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2014

Biology Faculty Publications

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Articles 1 - 30 of 103

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

El Nino Southern Oscillation (Enso) Enhances Co2 Exchange Rates In Freshwater Marsh Ecosystems In The Florida Everglades, Sparkle L. Malone, Christina L. Staudhammer, Steven F. Oberbauer, Paulo Olivas, Michael G. Ryan, Jessica L. Schedlbauer, Henry W. Loescher, Gregory Starr Dec 2014

El Nino Southern Oscillation (Enso) Enhances Co2 Exchange Rates In Freshwater Marsh Ecosystems In The Florida Everglades, Sparkle L. Malone, Christina L. Staudhammer, Steven F. Oberbauer, Paulo Olivas, Michael G. Ryan, Jessica L. Schedlbauer, Henry W. Loescher, Gregory Starr

Biology Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Not Just A Theory--The Utility Of Mathematical Models In Evolutionary Biology, Maria R. Servedio, Yaniv Brandvain, Sumit Dhole, Courtney L. Fitzpatrick, Emma E. Goldberg, Caitlin A. Stern, Jeremy Van Cleve, D. Justin Yeh Dec 2014

Not Just A Theory--The Utility Of Mathematical Models In Evolutionary Biology, Maria R. Servedio, Yaniv Brandvain, Sumit Dhole, Courtney L. Fitzpatrick, Emma E. Goldberg, Caitlin A. Stern, Jeremy Van Cleve, D. Justin Yeh

Biology Faculty Publications

Progress in science often begins with verbal hypotheses meant to explain why certain biological phenomena exist. An important purpose of mathematical models in evolutionary research, as in many other fields, is to act as “proof-of-concept” tests of the logic in verbal explanations, paralleling the way in which empirical data are used to test hypotheses. Because not all subfields of biology use mathematics for this purpose, misunderstandings of the function of proof-of-concept modeling are common. In the hope of facilitating communication, we discuss the role of proof-of-concept modeling in evolutionary biology.


Design, Assessment, And In Vivo Evaluation Of A Computational Model Illustrating The Role Of Cav1 In Cd4+ T-Lymphocytes, Brittany D. Conroy, Tyler A. Herek, Timothy D. Shew, Matthew Latner, Joshua J. Larson, Laura Allen, Paul H. Davis, Tomáš Helikar, Christine E. Cutucache Dec 2014

Design, Assessment, And In Vivo Evaluation Of A Computational Model Illustrating The Role Of Cav1 In Cd4+ T-Lymphocytes, Brittany D. Conroy, Tyler A. Herek, Timothy D. Shew, Matthew Latner, Joshua J. Larson, Laura Allen, Paul H. Davis, Tomáš Helikar, Christine E. Cutucache

Biology Faculty Publications

Caveolin-1 (CAV1) is a vital scaffold protein heterogeneously expressed in both healthy and malignant tissue. We focus on the role of CAV1 when overexpressed in T-cell leukemia. Previously, we have shown that CAV1 is involved in cell-to-cell communication, cellular proliferation, and immune synapse formation; however, the molecular mechanisms have not been elucidated. We hypothesize that the role of CAV1 in immune synapse formation contributes to immune regulation during leukemic progression, thereby warranting studies of the role of CAV1 in CD4+ T-cells in relation to antigen-presenting cells. To address this need, we developed a computational model of a CD4+ immune effector ...


A Fish Farmer’S Role In Sustainable Aquaculture: An Overview Of Philippine Aquaculture, Janice A. Ragaza, Jonni Fay C. Teves Dec 2014

A Fish Farmer’S Role In Sustainable Aquaculture: An Overview Of Philippine Aquaculture, Janice A. Ragaza, Jonni Fay C. Teves

Biology Faculty Publications

The expansion of Philippine aquaculture is essential to addressing poverty and food insecurity in the midst of a seemingly irreversible decline in national capture fisheries. Concomitant with its rise, however, are compounding environmental problems caused by climate change, lackluster governance and irresponsible farming practices. It is equally important to ensure aquaculture sustainability so that fish demand from a rapidly growing population is continually met and that fish farmers’ socioeconomic well-being is secured. As such, programs have been developed that aim to enjoin the government and private sectors with fishing communities to realize this goal.


