Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Social and Behavioral Sciences Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Archaeological Anthropology

2018

PDF

Institution
Keyword
Publication
Publication Type

Articles 1 - 30 of 203

Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

What College Students Learn From Teaching Others, Larkin N. Hood Dec 2018

What College Students Learn From Teaching Others, Larkin N. Hood

Journal of Archaeology and Education

This article describes what undergraduate students learned from participating in a museum docent program at a large, public university on the West Coast of the United States. The majority (93%) of students report an increase in their ability to effectively communicate specialized knowledge to museum visitors in one or more of the following ways: 1) identifying what visitors know and adjusting their explanations accordingly; 2) translating technical information to visitors; 3); communicating information in an active, hands-on manner; 4) confidently communicating their knowledge to others. Students reported personal and professional benefits as well. In addition to this focused observation approach ...


Geophysical Survey And Phase I & Ii Testing At Wisconsin Site Ou - 0115: The Grignon Mansion, Kaukauna, Peter N. Peregrine Dec 2018

Geophysical Survey And Phase I & Ii Testing At Wisconsin Site Ou - 0115: The Grignon Mansion, Kaukauna, Peter N. Peregrine

Archaeological Reports

Between September and November 2018 Lawrence University conducted a geophysical survey, Phase I shovel testing, and a single Phase II 1.5 meter by 1.5 meter test excavation to determine if significant archaeological deposits are present on the north side of the historic Grignon Mansion. The survey and test excavations were undertaken on behalf of the City of Kaukauna in anticipation of constructing a replica of the summer kitchen that had once been located on the north side of the Mansion. The survey and excavations found what are thought to be remnants of the original summer kitchen, including a ...


Lithic Resources, Workshops, And Consumption In Northwestern Belize, Hollie Lincoln Dec 2018

Lithic Resources, Workshops, And Consumption In Northwestern Belize, Hollie Lincoln

Culminating Projects in Cultural Resource Management

Stone tools played an important role in the everyday life of the ancient Maya. Whether for ritual or domestic uses, stone tools were required to complete everyday tasks. Access to stone resources used to make tools, including chert, likely influenced the sociopolitical relationships between communities and cities across the ancient landscape. Through various methods including field survey, lab analysis, and statistical analysis, various chert resources in Northwestern Belize are identified and analyzed in order to recognize chert procurement locations and possible tool production sites or workshops. In addition, an overall analysis of chert quality is included to form a better ...


Mcc Nipissing East 2 (20.Ir.253) And Mcc Nipissing East 3 (20.Ir.254): A Cross Site Comparison Of Archaic Sites On Isle Royale National Park, Samantha J. Olson Dec 2018

Mcc Nipissing East 2 (20.Ir.253) And Mcc Nipissing East 3 (20.Ir.254): A Cross Site Comparison Of Archaic Sites On Isle Royale National Park, Samantha J. Olson

Culminating Projects in Cultural Resource Management

This thesis will discuss recent excavations and subsequent analysis, of two previously unknown sites located on Mid-Late Archaic relict beach shores at Isle Royale National Park. The sites are believed to possibly be connected to the Minong Mine, the oldest and largest precontact copper mine in North America to date, located in the McCargoe Cove area of the island. At these sites, lithics and copper were recovered as the only cultural remains of the people who inhabited these two areas. The sites were compared, not only to each other, but also to other Archaic sites found on similar relict beaches ...


Being And Becoming: Learning, Skill, And Cognition As Exhibited On Painted White Ware Pottery At Sand Canyon Pueblo (5mt765), A Pueblo Iii Era Community Center In Southwestern Colorado, Jonathan Schwartz Dec 2018

Being And Becoming: Learning, Skill, And Cognition As Exhibited On Painted White Ware Pottery At Sand Canyon Pueblo (5mt765), A Pueblo Iii Era Community Center In Southwestern Colorado, Jonathan Schwartz

Culminating Projects in Cultural Resource Management

The theory of conceptual metaphor through material culture posits that human physical experience with natural and cultural materials serves as the basis for the development of abstract knowledge (Tilley 1999). Apprenticeship theories in archaeology (e.g. Walleart ed. 2012) study how craft knowledge is transmitted generationally. Combining these approaches, this thesis seeks to understand if the “container metaphor” (sensu Ortman 2000a, 2012) was taught by adults and learned by children at the Sand Canyon Pueblo archaeological site in southwest Colorado, by comparing white ware pottery produced by children to those produced by adults. Patricia Crown’s (1999, 2001, 2002) 18-point ...


