Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Life Sciences Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Articles 1 - 9 of 9

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Stem Nematode Counteracts Plant Resistance Of Aphids In Alfalfa, Medicago Sativa, Ricardo A. Ramirez, John M. Stark Nov 2014

Stem Nematode Counteracts Plant Resistance Of Aphids In Alfalfa, Medicago Sativa, Ricardo A. Ramirez, John M. Stark

Biology Faculty Publications

Plants are exploited by a diverse community of insect herbivores and phytopathogens that interact indirectly through plant-mediated interactions. Generally, plants are thought to respond to insects and pathogens through different defensive signaling pathways. As plants are selected for resistance to one phytophagous organism type (insect vs. pathogen) in managed systems, it is not clear how this selection may affect community interactions. This study examined the effect of nematode-resistant varieties on aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum) suppression, and then determined how infection by the stem nematode, Ditylenchus dipsaci, mediated ecological effects on aphids and on plant defense proteins. Four alfalfa (Medicago sativa) varieties ...


Müllerian Mimicry As A Result Of Codivergence Between Velvet Ants And Spider Wasps, Juanita Rodriguez, James P. Pitts, Carol D. Von Dohlen, Joseph S. Wilson Nov 2014

Müllerian Mimicry As A Result Of Codivergence Between Velvet Ants And Spider Wasps, Juanita Rodriguez, James P. Pitts, Carol D. Von Dohlen, Joseph S. Wilson

Biology Faculty Publications

Recent studies have delineated a large Nearctic Müllerian mimicry complex in Dasymutilla velvet ants. Psorthaspis spider wasps live in areas where this mimicry complex is found and are phenotypically similar to Dasymutilla. We tested the idea that Psorthaspis spider wasps are participating in the Dasymutilla mimicry complex and that they codiverged with Dasymutilla. We performed morphometric analyses and human perception tests, and tabulated distributional records to determine the fit of Psorthaspis to the Dasymutilla mimicry complex. We inferred a dated phylogeny using nuclear molecular markers (28S, elongation factor 1-alpha, long-wavelength rhodopsin and wingless) for Psorthaspis species and compared it to ...


Schooling Increases Risk Exposure For Fish Navigating Past Artificial Barriers, Bertrand H. Lemasson, James W. Haefner, Mark D. Bowen Sep 2014

Schooling Increases Risk Exposure For Fish Navigating Past Artificial Barriers, Bertrand H. Lemasson, James W. Haefner, Mark D. Bowen

Biology Faculty Publications

Artificial barriers have become ubiquitous features in freshwater ecosystems and they can significantly impact a region's biodiversity. Assessing the risk faced by fish forced to navigate their way around artificial barriers is largely based on assays of individual swimming behavior. However, social interactions can significantly influence fish movement patterns and alter their risk exposure. Using an experimental flume, we assessed the effects of social interactions on the amount of time required for juvenile palmetto bass (Morone chrysops × M. saxatilis) to navigate downstream past an artificial barrier. Fish were released either individually or in groups into the flume using flow ...


Us Epa Expert Workshop: Nutrient Enrichment Indicators In Streams, Michelle A. Baker, Candice Bauer, Max Bothwell, Don Charles, Betty Fetscher, Stuart Findlay, Terry Fleming, Steve Francoeur, Evelyn Gaiser, Jim Hagy, Anne Hershey, Lisa Huff, Ryan King, Tina Laidlaw, Mark Munn, Greg Pond, Steven Rier, Bob Sinsabaugh, A J. Smith, Nathan Smucker, Jan Stevenson, Mike Suplee Sep 2014

Us Epa Expert Workshop: Nutrient Enrichment Indicators In Streams, Michelle A. Baker, Candice Bauer, Max Bothwell, Don Charles, Betty Fetscher, Stuart Findlay, Terry Fleming, Steve Francoeur, Evelyn Gaiser, Jim Hagy, Anne Hershey, Lisa Huff, Ryan King, Tina Laidlaw, Mark Munn, Greg Pond, Steven Rier, Bob Sinsabaugh, A J. Smith, Nathan Smucker, Jan Stevenson, Mike Suplee

Biology Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


A Heterogenous Thermal Environment Enables Remarkable Behavioral Thermoregulation In Uta Stansburiana, Maria Goller, Franz Goller, Susannah S. French May 2014

A Heterogenous Thermal Environment Enables Remarkable Behavioral Thermoregulation In Uta Stansburiana, Maria Goller, Franz Goller, Susannah S. French

Biology Faculty Publications

Ectotherms can attain preferred body temperatures by selecting specific temperature microhabitats within a varied thermal environment. The side-blotched lizard, Uta stansburiana may employ microhabitat selection to thermoregulate behaviorally. It is unknown to what degree habitat structural complexity provides thermal microhabitats for thermoregulation. Thermal microhabitat structure, lizard temperature, and substrate preference were simultaneously evaluated using thermal imaging. A broad range of microhabitat temperatures was available (mean range of 11°C within 1–2 m2) while mean lizard temperature was between 36°C and 38°C. Lizards selected sites that differed significantly from the mean environmental temperature, indicating behavioral thermoregulation, and maintained ...