Proteomic Analysis Of The Acidocalcisome, An Organelle Conserved From Bacteria To Human Cells, Guozhong Huang, Paul N. Ulrich, Melissa Storey, Darryl Johnson, Julie Tischer, Javier A. Tovar, Silvia N. J. Moreno, Ron Orlando, Robert Docampo Dec 2014

Proteomic Analysis Of The Acidocalcisome, An Organelle Conserved From Bacteria To Human Cells, Guozhong Huang, Paul N. Ulrich, Melissa Storey, Darryl Johnson, Julie Tischer, Javier A. Tovar, Silvia N. J. Moreno, Ron Orlando, Robert Docampo

Biology Faculty Publications

Acidocalcisomes are acidic organelles present in a diverse range of organisms from bacteria to human cells. In this study acidocalcisomes were purified from the model organism Trypanosoma brucei, and their protein composition was determined by mass spectrometry. The results, along with those that we previously reported, show that acidocalcisomes are rich in pumps and transporters, involved in phosphate and cation homeostasis, and calcium signaling. We validated the acidocalcisome localization of seven new, putative, acidocalcisome proteins (phosphate transporter, vacuolar H+-ATPase subunits a and d, vacuolar iron transporter, zinc transporter, polyamine transporter, and acid phosphatase), confirmed the presence of six previously ...


Recombinant Influenza Virus Carrying The Conserved Domain Of Respiratory Syncytial Virus (Rsv) G Protein Confers Protection Against Rsv Without Inflammatory Disease, Yu-Na Lee, Hye Suk Hwang, Min-Chul Kim, Young-Tae Lee, Min-Kyoung Cho, Young-Man Kwon, Jong Seok Lee, Richard K. Plemper, Sang-Moo Kang Dec 2014

Recombinant Influenza Virus Carrying The Conserved Domain Of Respiratory Syncytial Virus (Rsv) G Protein Confers Protection Against Rsv Without Inflammatory Disease, Yu-Na Lee, Hye Suk Hwang, Min-Chul Kim, Young-Tae Lee, Min-Kyoung Cho, Young-Man Kwon, Jong Seok Lee, Richard K. Plemper, Sang-Moo Kang

Biology Faculty Publications

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is one of the most important causes for viral lower respiratory tract disease in humans. There is no licensed RSV vaccine. Here, we generated recombinant influenza viruses (PR8/RSV. HA-G) carrying the chimeric constructs of hemagglutinin (HA) and central conserved-domains of the RSV G protein. PR8/RSV.HA-G virus showed lower pathogenicity without compromising immunogenicity in mice. Single intranasal inoculation of mice with PR8/RSV.HA-G induced IgG2a isotype dominant antibodies and RSV neutralizing activity. Mice with single intranasal inoculation of PR8/RSV.HA-G were protected against RSV infection as evidenced by significant reduction of lung ...


A Novel Method For Simulating Insulin Mediated Glut4 Translocation, Andrew Jezewski, Joshua Larson, Beata Wysocki, Paul H. Davis, Tadeusz Wysocki Dec 2014

A Novel Method For Simulating Insulin Mediated Glut4 Translocation, Andrew Jezewski, Joshua Larson, Beata Wysocki, Paul H. Davis, Tadeusz Wysocki

Biology Faculty Publications

Glucose transport in humans is a vital process which is tightly regulated by the endocrine system. Specifically, the insulin hormone triggers a cascade of intracellular signals in target cells mediating the uptake of glucose. Insulin signaling triggers cellular relocalization of the glucose transporter protein GLUT4 to the cell surface, which is primarily responsible for regulated glucose import. Pathology associated with the disruption of this pathway can lead to metabolic disorders, such as type II diabetes mellitus, characterized by the failure of cells to appropriately uptake glucose from the blood. We describe a novel simulation tool of the insulin intracellular response ...


