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## Full-Text Articles in Physics

Translation Of 'Profiles In Faith', Monish Ranjan Chatterjee

#### Translation Of 'Profiles In Faith', Monish Ranjan Chatterjee

*Monish R. Chatterjee*

Sarat Chandra Chatterjee (1876-1938) may be considered one of the three most significant figures of the literary component of the Bengal Renaissance, the other two being Bankim Chandra Chatterjee (1838-1894) and Rabindranath Tagore (1861-1941). As much as Bankim Chandra is identified with the new age in the Bengali novel, and the development of serious vernacular journalism, and Rabindranath with modern/classical movements in Bengali poetry and music, along with novel ideas in methods of education and teaching, Sarat Chandra, as a novelist and storyteller, perfected the art of narration and critical analyses of a variety of contemporaneous social and political ...

Translation Of 'Seasons Of Life: A Panoramic Selection Of Songs By Rabindranath Tagore', Monish Ranjan Chatterjee

#### Translation Of 'Seasons Of Life: A Panoramic Selection Of Songs By Rabindranath Tagore', Monish Ranjan Chatterjee

*Monish R. Chatterjee*

No abstract provided.

Translation Of 'Balika Badhu: A Selected Anthology Of Bengali Short Stories', Monish Ranjan Chatterjee

#### Translation Of 'Balika Badhu: A Selected Anthology Of Bengali Short Stories', Monish Ranjan Chatterjee

*Monish R. Chatterjee*

This project, which began with the desire to render into English a rather long tale by Bimal Kar about five years ago, eventually grew into a considerably more extended compilation of Bengali short stories by 10 of the most well-known practitioners of that art since the heyday of Rabindranath Tagore. The collection is limited in many ways, not the least of which being that no woman writer has been included, and that it contains only a baker's dozen stories (if we count Bonophool's micro-stories collectively as one ) — a number pitifully small considering the vast and prolific field of ...

Translation Of 'Kamalakanta: A Collection Of Satirical Essays And Reflections', Monish Ranjan Chatterjee

#### Translation Of 'Kamalakanta: A Collection Of Satirical Essays And Reflections', Monish Ranjan Chatterjee

*Monish R. Chatterjee*

This venture was born initially out of the desire to make those works of Bengali literature which have moved me profoundly, and which I consider first-rate by any yardstick, available to friends and fellow enthusiasts who cannot read the original. In attempting to channel literary and philosophical masterpieces into a different medium, I Have experienced firsthand the formidable challenge that a translator must face because not only of the barrier imposed by the languages involved, but perhaps more so because .of his or her own severely inadequate faculty being called upon to match both the genius and the inspiration of ...

Spectral And Performance Analysis For The Propagation And Retrieval Of Signals From Modulated Chaos Waves Transmitted Through Modified Von Karman Turbulence, Fathi H.A. Mohamed, Monish Ranjan Chatterjee

#### Spectral And Performance Analysis For The Propagation And Retrieval Of Signals From Modulated Chaos Waves Transmitted Through Modified Von Karman Turbulence, Fathi H.A. Mohamed, Monish Ranjan Chatterjee

*Monish R. Chatterjee*

A transfer function formalism is applied to track propagation of modulated chaos waves through modified von Karman phase turbulence; the demodulated signal is examined vis-à-vis performance relative to turbulence strength in comparison with non-chaotic propagation.

Examination Of Chaotic Signal Encryption And Recovery For Secure Communication Using Hybrid Acousto-Optic Feedback, Monish Ranjan Chatterjee, Mohammed A. Al-Saedi

#### Examination Of Chaotic Signal Encryption And Recovery For Secure Communication Using Hybrid Acousto-Optic Feedback, Monish Ranjan Chatterjee, Mohammed A. Al-Saedi

*Monish R. Chatterjee*

Generation of chaos from acousto-optic (A-O)Bragg cell modulators with an electronic feedback has been studied for over 3 decades. Since an acousto-optic Bragg cell with zeroth- and first-order feedback exhibits chaotic behavior past the threshold for bistability, such a system was recently examined for possible chaotic encryption of simple messages (such as a low-amplitude sinusoidal signal) applied via the bias input of the sound cell driver. Subsequent recovery of the message signal was carried out via a heterodyne-type strategy employing a locally generated chaotic carrier, with threshold parameters matched to the transmitting Bragg cell. In this paper, we present ...

