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Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

1996

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Articles 1 - 30 of 115

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Sensory Traits, Color, And Shelf Life Of Low-Dose Irradiated Beef Steaks, S.E. Luchsinger, Donald H. Kropf, C.M. Garc A Zepeda, James L. Marsden, Melvin C. Hunt, M.E. Hollingsworth, Sally L. Stroda, Edgar Chambers, Curtis L. Kastner Jan 1996

Sensory Traits, Color, And Shelf Life Of Low-Dose Irradiated Beef Steaks, S.E. Luchsinger, Donald H. Kropf, C.M. Garc A Zepeda, James L. Marsden, Melvin C. Hunt, M.E. Hollingsworth, Sally L. Stroda, Edgar Chambers, Curtis L. Kastner

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Irradiation had minimal effects on flavor and texture of frozen or chilled vacuum-packaged boneless beef steaks. A dose level of 3.5 kilograys (kGy) reduced beef aroma in chilled steaks. Irradiation did not influence internal or external cooked color, most raw color traits, cooking loss, pH, oxidative rancidity, or Warner-Bratzler shear force in chilled or frozen boneless steaks. PVC-wrapped controls were less red than irradiated steaks after 5 days of display. Exposure to oxygen by repackaging into oxygen-permeable film increased oxidative rancidity after display. Vacuum-packaging, in combination with irradiation, enables boneless beef steaks to be stored and/or displayed up ...


Sensory Traits, Color, And Shelf Life Of Low-Dose Irradiated, Raw, Ground Beef Patties, S.E. Luchsinger, Donald H. Kropf, C.M. Garc A Zepeda, James L. Marsden, Melvin C. Hunt, M.E. Hollingsworth, Sally L. Stroda, Edgar Chambers, Curtis L. Kastner Jan 1996

Sensory Traits, Color, And Shelf Life Of Low-Dose Irradiated, Raw, Ground Beef Patties, S.E. Luchsinger, Donald H. Kropf, C.M. Garc A Zepeda, James L. Marsden, Melvin C. Hunt, M.E. Hollingsworth, Sally L. Stroda, Edgar Chambers, Curtis L. Kastner

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Irradiation of raw ground beef patties had minimal effects on flavor and aroma of patties after cooking. Oxidative rancidity increased when patties were irradiated in aerobic but not in vacuum packages. Irradiation of vacuum-packaged ground beef patties produced a more stable color. In both packaging types, irradiation significantly reduced microbial growth during storage.


Sensory Traits, Color, And Shelf Life Of Low-Dose Irradiated, Precooked, Ground Beef Patties, S.E. Luchsinger, Donald H. Kropf, C.M. Garc A Zepeda, James L. Marsden, Melvin C. Hunt, M.E. Hollingsworth, Sally L. Stroda, Edgar Chambers, Curtis L. Kastner Jan 1996

Sensory Traits, Color, And Shelf Life Of Low-Dose Irradiated, Precooked, Ground Beef Patties, S.E. Luchsinger, Donald H. Kropf, C.M. Garc A Zepeda, James L. Marsden, Melvin C. Hunt, M.E. Hollingsworth, Sally L. Stroda, Edgar Chambers, Curtis L. Kastner

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Irradiation did not influence bitter, bloody, burnt, chemical, fat-like, juiciness, liver-like, beef identity, metallic, rancid, sour, sweet, and toughness flavor/textural attributes, beef aroma, or off-odor in precooked ground beef patties. Irradiation slightly increased the animal hair flavor note, but intensity levels were <1 on the 15-point sensory scale. Except for 10% fat non-irradiated controls, reheated precooked patties had a slight sour, ammonia-like, top note. Irradiation at 3.5 kilograys (kGy) increased external redness in vacuum-packaged patties, but not in aerobic packages. Aerobic packaging with or without irradiation decreased external precooked redness. Oxidative rancidity increased when patties were irradiated in aerobic but not in vacuum packages. Reduction of oxygen in vacuum bags extended the shelf life of the precooked ground beef patties, at least in terms of oxidative rancidity. Precooking ground beef patties, irrespective of irradiation or packaging type, posed sensory disadvantages, and improvements to the precooking process are needed before irradiating at low-dose levels is appropriate.