The Lineage-Specific Evolution Of Aquaporin Gene Clusters Facilitated Tetrapod Terrestrial Adaptation, Roderick Nigel Finn, François Chauvigné, Jón Baldur Hlidberg, Christopher P. Cutler, Joan Cerdà Nov 2014

The Lineage-Specific Evolution Of Aquaporin Gene Clusters Facilitated Tetrapod Terrestrial Adaptation, Roderick Nigel Finn, François Chauvigné, Jón Baldur Hlidberg, Christopher P. Cutler, Joan Cerdà

Biology Faculty Publications

A major physiological barrier for aquatic organisms adapting to terrestrial life is dessication in the aerial environment. This barrier was nevertheless overcome by the Devonian ancestors of extant Tetrapoda, but the origin of specific molecular mechanisms that solved this water problem remains largely unknown. Here we show that an ancient aquaporin gene cluster evolved specifically in the sarcopterygian lineage, and subsequently diverged into paralogous forms of AQP2, -5, or -6 to mediate water conservation in extant Tetrapoda. To determine the origin of these apomorphic genomic traits, we combined aquaporin sequencing from jawless and jawed vertebrates with broad taxon assembly of ...


Stem Nematode Counteracts Plant Resistance Of Aphids In Alfalfa, Medicago Sativa, Ricardo A. Ramirez, John M. Stark Nov 2014

Stem Nematode Counteracts Plant Resistance Of Aphids In Alfalfa, Medicago Sativa, Ricardo A. Ramirez, John M. Stark

Biology Faculty Publications

Plants are exploited by a diverse community of insect herbivores and phytopathogens that interact indirectly through plant-mediated interactions. Generally, plants are thought to respond to insects and pathogens through different defensive signaling pathways. As plants are selected for resistance to one phytophagous organism type (insect vs. pathogen) in managed systems, it is not clear how this selection may affect community interactions. This study examined the effect of nematode-resistant varieties on aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum) suppression, and then determined how infection by the stem nematode, Ditylenchus dipsaci, mediated ecological effects on aphids and on plant defense proteins. Four alfalfa (Medicago sativa) varieties ...


Seed Dormancy, Seedling Establishment And Dynamics Of The Soil Seed Bank Of Stipa Bungeana (Poaceae) On The Loess Plateau Of Northwestern China, Xiao Wen Hu, Yan Pei Wu, Xing Yu Ding, Rui Zhang, Yan Rong Wang, Jerry M. Baskin, Carol C. Baskin Nov 2014

Seed Dormancy, Seedling Establishment And Dynamics Of The Soil Seed Bank Of Stipa Bungeana (Poaceae) On The Loess Plateau Of Northwestern China, Xiao Wen Hu, Yan Pei Wu, Xing Yu Ding, Rui Zhang, Yan Rong Wang, Jerry M. Baskin, Carol C. Baskin

Biology Faculty Publications

Studying seed dormancy and its consequent effect can provide important information for vegetation restoration and management. The present study investigated seed dormancy, seedling emergence and seed survival in the soil seed bank of Stipa bungeana, a grass species used in restoration of degraded land on the Loess Plateau in northwest China. Dormancy of fresh seeds was determined by incubation of seeds over a range of temperatures in both light and dark. Seed germination was evaluated after mechanical removal of palea and lemma (hulls), chemical scarification and dry storage. Fresh and one-year-stored seeds were sown in the field, and seedling emergence ...


Müllerian Mimicry As A Result Of Codivergence Between Velvet Ants And Spider Wasps, Juanita Rodriguez, James P. Pitts, Carol D. Von Dohlen, Joseph S. Wilson Nov 2014

Müllerian Mimicry As A Result Of Codivergence Between Velvet Ants And Spider Wasps, Juanita Rodriguez, James P. Pitts, Carol D. Von Dohlen, Joseph S. Wilson

Biology Faculty Publications

Recent studies have delineated a large Nearctic Müllerian mimicry complex in Dasymutilla velvet ants. Psorthaspis spider wasps live in areas where this mimicry complex is found and are phenotypically similar to Dasymutilla. We tested the idea that Psorthaspis spider wasps are participating in the Dasymutilla mimicry complex and that they codiverged with Dasymutilla. We performed morphometric analyses and human perception tests, and tabulated distributional records to determine the fit of Psorthaspis to the Dasymutilla mimicry complex. We inferred a dated phylogeny using nuclear molecular markers (28S, elongation factor 1-alpha, long-wavelength rhodopsin and wingless) for Psorthaspis species and compared it to ...


