endured social and political turmoil during the late 13th and early 12th centuries BC. Most likely caused by an unknown hostile group or groups, the destruction of monumental scale architecture and the disruption to the people of Qarqur’s agricultural and animal husbandry ...


Reconstructing The Social Landscape Of Cerro Arena, Peru, Felipe Gonzalez-Macqueen Nov 2018

Reconstructing The Social Landscape Of Cerro Arena, Peru, Felipe Gonzalez-Macqueen

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

This thesis deals with the 2017 archaeological survey of the site of Cerro Arena, in the Moche Valley, Peru. The site belongs to the Salinar phase (c.a 400–0 BCE), known to be a time of increased warfare and cultural fragmentation. During this time, Cerro Arena became the largest settlement in the valley, housing a large number of people in structures densely packed into the elevated terrain of the site. Yet, information on the spatial arrangement of civic and residential architecture was lacking. Using remote sensing techniques—primarily Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) —and Geographic Information Systems (GIS), we sought ...


Finding Ft. Smith And Ft. Star In Smithland, Ky, Austin Valentine, Austin Valentine Jr. Nov 2018

Finding Ft. Smith And Ft. Star In Smithland, Ky, Austin Valentine, Austin Valentine Jr.

Student Scholarship & Creative Works

Through the utilization of Light Detection and Ranging data, one can compile 3-dimensional models that can be used to spot anomalies of historical interest. These anomalies, if recognizable by the trained eye, can then be used to geo-reference historic maps to gain a better understanding of historic sites as well as to reveal possible areas of interests or unknown features.

By using a 3-dimensional model compiled by LiDAR data, I was able to geo-reference a December 13th, 1861 map of the Civil War defenses for the town of Smithland, Kentucky. Through this process, I have been able to reveal ...


A Voyage Into The Abyss – A Look Into The First Year Of The Jamestown Settlement, Austin Valentine, Austin Valentine Jr. Oct 2018

A Voyage Into The Abyss – A Look Into The First Year Of The Jamestown Settlement, Austin Valentine, Austin Valentine Jr.

Student Scholarship & Creative Works

A brief introduction into the first year at the Jamestown settlement and the troubles the settlers faced upon arrival to the New World.


A Comparative Analysis Of Non-Invasive Exploration Techniques Lidar Vs. Aerial Photography – Kincaid Mounds Archaeological Site, Austin Valentine, Austin Valentine Jr. Oct 2018

A Comparative Analysis Of Non-Invasive Exploration Techniques Lidar Vs. Aerial Photography – Kincaid Mounds Archaeological Site, Austin Valentine, Austin Valentine Jr.

Student Scholarship & Creative Works

KINCAID MOUNDS - A Comparative Analysis of Non-invasive Exploration Techniques is a journal of my efforts to conduct non-invasive site investigations at the Kincaid Mounds Archaeological site in Southern Illinois. Through the utilization of tools such as; drones, photography, satellite imaging, light distance and ranging, and powerful analysis software, I will demonstrate a number of useful techniques which one can utilize to conduct independent site investigations without disturbing a sites landscape or structural integrity. Thus, illustrating differences between those techniques and pointing out their strengths and weaknesses in their various applications.

During this journey, I will also venture into the world ...


Landscapes Of Persistence And Ritual Architecture At The Cosma Complex, Upper Nepeña Valley, Peru., Kimberly Elizabeth Munro Oct 2018

Landscapes Of Persistence And Ritual Architecture At The Cosma Complex, Upper Nepeña Valley, Peru., Kimberly Elizabeth Munro

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

This dissertation focuses on the Cosma Complex, a multi-component archaeological site located at the headwaters of the Nepeña River, on the western slopes of the Cordillera Negra in the modern Department of Ancash, Peru. The overarching goal of this study is to understand not only Cosma’s influence as a religious center within the Nepeña Valley and the surrounding region, but its recurring occupation over a 5000-year time span and its role in religious networks within the valley through its function as a cultural landscape resource or persistent place.

The Cosma complex extends over 250 hectares and includes two multi-storied ...