Early Formative Period Exchange, Crafting, And Subsistence: An Analysis Of La Consentida’S Chipped Stone Assemblage, Julian Eduardo Acuña Dec 2018

Early Formative Period Exchange, Crafting, And Subsistence: An Analysis Of La Consentida’S Chipped Stone Assemblage, Julian Eduardo Acuña

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

The primary concern of this thesis is to quantify and analyze the lithic (chipped stone) assemblage previously excavated by Hepp (2015) and the La Consentida Archaeological Project (LCAP) at the archaeological site of La Consentida in the lower Río Verde Valley, Oaxaca, Mexico. The lithic assemblage is comprised of over 500 artifacts mainly of obsidian and chert. This research represents a study of all primary context lithic artifacts from La Consentida and focuses on obsidian, the material most used at the site. In the first part of this thesis I provide an analysis of all lithic artifacts of this primary ...


The Endurance Of Tell Qarqur: Settlement Resilience In Northwestern Syria During The Late Bronze And Iron Ages (Ca. 1200 – 700 Bc), Eric Robert Jensen Dec 2018

The Endurance Of Tell Qarqur: Settlement Resilience In Northwestern Syria During The Late Bronze And Iron Ages (Ca. 1200 – 700 Bc), Eric Robert Jensen

Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation analyzes the material culture, paleobotanical, and faunal remains excavated at the site of Tell Qarqur, Syria, recovered from occupational levels dating from the end of the Late Bronze Age to the Iron II period (from approximately 1200 to 700 BC). Based on archaeological evidence and ancient textual sources, many ancient Near Eastern kingdoms and polities endured social and political turmoil during the late 13th and early 12th centuries BC. Most likely caused by an unknown hostile group or groups, the destruction of monumental scale architecture and the disruption to the people of Qarqur’s agricultural and animal husbandry ...


Key To The Past: Community Perceptions Of Yup’Ik Youth Interaction With Culturally Relevant Education Inspired By The Nunalleq Archaeology Project, Sean R. O'Rourke, Justin J. Turner, Krista Ritchie Nov 2018

Key To The Past: Community Perceptions Of Yup’Ik Youth Interaction With Culturally Relevant Education Inspired By The Nunalleq Archaeology Project, Sean R. O'Rourke, Justin J. Turner, Krista Ritchie

Journal of Archaeology and Education

This study qualitatively describes a) the implementation of culturally relevant education (CRE) programs for Yup’ik youth in Quinhagak, Alaska that developed from the Nunalleq Project—a nearby archaeological excavation—and b) community members’ and program facilitators’ perceptions of associated youth social and psychological outcomes. Ten semi-structured interviews (seven community members, three program facilitators) were undertaken and analyzed using constant comparative analysis. Community members and program facilitators attributed numerous outcomes to the Nunalleq-related CRE, such as imparting practical skills (e.g., wilderness survival, artistic and technological skills), teaching young people to value their heritage (e.g., educating them about the ...


Reconstructing The Social Landscape Of Cerro Arena, Peru, Felipe Gonzalez-Macqueen Nov 2018

Reconstructing The Social Landscape Of Cerro Arena, Peru, Felipe Gonzalez-Macqueen

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

This thesis deals with the 2017 archaeological survey of the site of Cerro Arena, in the Moche Valley, Peru. The site belongs to the Salinar phase (c.a 400–0 BCE), known to be a time of increased warfare and cultural fragmentation. During this time, Cerro Arena became the largest settlement in the valley, housing a large number of people in structures densely packed into the elevated terrain of the site. Yet, information on the spatial arrangement of civic and residential architecture was lacking. Using remote sensing techniques—primarily Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) —and Geographic Information Systems (GIS), we sought ...