Phylogenetic Analysis Of Algal Symbionts Associated With Four North American Amphibian Egg Masses, Eunsoo Kim, Yuan Lin, Ryan R. Kerney, Lili Blumenberg, Cory Bishop Nov 2014

Phylogenetic Analysis Of Algal Symbionts Associated With Four North American Amphibian Egg Masses, Eunsoo Kim, Yuan Lin, Ryan R. Kerney, Lili Blumenberg, Cory Bishop

Biology Faculty Publications

Egg masses of the yellow-spotted salamander Ambystoma maculatum form an association with the green alga “Oophila amblystomatis” (Lambert ex Wille), which, in addition to growing within individual egg capsules, has recently been reported to invade embryonic tissues and cells. The binomial O. amblystomatis refers to the algae that occur in A. maculatum egg capsules, but it is unknown whether this population of symbionts constitutes one or several different algal taxa. Moreover, it is unknown whether egg masses across the geographic range of A. maculatum, or other amphibians, associate with one or multiple algal taxa. To address these questions, we conducted ...


Hydrolyzed Tuna Meat By-Product Supplement For Juvenile Red Sea Bream, Pagrus Major, And Its Effect On Growth, Enzyme Activity, Plasma Parameters, And Apparent Nutrient Digestibility, Janice A. Ragaza, Roger Edward P. Mamauag, Shunsuke Koshio, Manabu Ishikawa, Saichiro Yokoyama Nov 2014

Hydrolyzed Tuna Meat By-Product Supplement For Juvenile Red Sea Bream, Pagrus Major, And Its Effect On Growth, Enzyme Activity, Plasma Parameters, And Apparent Nutrient Digestibility, Janice A. Ragaza, Roger Edward P. Mamauag, Shunsuke Koshio, Manabu Ishikawa, Saichiro Yokoyama

Biology Faculty Publications

A growth experiment was conducted on juvenile red sea bream, Pagrus major to investigate the effect of the inclusion in fish diets, of tuna meat by-product hydrolysate which was processed through enzymatic hydrolysis using a commercially available enzyme, derived from Bacillus subtilis. Six experimental diets were formulated in the experiment. Three diets contained 50, 150 and 250 g/kg of TPM-H (tuna meat by-product hydrolysate), and two diets with the unprocessed TPM (tuna meat by-product) at an inclusion level of 50 and 250 g/kg. A control diet was formulated without any addition of the test ingredients. Treatment diets were ...


Intercellular Cooperation And Competition In Brain Cancers: Lessons From Drosophila And Human Studies, Indrayani Waghmare, Austin Roebke, Mutsuko Minata, Madhuri Kango-Singh, Ichiro Nakano Nov 2014

Intercellular Cooperation And Competition In Brain Cancers: Lessons From Drosophila And Human Studies, Indrayani Waghmare, Austin Roebke, Mutsuko Minata, Madhuri Kango-Singh, Ichiro Nakano

Biology Faculty Publications

Glioblastoma (GBM) is a primary brain cancer with an extremely poor prognosis. GBM tumors contain heterogeneous cellular components, including a small subpopulation of tumor cells termed glioma stem cells (GSCs). GSCs are characterized as chemotherapy- and radiotherapy-resistant cells with prominent tumorigenic ability. Studies in Drosophila cancer models demonstrated that interclonal cooperation and signaling from apoptotic clones provokes aggressive growth of neighboring tumorigenic clones, via compensatory proliferation or apoptosis induced proliferation. Mechanistically, these aggressive tumors depend on activation of Jun-N-terminal kinase (upstream of c-JUN), and Drosophila Wnt (Wg) in the apoptotic clones. Consistent with these nonmammalian studies, data from several mammalian ...