Spectral Analysis Of Encrypted Chaotic Signals Using Fast Fourier Transforms And Laboratory Spectral Analyzers, Monish Ranjan Chatterjee, Abhinay Kundur

#### Spectral Analysis Of Encrypted Chaotic Signals Using Fast Fourier Transforms And Laboratory Spectral Analyzers, Monish Ranjan Chatterjee, Abhinay Kundur

*Monish R. Chatterjee*

The use of acousto-optic chaos, as manifested via first-order feedback in an acousto-optic Bragg cell, in encrypting a message wave and subsequently recovering the message in the receiver using a chaotic heterodyne strategy, has been reported recently [1-3]. In examining the dynamical system analytically using computer simulation, (expected) modulated chaos waveforms are obtained within specified observation windows. Because of the relatively random nature inherent in chaos waveforms, it is essentially impossible to ascertain from the visual display of the chaotic wave whether a given message signal has in fact modulated the chaotic "carrier". In fact, it has been observed from ...

Revisiting The Fresnel Coefficients For Uniform Plane Wave Propagation Across A Nonchiral, Reciprocal And Chiral, Nonreciprocal Interface, Monish Ranjan Chatterjee, Sumit Nema

#### Revisiting The Fresnel Coefficients For Uniform Plane Wave Propagation Across A Nonchiral, Reciprocal And Chiral, Nonreciprocal Interface, Monish Ranjan Chatterjee, Sumit Nema

*Monish R. Chatterjee*

The problem of EM wave propagation in non-reciprocal chiral media has been studied by several investigators. In a recent approach, a dual-transform technique has been developed to study the problem of such propagation under paraxial and slow-envelope variation conditions. In this paper, we first outline some of the results obtained using the dual transform technique for arbitrary boundary conditions within the left boundary of a semi-infinite, non-reciprocal chiral medium for a uniform plane wave, and a fundamental Gaussian-profiled beam. Next, we explore the problem of a uniform EM wave incident at an oblique angle at an interface between a reciprocal ...

Realization Of Negative Index In Second-Order Dispersive Metamaterials Using Standard Dispersion Models For Electromagnetic Parameters, Tarig A. Algadey, Monish Ranjan Chatterjee

#### Realization Of Negative Index In Second-Order Dispersive Metamaterials Using Standard Dispersion Models For Electromagnetic Parameters, Tarig A. Algadey, Monish Ranjan Chatterjee

*Monish R. Chatterjee*

In recent work, electromagnetic propagation velocities for plane waves in dispersive metamaterials were calculated assuming frequency dispersion up to the second order. The three velocities were expressed in terms of dispersive coefficients under certain simplifying constraints. Frequency domains were found to exist around resonances where group and phase velocities are in opposition, implying possible negative index behavior. In this paper, we incorporate in the derived equations physical models (including Debye, Lorentz and Condon) for material dispersion in permittivity, permeability and chirality in order to further examine the consequences of second-order dispersion leading to negative index for practical cases, and also ...

Split-Step Approach To Electromagnetic Propagation Through Atmospheric Turbulence Using The Modified Von Karman Spectrum And Planar Apertures, Monish Ranjan Chatterjee, Fathi H.A. Mohamed

#### Split-Step Approach To Electromagnetic Propagation Through Atmospheric Turbulence Using The Modified Von Karman Spectrum And Planar Apertures, Monish Ranjan Chatterjee, Fathi H.A. Mohamed

*Monish R. Chatterjee*

The impact of atmospheric phase turbulence on Gaussian beam propagation along propagation paths of varying lengths is examined using multiple random phase screens. The work is motivated by research involving generation and encryption of acousto-optic chaos, and the interest in examining propagation of such chaotic waves through atmospheric turbulence. A phase screen technique is used to simulate perturbations to the refractive index of the medium through the propagation path. A power spectral density based on the modified von Karman spectrum model for turbulence is used to describe the random phase behavior of the medium. In recent work, results for the ...

Overview Of Acousto-Optic Bistability, Chaos, And Logical Applications, Monish Ranjan Chatterjee, Erol Sonmez

#### Overview Of Acousto-Optic Bistability, Chaos, And Logical Applications, Monish Ranjan Chatterjee, Erol Sonmez

*Monish R. Chatterjee*

An overview is presented of the key results in the field of acousto-optic bistability in the past two decades. It is shown that the basic acousto-optic bistable device may be described as a nonlinear dynamical system which satisfies a quadratic map. Thereafter, details are presented of several analytical methods, computer modeling approaches, including the SPICE circuit modeling technique, and experiments that have been used to understand the phenomenon. Extensions to logical and digital applications are also discussed.