Web-Based Archaeology And Collaborative Research, Fabrizio Galeazzi, Heather Richards-Rissetto Nov 2018

Web-Based Archaeology And Collaborative Research, Fabrizio Galeazzi, Heather Richards-Rissetto

Anthropology Faculty Publications

While digital technologies have been part of archaeology for more than fifty years, archaeologists still look for more efficient methodologies to integrate digital practices of fieldwork recording with data management, analysis, and ultimately interpretation.This Special Issue of the Journal of Field Archaeology gathers international scholars affiliated with universities, organizations, and commercial enterprises working in the field of Digital Archaeology. Our goal is to offer a discussion to the international academic community and practitioners. While the approach is interdisciplinary, our primary audience remains readers interested in web technology and collaborative platforms in archaeology


Vecinidad And Hispanidad: Using Consumer Relationships To Understand Local And Regional Hispanic Identity In Nineteenth Century Territorial New Mexico, Erin N. Hegberg Nov 2018

Vecinidad And Hispanidad: Using Consumer Relationships To Understand Local And Regional Hispanic Identity In Nineteenth Century Territorial New Mexico, Erin N. Hegberg

Shared Knowledge Conference

The years 1821–1912 were politically tumultuous and may have been especially important in the development of modern Hispanic identity in New Mexico. After New Mexico was annexed by the United States, one significant impact of incoming American racial discourses was a shift in the perception of Hispanic identity from a localized community identity, to a racial or ethnic identity at a regional or national scale. However, we have little understanding of what this meant in the lives of typical rural New Mexicans. This research addresses this problem through the study the material goods that historic New Mexicans consumed on ...


Geophysical Survey Of Wisconsin Burial Site Oc-0042: Brazeau Pioneer Cemetery, Peter N. Peregrine Nov 2018

Geophysical Survey Of Wisconsin Burial Site Oc-0042: Brazeau Pioneer Cemetery, Peter N. Peregrine

Archaeological Reports

On October 23 and 25 a geophysical survey using geomagnetic, soil resistivity, and ground penetrating radar methods was conducted to determine if there are unmarked interments at Wisconsin Burial Site OC-0042, the Brazeau Pioneer Cemetery. The survey was undertaken on behalf of the Town of Brazeau in anticipation of using the cemetery for burial. The survey found no evidence of extant interments in the cemetery.


Finding Ft. Smith And Ft. Star In Smithland, Ky, Austin Valentine, Austin Valentine Jr. Nov 2018

Finding Ft. Smith And Ft. Star In Smithland, Ky, Austin Valentine, Austin Valentine Jr.

Student Scholarship & Creative Works

Through the utilization of Light Detection and Ranging data, one can compile 3-dimensional models that can be used to spot anomalies of historical interest. These anomalies, if recognizable by the trained eye, can then be used to geo-reference historic maps to gain a better understanding of historic sites as well as to reveal possible areas of interests or unknown features.

By using a 3-dimensional model compiled by LiDAR data, I was able to geo-reference a December 13th, 1861 map of the Civil War defenses for the town of Smithland, Kentucky. Through this process, I have been able to reveal ...


Life In Lincoln: Deciphering The Archaeological Material Culture Of A Turn Of The 20th Century Neighborhood, Amy Neumann Nov 2018

Life In Lincoln: Deciphering The Archaeological Material Culture Of A Turn Of The 20th Century Neighborhood, Amy Neumann

Anthropology Department Theses and Dissertations

In June 1999, the University of Nebraska-Lincoln (UNL) conducted a two-week salvage archaeology project during the early construction phase of the Kauffman Residential Center, an honors dormitory on campus. Nineteen archaeological features were discovered and fourteen were excavated from this historically residential area covering approximately one city block. The excavated archaeological materials include a large number of glass bottles, ceramics, metal artifacts, faunal remains, and personal items dating to the turn of the 20th century.

During the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, Lincoln, Nebraska experienced substantial population growth. The city thrived on manufacturing and purchasing goods allowing the economy ...


Referencing People And Places: Multivocality And The Materiality Of Memory In Archaeological Landscapes, Jade L. Robison Nov 2018

Referencing People And Places: Multivocality And The Materiality Of Memory In Archaeological Landscapes, Jade L. Robison

Anthropology Department Theses and Dissertations

In the two papers that comprise this thesis, I explore the various intersections of the materiality of memory, the multivocality of particular landscapes, and the memorialization of people and places. In the first paper, I examine how three very different groups of people utilized the Natchitoches Trace, a trail that once extended southwest from St. Louis, Missouri, to Louisiana and Texas. Created by precolumbian groups for trading purposes, the trail was later utilized by early European pioneer families for westward expansion. The 1830 Indian Removal Act forced the repurposing of the trail as a route of exile for displaced Cherokee ...