The Fat Of The Matter: How Dietary Fatty Acids Can Affect Exercise Performance, Barbara J. Pierce, Scott R. Mcwilliams Nov 2014

The Fat Of The Matter: How Dietary Fatty Acids Can Affect Exercise Performance, Barbara J. Pierce, Scott R. Mcwilliams

Biology Faculty Publications

Fatty-acid composition of fat stores affects exercise performance in a variety of vertebrates although few such studies focus on flying vertebrates such as migratory birds, which are exceptional exercisers. We first discuss the natural variation in quality of fat available in natural foods eaten by migratory birds and their behavioral preferences for specific fatty acids in these foods. We then outline three proposed hypotheses for how dietary fatty acids can affect exercise performance, and some of the evidence to date that pertains to these hypotheses with special emphasis on the exercise performance of migratory birds. In theory, selectively feeding on ...


Limited Sex-Biased Neural Gene Expression Patterns Across Strains In Zebrafish (Danio Rerio), Ryan Y. Wong, Melissa M. Mcleod, John Godwin Oct 2014

Limited Sex-Biased Neural Gene Expression Patterns Across Strains In Zebrafish (Danio Rerio), Ryan Y. Wong, Melissa M. Mcleod, John Godwin

Biology Faculty Publications

Background: Male and female vertebrates typically differ in a range of characteristics, from morphology to physiology to behavior, which are influenced by factors such as the social environment and the internal hormonal and genetic milieu. However, sex differences in gene expression profiles in the brains of vertebrates are only beginning to be understood. Fishes provide a unique complement to studies of sex differences in mammals and birds given that fish show extreme plasticity and lability of sexually dimorphic characters and behaviors during development and even adulthood. Hence, teleost models can give additional insight into sexual differentiation. The goal of this ...


Hes-Mediated Repression Of Pten In Caenorhabditis Elegans, Han Ting Chou, Raymarie Gomez Vazquez, Kun Wang, Richard Campbell, Gaolin Zheng Milledge, Walter W. Walthall, Casonya Matese Johnson Oct 2014

Hes-Mediated Repression Of Pten In Caenorhabditis Elegans, Han Ting Chou, Raymarie Gomez Vazquez, Kun Wang, Richard Campbell, Gaolin Zheng Milledge, Walter W. Walthall, Casonya Matese Johnson

Biology Faculty Publications

The Hairy/Enhancer-of-Split (HES) group of transcription factors controls embryonic development, often by acting downstream of the Notch signaling pathway; however, little is known about postembryonic roles of these proteins. In Caenorhabditis elegans, the six proteins that make up the REF-1 family are considered to be HES orthologs that act in both Notch dependent and Notch-independent pathways to regulate embryonic events. To further our understanding of how the REF-1 family works to coordinate post-embryonic cellular events, we performed a functional characterization of the REF-1 family member, HLH-25. We show that, after embryogenesis, hlh-25 expression persists throughout every developmental stage, including ...


Cyclodextrin Complexes Of Reduced Bromonoscapine In Guar Gum Microspheres Enhance Colonic Drug Delivery, Jitender Madan, Sushma R. Gundala, Bharat Baruah, Mulpuri Nagaraju, Clayton Yates, Timothy Turner, Vijay Rangari, Donald Hamelberg, Michelle D. Reid, Ritu Aneja Oct 2014

Cyclodextrin Complexes Of Reduced Bromonoscapine In Guar Gum Microspheres Enhance Colonic Drug Delivery, Jitender Madan, Sushma R. Gundala, Bharat Baruah, Mulpuri Nagaraju, Clayton Yates, Timothy Turner, Vijay Rangari, Donald Hamelberg, Michelle D. Reid, Ritu Aneja

Biology Faculty Publications

Here, we report improved solubility and enhanced colonic delivery of reduced bromonoscapine (Red-Br-Nos), a cyclic ether brominated analogue of noscapine, upon encapsulation of its cyclodextrin (CD) complexes in bioresponsive guar gum microspheres (GGM). Phase−solubility analysis suggested that Red-Br-Nos complexed with β-CD and methyl-β-CD in a 1:1 stoichiometry, with a stability constant (Kc) of 2.29 × 103 M−1 and 4.27 × 103 M−1. Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy indicated entrance of an O−CH2 or OCH3−C6H4−OCH3 moiety of Red-Br-Nos in the β-CD or methyl-β- CD cavity. Furthermore, the cage complex of Red-Br-Nos with β-CD and methyl-β-CD ...