Guided By Smoke: A Comparative Analysis Of Early Late Woodland Smoking Pipes From The Arkona Cluster, Shane Mccartney Sep 2018

Guided By Smoke: A Comparative Analysis Of Early Late Woodland Smoking Pipes From The Arkona Cluster, Shane Mccartney

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

This thesis undertakes a comparative analysis of ceramic and stone pipes recovered from eight archaeological sites located near present day Arkona, Ontario. Commonly known as the Arkona Cluster, these sites date to between 1000 and 1280 A.D. during the early Late Woodland Period and are thought to be part of a borderland region between distinct cultural groups known as the Western Basin Younge Phase and the Early Ontario Iroquoians. Using a combination of distribution and attribute data from each site’s pipe assemblage, I explore how the similarities and differences observed can be used to draw insights into the ...


“The True Spirit Of Service": Ceramics And Toys As Tools Of Ideology At The Dorchester Industrial School For Girls, Sarah N. Johnson Aug 2018

“The True Spirit Of Service": Ceramics And Toys As Tools Of Ideology At The Dorchester Industrial School For Girls, Sarah N. Johnson

Graduate Masters Theses

This thesis examines the ceramics, both full-scale and toy, and dolls recovered from the Industrial School for Girls (1859-1941) in Dorchester, MA, in order to assess the ways in which the Managers who ran the School used material culture to enculturate the girls, as well as how the girls used material culture to shape their own identities. This site provides a unique opportunity to study the archaeology of a single-gender, and predominately single-class and single-age. The Industrial School for Girls, as an institution whose aim was to better the lives of poor girls and give them economic opportunities, as well ...


An Analysis Of Form And Function Of Ceramic Rim Sherds From La 20,000, A 17th Century Estancia Outside Santa Fe, New Mexico, Caitlin M. Connick Aug 2018

An Analysis Of Form And Function Of Ceramic Rim Sherds From La 20,000, A 17th Century Estancia Outside Santa Fe, New Mexico, Caitlin M. Connick

Graduate Masters Theses

This thesis examines a sample of ceramic sherds from LA 20,000 to determine the functional uses of the locally made ceramics and their relationship to food preparation, consumption, and identity. LA 20,000, the Sanchez site, is a Spanish colonial estancia, or ranching headquarters, located in La Cienega, New Mexico, roughly 12 miles southwest of Santa Fe and was occupied during the seventeenth century before the Pueblo Revolt of 1680. It is important to understand Pueblo, or native made, ceramics because all ceramic assemblages recovered from 17th-century Spanish sites in New Mexico consist of a majority of native made ...


Palynological Investigations Of Agropastoralism And Ecological Change At La 20,000, New Mexico, Anya Gruber Aug 2018

Palynological Investigations Of Agropastoralism And Ecological Change At La 20,000, New Mexico, Anya Gruber

Graduate Masters Theses

How did Spanish colonialism alter the landscape of north-central New Mexico? Agropastoral practices imported by Spanish colonists made indelible impacts on an anthropogenic landscape already shaped by hundreds of years of Pueblo agriculture. However, the precise nature of these changes is poorly understood. This project uses two sets of archaeological pollen data from LA 20,000, a Spanish rancho in New Mexico, to demonstrate how 17th century agriculture and animal husbandry made geographically specific, multifaceted changes to the environment. First, patterns analyzed from a pollen column illuminates fluctuations in plant communities over time, indicating localized ecological shifts. Second, sediments collected ...


Native American Occupation Of The Singer-Hieronymus Site Complex: Developing Site History By Integrating Remote Sensing And Archaeological Excavation, Claiborne Sea Aug 2018

Native American Occupation Of The Singer-Hieronymus Site Complex: Developing Site History By Integrating Remote Sensing And Archaeological Excavation, Claiborne Sea

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Located on a ridgetop in central Kentucky, the Singer-Hieronymus Site Complex consists of at least four Native American villages. The Native Americans who lived there are called the “Fort Ancient” by archaeologists. This study examined relationships between these villages, both spatially and temporally, to build a more complete history of site occupation. To do this, aerial imagery analysis, geophysical survey, and archaeological investigations were conducted. This research determined there were differences among villages in terms of their size, however other characteristics—internal village organization, village shape, radiometric dates, and material culture—overlapped significantly. Additionally, landscape-scale geophysical survey identified at least ...