A Voyage Into The Abyss – A Look Into The First Year Of The Jamestown Settlement, Austin Valentine, Austin Valentine Jr. Oct 2018

A Voyage Into The Abyss – A Look Into The First Year Of The Jamestown Settlement, Austin Valentine, Austin Valentine Jr.

Student Scholarship & Creative Works

A brief introduction into the first year at the Jamestown settlement and the troubles the settlers faced upon arrival to the New World.


A Comparative Analysis Of Non-Invasive Exploration Techniques Lidar Vs. Aerial Photography – Kincaid Mounds Archaeological Site, Austin Valentine, Austin Valentine Jr. Oct 2018

A Comparative Analysis Of Non-Invasive Exploration Techniques Lidar Vs. Aerial Photography – Kincaid Mounds Archaeological Site, Austin Valentine, Austin Valentine Jr.

Student Scholarship & Creative Works

KINCAID MOUNDS - A Comparative Analysis of Non-invasive Exploration Techniques is a journal of my efforts to conduct non-invasive site investigations at the Kincaid Mounds Archaeological site in Southern Illinois. Through the utilization of tools such as; drones, photography, satellite imaging, light distance and ranging, and powerful analysis software, I will demonstrate a number of useful techniques which one can utilize to conduct independent site investigations without disturbing a sites landscape or structural integrity. Thus, illustrating differences between those techniques and pointing out their strengths and weaknesses in their various applications.

During this journey, I will also venture into the world ...


Landscapes Of Persistence And Ritual Architecture At The Cosma Complex, Upper Nepeña Valley, Peru., Kimberly Elizabeth Munro Oct 2018

Landscapes Of Persistence And Ritual Architecture At The Cosma Complex, Upper Nepeña Valley, Peru., Kimberly Elizabeth Munro

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

This dissertation focuses on the Cosma Complex, a multi-component archaeological site located at the headwaters of the Nepeña River, on the western slopes of the Cordillera Negra in the modern Department of Ancash, Peru. The overarching goal of this study is to understand not only Cosma’s influence as a religious center within the Nepeña Valley and the surrounding region, but its recurring occupation over a 5000-year time span and its role in religious networks within the valley through its function as a cultural landscape resource or persistent place.

The Cosma complex extends over 250 hectares and includes two multi-storied ...


Curating A Nation: The Role Of Asia’S Twenty-First Century Museums In Constructing National Narratives, Lee Nelson Sep 2018

Curating A Nation: The Role Of Asia’S Twenty-First Century Museums In Constructing National Narratives, Lee Nelson

Pac Rim Posters

Museums of the modern world act to preserve and promote cultural heritage, science, and art. Within the continent of Asia, museums have been crucial foci for various nations’ cultural ministries. By analyzing the missions of specific museums with a critical lens, the objective of national identity and narrative building becomes exposed in the decisions of museums’ exhibits and curations. With having used ethnographic methods and scholarly research concerning national museums in the countries of Mongolia, Japan, China, Thailand, and India, I argue that museums serve as mediums of communication for higher political and cultural institutions to foster, construct, and manipulate ...


Synchronization Of Energy Consumption By Human Societies Throughout The Holocene, Jacob Freeman, Jacopo A. Baggio, Erick Robinson, David A. Byers, Eugenia Gayo, Judson Byrd Finley, Jack A. Meyer, Robert L. Kelly, John M. Anderies Sep 2018

Synchronization Of Energy Consumption By Human Societies Throughout The Holocene, Jacob Freeman, Jacopo A. Baggio, Erick Robinson, David A. Byers, Eugenia Gayo, Judson Byrd Finley, Jack A. Meyer, Robert L. Kelly, John M. Anderies

Sociology, Social Work and Anthropology Faculty Publications

We conduct a global comparison of the consumption of energy by human populations throughout the Holocene and statistically quantify coincident changes in the consumption of energy over space and time—an ecological phenomenon known as synchrony. When populations synchronize, adverse changes in ecosystems and social systems may cascade from society to society. Thus, to develop policies that favor the sustained use of resources, we must understand the processes that cause the synchrony of human populations. To date, it is not clear whether human societies display long-term synchrony or, if they do, the potential causes. Our analysis begins to fill this ...