Secure Transmission Of Static And Dynamic Images Via Chaotic Encryption In Acousto-Optic Hybrid Feedback With Profiled Light Beams, Monish Ranjan Chatterjee, Fares S. Almehmadi

#### Secure Transmission Of Static And Dynamic Images Via Chaotic Encryption In Acousto-Optic Hybrid Feedback With Profiled Light Beams, Monish Ranjan Chatterjee, Fares S. Almehmadi

*Monish R. Chatterjee*

Secure information encryption via acousto-optic (AO) chaos with profiled optical beams indicates substantially better performance in terms of system robustness. This paper examines encryption of static and time-varying (video) images onto AO chaotic carriers using Gaussian-profile beams with diffracted data numerically generated using transfer functions. The use of profiled beams leads to considerable improvement in the encrypted signal. While static image encryption exhibits parameter tolerances within about ±10% for uniform optical beams, profiled beams reduce the tolerance to less than 1%, thereby vastly improving both the overall security of the transmitted information as well as the quality of the image ...

Secure Transmission And Retrieval Of Images In Conjunction With Steganography Using Chaos In Nonlinear Acousto-Optic Feedback, Monish Ranjan Chatterjee, Fares S. Almehmadi

#### Secure Transmission And Retrieval Of Images In Conjunction With Steganography Using Chaos In Nonlinear Acousto-Optic Feedback, Monish Ranjan Chatterjee, Fares S. Almehmadi

*Monish R. Chatterjee*

Digital images are encrypted onto a chaotic carrier in a Bragg cell under hybrid nonlinear feedback and secure data is embedded into the system via steganography. System robustness (with and without channel noise) is analyzed vis-a-vis information security.

Numerical Examination Of The Nonlinear Dynamics Of A Hybrid Acousto-Optic Bragg Cell With Positive Feedback Under Profiled Beam Propagation, Fares S. Almehmadi, Monish Ranjan Chatterjee

#### Numerical Examination Of The Nonlinear Dynamics Of A Hybrid Acousto-Optic Bragg Cell With Positive Feedback Under Profiled Beam Propagation, Fares S. Almehmadi, Monish Ranjan Chatterjee

*Monish R. Chatterjee*

In standard weak interaction theory, acousto-optic Bragg analysis typically assumes that the incident light and sound beams are uniform plane waves. Acousto-optic Bragg diffraction with nonuniform profiled input beams is numerically examined under open loop via a transfer function formalism. Unexpected deviations in the first-order diffracted beam from the standard theory are observed for high 𝑄 values. These deviations are significant because the corresponding closed-loop system is sensitive to input amplitudes and initial conditions, and the overall impact on the dynamical behavior has not been studied previously in standard analyses. To explore the effect of such nonuniform output profiles on ...

Numerical Examination Of Acousto-Optic Bragg Interactions For Profiled Lightwaves Using A Transfer Function Formalism, Monish Ranjan Chatterjee, Fares S. Almehmadi

#### Numerical Examination Of Acousto-Optic Bragg Interactions For Profiled Lightwaves Using A Transfer Function Formalism, Monish Ranjan Chatterjee, Fares S. Almehmadi

*Monish R. Chatterjee*

Classically, acousto-optic (AO) interactions comprise scattering of photons by energetic phonons into higher and lower orders. Standard weak interaction theory describes diffraction in the Bragg regime as the propagation of a uniform plane wave of light through a uniform plane wave of sound, resulting in the well-known first- and zeroth-order diffraction. Our preliminary investigation of the nature of wave diffraction and photon scattering from a Bragg cell under intensity feedback with profiled light beams indicates that the diffracted (upshifted photon) light continues to maintain the expected (uniform plane wave) behavior versus the optical phase shift in the cell within a ...

Numerical Investigation Of The Nonlinear Dynamics Of A Hybrid Acousto-Optic Bragg Cell With A Variable Feedback Gain, Monish Ranjan Chatterjee, Hao Zhou

#### Numerical Investigation Of The Nonlinear Dynamics Of A Hybrid Acousto-Optic Bragg Cell With A Variable Feedback Gain, Monish Ranjan Chatterjee, Hao Zhou

*Monish R. Chatterjee*

Since around 1979, the operation of an acousto-optic Bragg cell under positive first-order feedback via amplification and delay in the loop has been studied extensively by several groups [1-3]. In recent work, the analysis of the nonlinear dynamics (NLD) of the system was extended to include bistable maps and Lyapunov exponents, and application of the chaos for signal encryption and decryption for uniform plane waves. The present work originated with the problem of a variable photodetector aperture opening relative to the first-order light. This potentially complex problem is simplified by assuming instead a variable feedback gain ( β ~ (t)), which leads ...