Molecular Variation In Avp And Avpr1a In New World Monkeys (Primates, Platyrrhini): Evolution And Implications For Social Monogamy, Dongren Ren, Kelvin R. Chin, Jeffrey French Oct 2014

Molecular Variation In Avp And Avpr1a In New World Monkeys (Primates, Platyrrhini): Evolution And Implications For Social Monogamy, Dongren Ren, Kelvin R. Chin, Jeffrey French

Biology Faculty Publications

The neurohypophysial hormone arginine vasopressin (AVP) plays important roles in fluid regulation and vascular resistance. Differences in AVP receptor expression, particularly mediated through variation in the noncoding promoter region of the primary receptor for AVP (AVPR1a), may play a role in social phenotypes, particularly social monogamy, in rodents and humans. Among primates, social monogamy is rare, but is common among New World monkeys (NWM). AVP is a nonapeptide and generally conserved among eutherian mammals, although a recent paper demonstrated that some NWM species possess a novel form of the related neuropeptide hormone, oxytocin. We therefore characterized variation in the AVP ...


Hypogammaglobulinemia In Blt Humanized Mice – An Animal Model Of Primary Antibody Deficiency, Francisco Martinez-Torres, Tomonori Nochi, Angela Wahl, J. Victor Garcia, Paul W. Denton Oct 2014

Hypogammaglobulinemia In Blt Humanized Mice – An Animal Model Of Primary Antibody Deficiency, Francisco Martinez-Torres, Tomonori Nochi, Angela Wahl, J. Victor Garcia, Paul W. Denton

Biology Faculty Publications

Primary antibody deficiencies present clinically as reduced or absent plasma antibodies without another identified disorder that could explain the low immunoglobulin levels. Bone marrow-liver-thymus (BLT) humanized mice also exhibit primary antibody deficiency or hypogammaglobulinemia. Comprehensive characterization of B cell development and differentiation in BLT mice revealed other key parallels with primary immunodeficiency patients. We found that B cell ontogeny was normal in the bone marrow of BLT mice but observed an absence of switched memory B cells in the periphery. PC-KLH immunizations led to the presence of switched memory B cells in immunized BLT mice although plasma cells producing PCor ...


Schooling Increases Risk Exposure For Fish Navigating Past Artificial Barriers, Bertrand H. Lemasson, James W. Haefner, Mark D. Bowen Sep 2014

Schooling Increases Risk Exposure For Fish Navigating Past Artificial Barriers, Bertrand H. Lemasson, James W. Haefner, Mark D. Bowen

Biology Faculty Publications

Artificial barriers have become ubiquitous features in freshwater ecosystems and they can significantly impact a region's biodiversity. Assessing the risk faced by fish forced to navigate their way around artificial barriers is largely based on assays of individual swimming behavior. However, social interactions can significantly influence fish movement patterns and alter their risk exposure. Using an experimental flume, we assessed the effects of social interactions on the amount of time required for juvenile palmetto bass (Morone chrysops × M. saxatilis) to navigate downstream past an artificial barrier. Fish were released either individually or in groups into the flume using flow ...


A Threat To New Zealand's Tuatara Heats Up, Kristine L. Grayson, Nicola J. Mitchell, Nicola J. Nelson Sep 2014

A Threat To New Zealand's Tuatara Heats Up, Kristine L. Grayson, Nicola J. Mitchell, Nicola J. Nelson

Biology Faculty Publications

No matter how many times we head to one of New Zealand's offshore islands, the feelings are always a mix of sheer awe at the beauty and biodiversity preserved in these special refuges and lingering nerves. Did we remember all the gear? Do we have enough food and water in case we get stuck? Can the helicopter land on the side of a cliff in these winds? These epic journeys are in pursuit of a lone remnant of the reptile evolutionary tree, with a unique ecology that has big implications under climate change.