Guided By Smoke: A Comparative Analysis Of Early Late Woodland Smoking Pipes From The Arkona Cluster, Shane Mccartney Sep 2018

Guided By Smoke: A Comparative Analysis Of Early Late Woodland Smoking Pipes From The Arkona Cluster, Shane Mccartney

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

This thesis undertakes a comparative analysis of ceramic and stone pipes recovered from eight archaeological sites located near present day Arkona, Ontario. Commonly known as the Arkona Cluster, these sites date to between 1000 and 1280 A.D. during the early Late Woodland Period and are thought to be part of a borderland region between distinct cultural groups known as the Western Basin Younge Phase and the Early Ontario Iroquoians. Using a combination of distribution and attribute data from each site’s pipe assemblage, I explore how the similarities and differences observed can be used to draw insights into the ...


The Slave Trade Route: A Regional And Local Development Catalyst, Chukwunyere Ugochukwu Sep 2018

The Slave Trade Route: A Regional And Local Development Catalyst, Chukwunyere Ugochukwu

Geography and Planning Faculty Publications

The conservation of and focus on slave export points turned tourist monuments in Cape Coast and Elmina, Ghana, are incomplete without linkages to other complicit places in the interior that together completes the chain of darkness, the trade in humans along the Atlantic coast of Ghana, as well as in the interior. Completed, it will highlight the infrastructure of the slave business, the domestic, as well as the Trans-Atlantic slave trade. When the chain (route) of the different complicit communities in the interior to these export monuments along the Atlantic coast is conserved, it shall herald a completeness to the ...


Andrews Academy Students Participate In Jordan Archeological Dig, Steven Atkins Sep 2018

Andrews Academy Students Participate In Jordan Archeological Dig, Steven Atkins

Lake Union Herald

No abstract provided.


Ticcih Congress 2015, The International Committee For The Conservation Of The Industrial Heritage Aug 2018

Ticcih Congress 2015, The International Committee For The Conservation Of The Industrial Heritage

The International Committee for the Conservation of the Industrial Heritage

No abstract provided.


“The True Spirit Of Service": Ceramics And Toys As Tools Of Ideology At The Dorchester Industrial School For Girls, Sarah N. Johnson Aug 2018

“The True Spirit Of Service": Ceramics And Toys As Tools Of Ideology At The Dorchester Industrial School For Girls, Sarah N. Johnson

Graduate Masters Theses

This thesis examines the ceramics, both full-scale and toy, and dolls recovered from the Industrial School for Girls (1859-1941) in Dorchester, MA, in order to assess the ways in which the Managers who ran the School used material culture to enculturate the girls, as well as how the girls used material culture to shape their own identities. This site provides a unique opportunity to study the archaeology of a single-gender, and predominately single-class and single-age. The Industrial School for Girls, as an institution whose aim was to better the lives of poor girls and give them economic opportunities, as well ...


An Analysis Of Form And Function Of Ceramic Rim Sherds From La 20,000, A 17th Century Estancia Outside Santa Fe, New Mexico, Caitlin M. Connick Aug 2018

An Analysis Of Form And Function Of Ceramic Rim Sherds From La 20,000, A 17th Century Estancia Outside Santa Fe, New Mexico, Caitlin M. Connick

Graduate Masters Theses

This thesis examines a sample of ceramic sherds from LA 20,000 to determine the functional uses of the locally made ceramics and their relationship to food preparation, consumption, and identity. LA 20,000, the Sanchez site, is a Spanish colonial estancia, or ranching headquarters, located in La Cienega, New Mexico, roughly 12 miles southwest of Santa Fe and was occupied during the seventeenth century before the Pueblo Revolt of 1680. It is important to understand Pueblo, or native made, ceramics because all ceramic assemblages recovered from 17th-century Spanish sites in New Mexico consist of a majority of native made ...