Numerical Inversion And Assessment Of 2d Laplace Transforms Using The Brancik Algorithm And Its Use In 3d Holography, Monish Ranjan Chatterjee, Le Feng

#### Numerical Inversion And Assessment Of 2d Laplace Transforms Using The Brancik Algorithm And Its Use In 3d Holography, Monish Ranjan Chatterjee, Le Feng

*Monish R. Chatterjee*

An analytic examination of 3D holography under a 90° recording geometry was carried out earlier in which 2D spatial Laplace transforms were introduced in order to develop transfer functions for the scattered outputs under readout [1,2]. Thereby, the resulting reconstructed output was obtained in the 2D Laplace domain whence the spatial information would be found only by performing a 2D Laplace inversion. Laplace inversion in 2D was attempted by testing a prototype function for which the analytic result was known using two known inversion algorithms, viz., the Brancik and the Abate [2]. The results indicated notable differences in the ...

Performance Measures In Acousto-Optic Chaotic Signal Encryption System Subject To Parametric Variations And Additive Noise, Monish Ranjan Chatterjee, Anjan K. Ghosh, Mohammed A. Al-Saedi

#### Performance Measures In Acousto-Optic Chaotic Signal Encryption System Subject To Parametric Variations And Additive Noise, Monish Ranjan Chatterjee, Anjan K. Ghosh, Mohammed A. Al-Saedi

*Monish R. Chatterjee*

Signal encryption and recovery using chaotic optical waves has been a subject of active research in the past 10 years. Since an acousto-optic Bragg cell with zeroth- and first-order feedback exhibits chaotic behavior past the threshold for bistability, such a system was recently examined for possible chaotic encryption using a low-amplitude sinusoidal signal applied via the bias input of the sound cell driver. Subsequent recovery of the message signal was carried out via a heterodyne strategy employing a locally generated chaotic carrier, with threshold parameters matched to the transmitting Bragg cell. The simulation results, though encouraging, were limited to relatively ...

Numerical Analysis Of First-Order Acousto-Optic Bragg Diffraction Of Profiled Optical Beams Using Open-Loop Transfer Functions, Monish Ranjan Chatterjee, Fares S. Almehmadi

#### Numerical Analysis Of First-Order Acousto-Optic Bragg Diffraction Of Profiled Optical Beams Using Open-Loop Transfer Functions, Monish Ranjan Chatterjee, Fares S. Almehmadi

*Monish R. Chatterjee*

In standard acousto-optic Bragg analysis, the incident light and sound beams are assumed to be uniform plane waves (with constant profiles) leading to the results based on standard weak interaction theory. As a follow-up to earlier work dealing with nonuniform incident optical beams, we revisit the problem of Bragg diffraction under nonuniform profiles, and include Gaussian, third-order Hermite–Gaussian, and zeroth-order Bessel profiles in our investigation, along with a few others. The first-order diffracted beam is examined (using a transfer function formalism based on angular spectra) under several parametric limits [such as the Klein–Cook parameter Q, the effective profile ...

Nonlinear Dynamics Of Bragg-Domain Acousto-Optic Hybrid Feedback For First-Order Scattering Of Profiled Optical Beams, Monish Ranjan Chatterjee, Fares S. Almehmadi

#### Nonlinear Dynamics Of Bragg-Domain Acousto-Optic Hybrid Feedback For First-Order Scattering Of Profiled Optical Beams, Monish Ranjan Chatterjee, Fares S. Almehmadi

*Monish R. Chatterjee*

A series of recent studies involving hybrid acousto-optic (AO) scattering in the Bragg domain under first-order feedback have shown the ability of the AO feedback system to encrypt, transmit and decrypt RF information applied via the sound driver. The basic premise of this operation is founded on the chaotic nature of the hybrid Bragg cell under feedback.