Genotyping-By-Sequencing For Populus Population Genomics: An Assessment Of Genome Sampling Patterns And Filtering Approaches, M. Schilling, Paul G. Wolf, A. M. Duffy, H. S. Rai, C. A. Rowe, B. A. Richardson, K. E. Mock Jan 2014

Genotyping-By-Sequencing For Populus Population Genomics: An Assessment Of Genome Sampling Patterns And Filtering Approaches, M. Schilling, Paul G. Wolf, A. M. Duffy, H. S. Rai, C. A. Rowe, B. A. Richardson, K. E. Mock

Biology Faculty Publications

Continuing advances in nucleotide sequencing technology are inspiring a suite of genomic approaches in studies of natural populations. Researchers are faced with data management and analytical scales that are increasing by orders of magnitude. With such dramatic advances comes a need to understand biases and error rates, which can be propagated and magnified in large-scale data acquisition and processing. Here we assess genomic sampling biases and the effects of various population-level data filtering strategies in a genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) protocol. We focus on data from two species of Populus, because this genus has a relatively small genome and is emerging as ...


A Samoan Hebeloma With Phylogenetic Ties To The Western Pacific, Bradley R. Kropp Jan 2014

A Samoan Hebeloma With Phylogenetic Ties To The Western Pacific, Bradley R. Kropp

Biology Faculty Publications

Hebeloma ifeleletorum is described as a new species from American Samoa. Based on analyses of ITS and combined nLSU-ITS datasets H. ifeleletorum clusters with but is distinct from described species that have been placed in the genus Anamika by some. The phylogenetic relationship of H. ifeleletorum to the genus Anamika from Asia and to other species from Australia and New Caledonia suggests that H. ifeleletorum has origins in the western Pacific.


Production Of Destruxins From Metarhizium Spp. Fungi In Artificial Medium And In Endophytically Colonized Cowpea Plants, P. S. Golo, D. R. Gardner, Michelle M. Grilley, Jon Y. Takemoto, S. B. Krasnoff, M. S. Pires, E. K. K. Férnandes, V. R. Bittencourt, Donald W. Roberts Jan 2014

Production Of Destruxins From Metarhizium Spp. Fungi In Artificial Medium And In Endophytically Colonized Cowpea Plants, P. S. Golo, D. R. Gardner, Michelle M. Grilley, Jon Y. Takemoto, S. B. Krasnoff, M. S. Pires, E. K. K. Férnandes, V. R. Bittencourt, Donald W. Roberts

Biology Faculty Publications

Destruxins (DTXs) are cyclic depsipeptides produced by many Metarhizium isolates that have long been assumed to contribute to virulence of these entomopathogenic fungi. We evaluated the virulence of 20 Metarhizium isolates against insect larvae and measured the concentration of DTXs A, B, and E produced by these same isolates in submerged (shaken) cultures. Eight of the isolates (ARSEF 324, 724, 760, 1448, 1882, 1883, 3479, and 3918) did not produce DTXs A, B, or E during the five days of submerged culture. DTXs were first detected in culture medium at 2–3 days in submerged culture. Galleria mellonella and Tenebrio ...


Between Two Fern Genomes, E. B. Sessa, J. A. Banks, M. S. Barker, J. P. Der, A. M. Duffy, S. W. Graham, M. Hasebe, J. Langdale, F. W. Li, D. B. Marchant, K. M. Pryer, C. J. Rothfels, S. J. Roux, M. L. Salmi, E. M. Sigel, D. E. Soltis, P. S. Soltis, D. W. Stevenson, Paul G. Wolf Jan 2014

Between Two Fern Genomes, E. B. Sessa, J. A. Banks, M. S. Barker, J. P. Der, A. M. Duffy, S. W. Graham, M. Hasebe, J. Langdale, F. W. Li, D. B. Marchant, K. M. Pryer, C. J. Rothfels, S. J. Roux, M. L. Salmi, E. M. Sigel, D. E. Soltis, P. S. Soltis, D. W. Stevenson, Paul G. Wolf

Biology Faculty Publications

Ferns are the only major lineage of vascular plants not represented by a sequenced nuclear genome. This lack of genome sequence information significantly impedes our ability to understand and reconstruct genome evolution not only in ferns, but across all land plants. Azolla and Ceratopteris are ideal and complementary candidates to be the first ferns to have their nuclear genomes sequenced. They differ dramatically in genome size, life history, and habit, and thus represent the immense diversity of extant ferns. Together, this pair of genomes will facilitate myriad large-scale comparative analyses across ferns and all land plants. Here we review the ...