Palynological Investigations Of Agropastoralism And Ecological Change At La 20,000, New Mexico, Anya Gruber Aug 2018

Palynological Investigations Of Agropastoralism And Ecological Change At La 20,000, New Mexico, Anya Gruber

Graduate Masters Theses

How did Spanish colonialism alter the landscape of north-central New Mexico? Agropastoral practices imported by Spanish colonists made indelible impacts on an anthropogenic landscape already shaped by hundreds of years of Pueblo agriculture. However, the precise nature of these changes is poorly understood. This project uses two sets of archaeological pollen data from LA 20,000, a Spanish rancho in New Mexico, to demonstrate how 17th century agriculture and animal husbandry made geographically specific, multifaceted changes to the environment. First, patterns analyzed from a pollen column illuminates fluctuations in plant communities over time, indicating localized ecological shifts. Second, sediments collected ...


Geoarchaeology And Miscellaneous Reports: Cathlapotle And Meier Archaeological Sites, Lower Columbia River, Kenneth M. Ames, Katie Henry, Melissa Darby, Stephen Coursalt Hamilton, Charles P. Hodges, Kendal Mcdonald, Leslie M. O'Rourke, Jonathan M. White Aug 2018

Geoarchaeology And Miscellaneous Reports: Cathlapotle And Meier Archaeological Sites, Lower Columbia River, Kenneth M. Ames, Katie Henry, Melissa Darby, Stephen Coursalt Hamilton, Charles P. Hodges, Kendal Mcdonald, Leslie M. O'Rourke, Jonathan M. White

Kenneth M. Ames

This report is one in a series on the archaeology of the Wapato Valley region of the Lower Columbia River. Most of the reports discuss aspects of the excavations and archaeology of two sites, the Meier site (35CO5) and Cathlapotle site (45CL1). Other related topics are also treated.

See Also: Preliminary Report and Catalogs: Archaeological Investigations at 45CL1 Cathlapotle (1991-1996) , Ridgefield National Wildlife Refuge Clark County, Washington (1999)

In November, 1998, five offsite backhoe trenches were excavated and described on Site Ridge south of Cathlapotle Town (45CL1). The results of this investigation indicate that Cathlapotle is located on the first ...


The Zooarchaeology Of The Cathlapotle And Meier Archaeological Sites, Lower Columbia River, Kenneth M. Ames, Katie Henry, Virginia L. Butler, Gay Frederick, R. Lee Lyman, Tim Riley, Antonia Rodrigues, J. Shoshana Rosenberg, Camilla F. Speller, Dongya Yang Aug 2018

The Zooarchaeology Of The Cathlapotle And Meier Archaeological Sites, Lower Columbia River, Kenneth M. Ames, Katie Henry, Virginia L. Butler, Gay Frederick, R. Lee Lyman, Tim Riley, Antonia Rodrigues, J. Shoshana Rosenberg, Camilla F. Speller, Dongya Yang

Kenneth M. Ames

This report is one in a series on the archaeology of the Wapato Valley region of the Lower Columbia River. Most of the reports discuss aspects of the excavations and archaeology of two sites, the Meier site (35CO5) and Cathlapotle site (45CL1). Other related topics are also treated.

Attached supplemental files for this report: analytical catalogs for faunal remains. The Bird catalogs are self evident. The mammal catalogs have three tabs, the note tab explaining the other two. Basically, the first tab is the data as reported by Lyman, the second is a temporal control data set; we removed data ...


Architecture, Fire, And Storage: Cathlapotle And Meier Features, Kenneth M. Ames, Katie Henry, Stephanie Butler, William Gardner-O’Kearney, Emily E. Shepard Aug 2018

Architecture, Fire, And Storage: Cathlapotle And Meier Features, Kenneth M. Ames, Katie Henry, Stephanie Butler, William Gardner-O’Kearney, Emily E. Shepard

Kenneth M. Ames

This report is one in a series on the archaeology of the Wapato Valley region of the Lower Columbia River. Most of the reports discuss aspects of the excavations and archaeology of two sites, the Meier site (35CO5) and Cathlapotle site (45CL1). Other related topics are also treated.

Attached supplemental files: feature catalogs for Meier and Cathlapotle sites

See Also: Preliminary Report and Catalogs: Archaeological Investigations at 45CL1 Cathlapotle (1991-1996) , Ridgefield National Wildlife Refuge Clark County, Washington (1999)

Much as lithic tools or faunal remains, features have the potential to be independent lines of evidence in archaeological hypothesis testing. Using ...