Systematics Of The Neotropical Genus Leptodactylus Fitzinger, 1826 (Anura: Leptodactylidae): Phylogeny, The Relevance Of Non-Molecular Evidence, And Species Accounts, Rafael O. De Sá, Taran Grant, Arley Camargo, W. R. Heyer, María Laura Ponssa, Edward Stanley Sep 2014

Systematics Of The Neotropical Genus Leptodactylus Fitzinger, 1826 (Anura: Leptodactylidae): Phylogeny, The Relevance Of Non-Molecular Evidence, And Species Accounts, Rafael O. De Sá, Taran Grant, Arley Camargo, W. R. Heyer, María Laura Ponssa, Edward Stanley

Biology Faculty Publications

A phylogeny of the species-rich clade of the Neotropical frog genus Leptodactylus sensu stricto is presented on the basis of a total evidence analysis of molecular (mitochondrial and nuclear markers) and non-molecular (adult and larval morphological and behavioral characters) sampled from > 80% of the 75 currently recognized species. Our results support the monophyly of Leptodactylus sensu stricto, with Hydrolaetare placed as its sister group. The reciprocal monophyly of Hydrolaetare and Leptodactylus sensu stricto does not require that we consider Hydrolaetare as either a subgenus or synonym of Leptodactylus sensu lato. We recognize Leptodactylus sensu stricto, Hydrolaetare, Adenomera, and Lithodytes as ...


Tlr5-Mediated Sensing Of Gut Microbiota Is Necessary For Antibody Responses To Seasonal Influenza Vaccination, Jason Z. Oh, Rajesh Ravidran, Benoit Chassaing, Frederic A. Carvalho, Mohan S. Madur, Maureen Bower, Paul Hakimpour, Kiran P. Gill, Helder I. Nakaya, Felix Yarovinsky, R. Balfour Sartor, Andrew T. Gewirtz, Bali Pulendran Sep 2014

Tlr5-Mediated Sensing Of Gut Microbiota Is Necessary For Antibody Responses To Seasonal Influenza Vaccination, Jason Z. Oh, Rajesh Ravidran, Benoit Chassaing, Frederic A. Carvalho, Mohan S. Madur, Maureen Bower, Paul Hakimpour, Kiran P. Gill, Helder I. Nakaya, Felix Yarovinsky, R. Balfour Sartor, Andrew T. Gewirtz, Bali Pulendran

Biology Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Modulation Of Cytochrome P450 Metabolism And Transport Across Intestinal Epithelial Barrier By Ginger Biophenolics, Rao Mukkavilli, Sushma R. Gundala, Chunhua Yang, Shashikiran Donthamsetty, Guilherme Cantuaria, Gajanan R. Jadhav, Subrahmanyam Vangala, Michelle D. Reid, Ritu Aneja Sep 2014

Modulation Of Cytochrome P450 Metabolism And Transport Across Intestinal Epithelial Barrier By Ginger Biophenolics, Rao Mukkavilli, Sushma R. Gundala, Chunhua Yang, Shashikiran Donthamsetty, Guilherme Cantuaria, Gajanan R. Jadhav, Subrahmanyam Vangala, Michelle D. Reid, Ritu Aneja

Biology Faculty Publications

Natural and complementary therapies in conjunction with mainstream cancer care are steadily gaining popularity. Ginger extract (GE) confers significant health-promoting benefits owing to complex additive and/or synergistic interactions between its bioactive constituents. Recently, we showed that preservation of natural ‘‘milieu’’ confers superior anticancer activity on GE over its constituent phytochemicals, 6-gingerol (6G), 8-gingerol (8G), 10-gingerol (10G) and 6-shogaol (6S), through enterohepatic recirculation. Here we further evaluate and compare the effects of GE and its major bioactive constituents on cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzyme activity in human liver microsomes by monitoring metabolites of CYPspecific substrates using LC/MS/MS detection methods ...


Height And Clonality Traits Determine Plant Community Responses To Fertilization, Timothy L. Dickson, Gary G. Mittelbach, Heather L. Reynolds, Katherine L. Gross Sep 2014

Height And Clonality Traits Determine Plant Community Responses To Fertilization, Timothy L. Dickson, Gary G. Mittelbach, Heather L. Reynolds, Katherine L. Gross

Biology Faculty Publications

Fertilization via agricultural inputs and nutrient deposition is one of the major threats to global terrestrial plant richness, yet we still do not fully understand the mechanisms by which fertilization decreases plant richness. Tall clonal species have recently been proposed to cause declines in plant species richness by increasing in abundance in response to fertilization and competing strongly with other species. We tested this hypothesis in a fertilization experiment in a low productivity grassland by using a novel experimental manipulation of the presence vs. absence of clonal species and by examining the role of height within these treatments. We found ...