Large-Area Object Search And Recovery Using Sector-Based Aerial Acousto-Optic Scanning And Reflection Sensing, Monish Ranjan Chatterjee, Salaheddeen G. Bugoffa

#### Large-Area Object Search And Recovery Using Sector-Based Aerial Acousto-Optic Scanning And Reflection Sensing, Monish Ranjan Chatterjee, Salaheddeen G. Bugoffa

*Monish R. Chatterjee*

A sector-based angular scanning system intended to identify and spatially locate relatively small objects scattered over a large terrain is described in this paper. The system is modeled as a planar surface on the horizontal (XY) plane, with an acousto-optic Bragg cell on board an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) operating in the XZ plane. The Bragg cell is excited by a chirped RF signal with a designed frequency ramp. As the scanning beam reflects off the horizontal surface, a detector placed strategically at a suitable altitude (in the analysis shown to be on board the UAV itself) picks up the ...

Negative Index In A Lossy Chiral Metamaterial Under First-Order Material Dispersion Using A Drude Model, Tarig A. Algadey, Monish Ranjan Chatterjee

#### Negative Index In A Lossy Chiral Metamaterial Under First-Order Material Dispersion Using A Drude Model, Tarig A. Algadey, Monish Ranjan Chatterjee

*Monish R. Chatterjee*

Using the Drude model for complex conductivity,phase and group velocities, and indices are calculated under first-order dispersion in chiral metamaterials. Conditions are derived for negative index, and the results compared with parametric analyses.

Investigation Of Negative Refractive Index In Reciprocal Chiral Materials, Monish Ranjan Chatterjee, Partha P. Banerjee, Pradeep R. Anugula

#### Investigation Of Negative Refractive Index In Reciprocal Chiral Materials, Monish Ranjan Chatterjee, Partha P. Banerjee, Pradeep R. Anugula

*Monish R. Chatterjee*

It is well known that there exist both natural materials (such as milk or sugar solution) possessing chiral (or handed) properties, as well as an increasing list of man-made materials (such as sodium bromate) that exhibit chirality. One of the principal properties of chirality is that light of any arbitrary polarization, when propagating through a chiral material, splits up into two circular polarizations propagating in different directions. In the past decade or longer, researchers have investigated electromagnetic transverse (plane) wave propagation across a non-chiral/chiral interface, and determined the electromagnetic Fresnel coefficients for such propagation. Traditionally, such coefficients are derived ...

Modeling Of Power Spectral Density Of Modified Von Karman Atmospheric Phase Turbulence And Acousto-Optic Chaos Using Scattered Intensity Profiles Over Discrete Time Intervals, Monish Ranjan Chatterjee, Fathi H.A. Mohamed

#### Modeling Of Power Spectral Density Of Modified Von Karman Atmospheric Phase Turbulence And Acousto-Optic Chaos Using Scattered Intensity Profiles Over Discrete Time Intervals, Monish Ranjan Chatterjee, Fathi H.A. Mohamed

*Monish R. Chatterjee*

In recent research, propagation of plane electromagnetic (EM) waves through a turbulent medium with modified von Karman phase characteristics was modeled and numerically simulated using transverse planar apertures representing narrow phase turbulence along the propagation path. The case for extended turbulence was also studied by repeating the planar phase screens multiple times over the propagation path and incorporating diffractive effects via a split-step algorithm. The goal of the research reported here is to examine two random phenomena: (a) atmospheric turbulence due to von Karman-type phase fluctuations, and (b) chaos generated in an acousto-optic (A-O) Bragg cell under hybrid feedback. The ...

Investigation Of Profiled Beam Propagation Through A Turbulent Layer And Temporal Statistics Of Diffracted Output For A Modified Von Karman Phase Screen, Monish Ranjan Chatterjee, Fathi H.A. Mohamed

#### Investigation Of Profiled Beam Propagation Through A Turbulent Layer And Temporal Statistics Of Diffracted Output For A Modified Von Karman Phase Screen, Monish Ranjan Chatterjee, Fathi H.A. Mohamed

*Monish R. Chatterjee*

Gaussian beam propagation through a turbulent layer has been studied using a split-step methodology. A modified von Karman spectrum (MVKS) model is used to describe the random behavior of the turbulent media. Accordingly, the beam is alternately propagated (i) through a thin Fresnel layer, and hence subjected to diffraction; and (ii) across a thin modified von Karman phase screen which is generated using the power spectral density (PSD) of the random phase obtained via the corresponding PSD of the medium refractive index for MVKS turbulence. The random phase screen in the transverse plane is generated from the phase PSD by ...