Trace Element Analysis Of Human Dentition From The Elite Meroitic Cemetery At Sedeinga, Sudan To Determine Dietary Consumption And Cultural Behaviors, Tiffany Lee Aug 2018

Trace Element Analysis Of Human Dentition From The Elite Meroitic Cemetery At Sedeinga, Sudan To Determine Dietary Consumption And Cultural Behaviors, Tiffany Lee

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Minimal research has been conducted on the human skeletal remains from this site, and this research is aimed toward adding knowledge of the Nubian culture for the period between the 1st c. AD to the 4th c. AD, particularly focusing on answering the following questions: 1) Was intra- individual variation present in dietary consumption or cultural behaviors based on elements found within an individual's multiple molars after analysis; 2) Was an inter-individual variation apparent, based on developmental age through permanent molars, that indicated a distinction between dietary consumption against all individuals; and 3) Based on known medicinal and cosmetic ...


Growing Up In Tell El-Amarna: An Examination Of Growth And Non-Specific Stress Indicators In New Kingdom Children., Ashley Elizabeth Shidner Aug 2018

Growing Up In Tell El-Amarna: An Examination Of Growth And Non-Specific Stress Indicators In New Kingdom Children., Ashley Elizabeth Shidner

Theses and Dissertations

The health status of the subadult skeletal remains from the South Tombs Cemetery at Tell el-Amarna were assessed by examining fluctuations in childhood growth and rates of skeletal indicators of physiological stress within a biocultural framework. The long bone standardization method outlined by Goode et al. (1993) was used to compare the South Tombs cemetery’s cross-sectional growth data to subadult samples from other cemeteries during which major social, political, and economic changes were taking place. The comparative subadult samples included the HK43 cemetery from Hierakonpolis (Egypt), the African American Cemetery from Cedar Grove (Arkansas), and the St. Martin’s ...


Drone Photography Vs. Light Detection And Ranging (Lidar) Data - Which Source Is Best Utilized In 3-Dimensional Modeling Applications?, Austin Valentine Jun 2018

Drone Photography Vs. Light Detection And Ranging (Lidar) Data - Which Source Is Best Utilized In 3-Dimensional Modeling Applications?, Austin Valentine

Student Scholarship & Creative Works

Drone Photography vs. Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) Data — Which Source is Best Utilized in 3-Dimensional Modeling Applications? is an evaluation essay comparing the analysis and modeling of both drone photography and LiDAR data. This paper gives a brief introduction into my choice of utilization between these two techniques, both of which were applied to 3-dimensional modeling of the Kincaid Mounds Archaeological site in southern Illinois. Thus, illustrating some of the advantages and disadvantages associated with both methods.


Seasonal Round Travel Routes And The Cost Of Mobility, Evan Mills Jun 2018

Seasonal Round Travel Routes And The Cost Of Mobility, Evan Mills

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

In 1985 a settlement and subsistence model of seasonal round mobility was proposed by Statistical Research, Inc. This model proposed four travel routes used by the Late Prehistoric Serrano to access the higher elevation village site known as Rock Camp to gather acorns and pinyon nuts in the fall. This research investigates the proposed routes, as well as an additional route, for energy efficiency and archaeological evidence of use in prehistory. Data collection involved using experimental methods designed to gather controlled physiological data for evaluating the efficiency of traveling each route. Archaeological sites present on the travel routes and within ...


Community Through Consumption: The Role Of Food In African American Cultural Formation In The 18th Century Chesapeake, Alexandra Crowder May 2018

Community Through Consumption: The Role Of Food In African American Cultural Formation In The 18th Century Chesapeake, Alexandra Crowder

Graduate Masters Theses

Stratford Hall Plantation’s Oval Site was once a dynamic 18th-century farm quarter that was home to an enslaved community and overseer charged with growing Virginia’s cash crop: tobacco. No documentary evidence references the site, leaving archaeology as the only means to reconstruct the lives of the site’s inhabitants. This research uses the results of a macrobotanical analysis conducted on soil samples taken from an overseer’s basement and a dual purpose slave quarter/kitchen cellar at the Oval Site to understand what the site’s residents were eating and how the acquisition, production, processing, provisioning, and consumption ...