Us Epa Expert Workshop: Nutrient Enrichment Indicators In Streams, Michelle A. Baker, Candice Bauer, Max Bothwell, Don Charles, Betty Fetscher, Stuart Findlay, Terry Fleming, Steve Francoeur, Evelyn Gaiser, Jim Hagy, Anne Hershey, Lisa Huff, Ryan King, Tina Laidlaw, Mark Munn, Greg Pond, Steven Rier, Bob Sinsabaugh, A J. Smith, Nathan Smucker, Jan Stevenson, Mike Suplee Sep 2014

Us Epa Expert Workshop: Nutrient Enrichment Indicators In Streams, Michelle A. Baker, Candice Bauer, Max Bothwell, Don Charles, Betty Fetscher, Stuart Findlay, Terry Fleming, Steve Francoeur, Evelyn Gaiser, Jim Hagy, Anne Hershey, Lisa Huff, Ryan King, Tina Laidlaw, Mark Munn, Greg Pond, Steven Rier, Bob Sinsabaugh, A J. Smith, Nathan Smucker, Jan Stevenson, Mike Suplee

Biology Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Lights And Larvae: Using Optogenetics To Teach Recombinant Dna And Neurobiology, John Titlow, Heidi Anderson, Robin L. Cooper Sep 2014

Lights And Larvae: Using Optogenetics To Teach Recombinant Dna And Neurobiology, John Titlow, Heidi Anderson, Robin L. Cooper

Biology Faculty Publications

Switching genes between organisms and controlling an animal’s brain using lasers may seem like science fiction, but with advancements in a technique called optogenetics, such experiments are now common in neuroscience research. Optogenetics combines recombinant DNA technology with a controlled light source to help researchers address biomedical questions in the life sciences. The technique has gained the most traction in neurobiology—the biology of the nervous system—where specific wavelengths of light are used to control or measure the activity of neurons in transgenic organisms (i.e., those with artificially inserted genes).

These optical recording and stimulation techniques are ...


Oh No! Something Is Eating My Coral Honeysuckle!, W. John Hayden Aug 2014

Oh No! Something Is Eating My Coral Honeysuckle!, W. John Hayden

Biology Faculty Publications

Let’s imagine a situation that could happen in your own backyard. Suppose you have a healthy specimen of 2014’s Virginia Native Plant Society Wildflower of the Year, coral honeysuckle (Lonicera sempervirens). Suppose further that this plant rewards you every spring with a flush of flashy red flowers that you treasure all the more because they consistently bring hummingbirds to your yard. Now imagine that one fine morning you notice some little green caterpillars voraciously eating the leaves of your beloved coral honeysuckle. What do you do?


Multiplex Ssr-Pcr Analysis Of Genetic Diversity And Redundancy In The Philippine Rice (Oryza Sativa L.) Germplasm Collection, Jamaica L. Delos Reyes, Vivian A. Panes, Dindo A. Tabanao, Gabriel O. Romero Aug 2014

Multiplex Ssr-Pcr Analysis Of Genetic Diversity And Redundancy In The Philippine Rice (Oryza Sativa L.) Germplasm Collection, Jamaica L. Delos Reyes, Vivian A. Panes, Dindo A. Tabanao, Gabriel O. Romero

Biology Faculty Publications

Rice germplasm conservation is vital to ensuring the availability of a rich gene pool for future varietal improvement programs. However, with limited resources for gene banking, there is a need to identify and prioritize unique accessions in the PhilRice gene bank for maximum resource utilization. A robust and unequivocal way to identify duplicates is through multiplex SSR-PCR DNA fingerprinting. The present study established the optimal concentrations and reaction conditions for the successful amplification of PCR products using a multiplex panel composed of rice simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers, namely RM312, RM316, RM514 and RM171. The panel was then used to ...