Investigation Of Negative Index In Dispersive, Chiral Materials Via Contra-Propagating Velocities Under Second-Order Dispersion (Gvd), Monish Ranjan Chatterjee, Tarig A. Algadey

#### Investigation Of Negative Index In Dispersive, Chiral Materials Via Contra-Propagating Velocities Under Second-Order Dispersion (Gvd), Monish Ranjan Chatterjee, Tarig A. Algadey

*Monish R. Chatterjee*

Negative refractive index arises typically in metamaterials via multiple routes. One such avenue is the condition where the Poynting vector of the electromagnetic wave is in opposition to the group velocity in the material. An earlier work along this route in a chiral material led to the well-known result of requiring very large (non-realizable) chirality. Thereafter, a combination of chirality together with first-order dispersion was examined using plane wave electromagnetic analysis. To arrive at the conclusions in that approach, the three wave velocities (energy, group and phase) were derived under first-order dispersion in permittivity, permeability and chirality. Negative index in ...

Information Encryption, Transmission, And Retrieval Via Chaotic Modulation In A Hybrid Acousto-Optic Bragg Cell Under Profiled Beam Illumination, Monish Ranjan Chatterjee, Fares S. Almehmadi

#### Information Encryption, Transmission, And Retrieval Via Chaotic Modulation In A Hybrid Acousto-Optic Bragg Cell Under Profiled Beam Illumination, Monish Ranjan Chatterjee, Fares S. Almehmadi

*Monish R. Chatterjee*

In recent work, the propagation of a profiled optical beam through an open-loop acousto-optic Bragg cell was examined using a transfer function formalism. The device was also studied under closed-loop via intensity feedback, and shown to exhibit more extended chaotic band responses, thereby potentially increasing the dynamic range and parameter sensitivities of any applied signal and the device operation respectively.

In this paper, simple low- to mid-RF signals (periodic waveforms and low BW audio) are transmitted through the closed-loop system and the resulting encryption and recovery at the receiver are examined especially from the perspective of overall robustness of the ...

Information Encryption And Retrieval In Mid-Rf Range Using Acousto-Optic Chaos, Monish Ranjan Chatterjee, Abhinay Kundur

#### Information Encryption And Retrieval In Mid-Rf Range Using Acousto-Optic Chaos, Monish Ranjan Chatterjee, Abhinay Kundur

*Monish R. Chatterjee*

In recent work, low-frequency AC signal encryption, decryption and retrieval using system-parameter based keys at the receiver stage of an acousto-optic (A-O) Bragg cell under first-order feedback have been demonstrated [1,2]. The corresponding nonlinear dynamics have also been investigated using the Lyapunov exponent and the so-called bifurcation maps [3]. The results were essentially restricted to A-O chaos around 10 KHz, and (baseband) signal bandwidths in the 1-4 KHz range. The results have generally been satisfactory, and parameter tolerances (prior to severe signal distortion at the output) in the ±5% - ±10% range have been obtained. Periodic AC waveforms, and a ...

Investigation Of Electromagnetic Velocities And Negative Refraction In A Chiral Metamaterial With Second-Order Material Dispersion Using Spectral Analyses And Dispersive Models, Monish Ranjan Chatterjee, Tarig A. Algadey

#### Investigation Of Electromagnetic Velocities And Negative Refraction In A Chiral Metamaterial With Second-Order Material Dispersion Using Spectral Analyses And Dispersive Models, Monish Ranjan Chatterjee, Tarig A. Algadey

*Monish R. Chatterjee*

In recent years, considerable research has been carried out relative to the electromagnetic (EM) propagation and refraction characteristics in metamaterials with emphasis on the origins of negative refractive index.

Negative refractive index may be introduced in metamaterials via different methods; one such is the condition whereby the Poynting vector of the EM wave is in opposition to the group velocity in the material. Alternatively, negative refractive index also occurs when the group and phase velocities in the medium are in opposition. The latter phenomenon has been extensively investigated in the literature, including recent work involving chiral metamaterials with material dispersion ...

Investigation Of Electronic Holography Using Spice Computer Simulation Experiments, Monish Ranjan Chatterjee

#### Investigation Of Electronic Holography Using Spice Computer Simulation Experiments, Monish Ranjan Chatterjee

*Monish R. Chatterjee*

Using SPICE experiments, it has been possible to verify most of the important aspects of electronic holography. The generation and properties of dynamic echoes under different types of nonlinearities have been extensively tested, and some new information has been garnered in the process. The case of pulse and generalized memory echoes has also been tested, and the results have been fairly satisfactory. Most of all, the simplicity with which the intriguing concept of memory echoes has translated into the circuit implementation on SPICE, and the closeness of the results to predicted behavior have been somewhat of a pleasant surprise. Since ...