Using Digital Mapping Techniques To Rapidly Document Vulnerable Historical Landscapes In Coastal Louisiana: Holt Cemetery Case Study, Alahna Moore May 2018

Using Digital Mapping Techniques To Rapidly Document Vulnerable Historical Landscapes In Coastal Louisiana: Holt Cemetery Case Study, Alahna Moore

University of New Orleans Theses and Dissertations

This thesis outlines a technique for rapid documentation of historic sites in volatile cultural landscapes. Using Holt Cemetery as an exemplary case study, a workflow was developed incorporating RTK terrain survey, UAS aerial imagery, photogrammetry, GIS, and smartphone data collection in order to create a multifaceted database of the material and spatial conditions, as well as the patterns of use, that exist at the cemetery.

The purpose of this research is to create a framework for improving the speed of data creation and increasing the accessibility of information regarding threatened cultural resources. It is intended that these processes can be ...


Investigating The Role Of Liminality In The Cultural Transition Of The Late Eighth Millennium Bc On Cyprus, Levi Keach May 2018

Investigating The Role Of Liminality In The Cultural Transition Of The Late Eighth Millennium Bc On Cyprus, Levi Keach

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

The Near East has the earliest and best documented Neolithic in the world. However, most research attention has focused on the mainland. The spread of the Neolithic to the adjacent Mediterranean islands was once considered relatively late. The last three decades of research has changed this perception, demonstrating that the spread of the Neolithic to Cyprus was contemporary with its continental development.

This work addresses the change between the archeologically defined cultures of the Cypro-Pre-Pottery Neolithic B (Cypro-PPNB) and the Khirokitian Culture (KC) on the island of Cyprus between the 9th and 6th millennia cal BC. The purpose of this ...


A Middle Pueblo Ii Production Zone For Shivwits Ware Ceramics: Implications For Understanding Settlement Patterns And Socio-Environmental Responses On The Shivwits Plateau, William Morrow Willis May 2018

A Middle Pueblo Ii Production Zone For Shivwits Ware Ceramics: Implications For Understanding Settlement Patterns And Socio-Environmental Responses On The Shivwits Plateau, William Morrow Willis

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

The distribution of ceramics from upland regions in Northern Arizona into Southern Nevada is one of the many curiosities concerning the Virgin Branch Puebloan culture. From the Shivwits Plateau, it is more than 100 kilometers to the Moapa Valley, yet Shivwits Wares make up a sizeable proportion of sherds found at many lowland sites. These networks appear to reach their height in the Middle Pueblo II period and then collapse sometime around AD 1150. The reason for this is not yet fully understood; however, research performed on the southern end of the Shivwits Plateau concerning landscape usage and settlement placement ...


Investigating Land Use By The Inhabitants Of Western Cyprus During The Early Neolithic, Katelyn Dibenedetto May 2018

Investigating Land Use By The Inhabitants Of Western Cyprus During The Early Neolithic, Katelyn Dibenedetto

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

This study presents the first of its kind in Cyprus that combines the use of ancient crop (two-grained einkorn wheat, hulled barley, and lentils) and animal (domestic sheep, goat, cattle, pig, and wild deer) stable isotopes (carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen) for reconstructing land use by the Kritou Marottou Ais Giorkis (Cypro-PPNB, 7956-7058 cal BC) inhabitants in western Cyprus. Current definitions of this time period employ the strict forager/farmer dichotomy, even though archaeological evidence suggests otherwise. In addition, it is still assumed that Cyprus was a barren landscape whose inhabitants were isolated from one another and the mainland. An integrated ...


Utilizing Ground-Penetrating Radar In The Delineation And Cultural Resource Management Of Eroding Maine Coastal Shell Middens, Jacquelynn F. Miller May 2018

Utilizing Ground-Penetrating Radar In The Delineation And Cultural Resource Management Of Eroding Maine Coastal Shell Middens, Jacquelynn F. Miller

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Shell middens along the Maine coast archive up to 5000 years of cultural and climatic change, but the record is continually and rapidly lost to the sea through climate-driven coastal erosion and sea-level rise. These sites were constructed by the ancestors of Maine Tribes, and are composed of centimeters to meters of clam (Mya arenaria) and/or oyster (Crassostrea virginica) shells, other faunal remains, and cultural materials. Shell middens record human interaction with the environment and early coastal occupation and adaptation. The faunal remains reflect paleoenvironmental conditions and the distribution of extinct and extant forage-species along the western Gulf of ...


Climate Change And Threatened Heritage: Archaeology's Burden, Barry R. Gordon May 2018

Climate Change And Threatened Heritage: Archaeology's Burden, Barry R. Gordon

School of Arts & Sciences Theses

Climate change and archaeology are currently intertwined, as more and more archaeologists around the world must deal with the effects it causes on the sites they work on. Threatened cultural resource sites are being swept away at alarming rates, and excavation projects are becoming more and more like salvage digs.


An Archaeological Perspective On Architectural Evolution At Fort Harrison, Rachel Nicole Bergstresser May 2018

An Archaeological Perspective On Architectural Evolution At Fort Harrison, Rachel Nicole Bergstresser

Senior Honors Projects, 2010-current

Fort Harrison is a historic home located in Rockingham County, Virginia. Occupation of the site began in 1749, when Daniel Harrison constructed the original limestone dwelling, and today it is protected and interpreted by Fort Harrison, Inc. The Department of Anthropology at James Madison University has performed exploratory archaeological fieldwork to better document change in the way the site has been utilized.

This project has evaluated the hypothesis that the main (front) entrance to the house was relocated from the northerly-facing side to the southerly-facing side, in conjunction with the decision to enlarge the structure. Archaeological findings and architectural evidence ...


Explaining Anthropophagy And Social Violence In The Mesa Verde Region Of The American Southwest, Riley Smith May 2018

Explaining Anthropophagy And Social Violence In The Mesa Verde Region Of The American Southwest, Riley Smith

Senior Honors Projects, 2010-current

This thesis is an examination of a controversial problem in anthropology and archaeology – the motives and cultural context of anthropophagy, or cannibalism. Views that the practice was a reflection of a primitive state of humanity have given way to a more ethnographically-informed appreciation of the practice as culturally situated with a diverse set of potential motives. Claims of anthropophagy in the ancient past influence perceptions of both prehistoric and modern groups. Because of the wealth of information gathered from recent excavations, it is now possible to explore the context of, motives for, and consequences of anthropophagy in the American Southwest ...


Documentation Of Cultural Landscape Alteration At The Heritage Mounds Site, Georgia, Shannon Sullivan May 2018

Documentation Of Cultural Landscape Alteration At The Heritage Mounds Site, Georgia, Shannon Sullivan

Senior Honors Projects, 2010-current

This project used geoarchaeological techniques to examine how humans impacted the landscape at the middle Mississippian archaeological site Heritage Mounds (9DU2), in Dougherty County, Georgia, specifically looking at a borrow pit and a plaza. The site was the civic and ceremonial capital of the Capachequi territory, occupied at two separate times between AD 1250 – 1700. At the site soil samples were collected from two excavation units and two wetland cores. The units were for analysis of the plaza, and the cores were for analysis of the Mound A borrow pit. The samples were used for particle size and chemical analysis ...


Identity In The Archaeological Record: Richardville, Natoequah And The Fur Trade In Northeastern Indiana., Elizabeth Spott May 2018

Identity In The Archaeological Record: Richardville, Natoequah And The Fur Trade In Northeastern Indiana., Elizabeth Spott

Theses and Dissertations

Gender, ethnicity and social class are powerful structuring components that influence the formation of personal identity and social groups, as well as constrain interpersonal interactions within social groups. The following dissertation is an examination of how gender, ethnicity and class were actively negotiated and employed by Native Americans, Métis and whites to construct personal and social identities on the frontier during the nineteenth century fur trade. This discussion of identity will focus on the example of John B. Richardville to examine how he used material culture to construct, portray and maintain multiple personal and social identities in the nineteenth century ...