Timing Of Gain Does Not Alter Puberty And Reproductive Performance Of Beef Heifers Fed A High-Roughage Diet, J.M. Lynch, G.C. Lamb, B.L. Miller, J. Ernest Minton, R.C. Cochran, Robert T. Brandt Jan 1996

Timing Of Gain Does Not Alter Puberty And Reproductive Performance Of Beef Heifers Fed A High-Roughage Diet, J.M. Lynch, G.C. Lamb, B.L. Miller, J. Ernest Minton, R.C. Cochran, Robert T. Brandt

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Eighty crossbred heifers (549 lb initial body weight) were developed in drylot and limit-fed a forage sorghum silage diet predicted to produce gains of either 1 lb/day for the entire developmental period (EVENGAIN) or .25 lb/day for the first two-thirds of the period followed by 2 lb/day during the last third (LATEGAIN). Treatments began on November 7, 1994 and continued until April 24, 1995 (onset of the breeding season). Actual daily gains over the entire feeding period averaged 1.18 and 1.10 lb/day for EVENGAIN and LATEGAIN heifers, respectively. Age and weight at puberty were ...


Genetic Parameters For Growth And Carcass Traits From Crossbreeding, K.M. Andries, R.R. Schalles, D.E. Franke, Michael E. Dikeman Jan 1996

Genetic Parameters For Growth And Carcass Traits From Crossbreeding, K.M. Andries, R.R. Schalles, D.E. Franke, Michael E. Dikeman

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Growth and carcass data from 5 years of a long-term, rotational, crossbreeding project were used to calculate heritabilities and genetic and phenotypic correlations for direct and maternal birth and weaning weight, gain on feed, hot carcass weight, ribeye area, marbling score, and age at slaughter. Angus, Brahman, Hereford, Charolais, Simmental, and Gelbvieh breeds were involved. Heritabilities of traits ranged from low (maternal weaning weight 0.04) to moderate (direct weaning weight 0.41). Direct birth weight, direct weaning weight, gain on feed, and hot carcass weight had moderate to high genetic correlations. Marbling had negative genetic correlations with birth and ...


Effect Of Increasing Urea Level In Protein Supplements On Performance By Beef Cows Consuming Low-Quality Tallgrass-Prairie Forage, H.H. Kster, R.C. Cochran, E.S. Vanzant, K. C. Olson, Timothy J. Jones, Evan C. Titgemeyer Jan 1996

Effect Of Increasing Urea Level In Protein Supplements On Performance By Beef Cows Consuming Low-Quality Tallgrass-Prairie Forage, H.H. Kster, R.C. Cochran, E.S. Vanzant, K. C. Olson, Timothy J. Jones, Evan C. Titgemeyer

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Ninety pregnant Angus Hereford cows consuming low-quality, tallgrass-prairie hay were used to evaluate the influence of changing the amount of supplemental degradable intake protein (DIP) derived from urea on body weight and body condition changes, pregnancy rate, and calf performance. Supplemental treatment groups were: 0, 20, and 40% of the supplemental DIP from urea. Supplements were formulated to contain 30% CP . When sufficient DIP was offered to prepartum cows to maximize DOMI, urea could replace up to 40% of the DIP in a high-protein (30%) supplement without causing problems of supplement palatability. However, trends in body weight and condition indicate ...


Effect Of Increasing Urea Level In Protein Supplements On Intake And Digestion Of Low-Quality Tallgrass-Prairie Forage By Beef Steers, H.H. Kster, R.C. Cochran, E.S. Vanzant, G. St Jean, Evan C. Titgemeyer Jan 1996

Effect Of Increasing Urea Level In Protein Supplements On Intake And Digestion Of Low-Quality Tallgrass-Prairie Forage By Beef Steers, H.H. Kster, R.C. Cochran, E.S. Vanzant, G. St Jean, Evan C. Titgemeyer

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Twelve ruminally fistulated steers were used to evaluate the effect of changing the proportion of supplemental degradable intake protein (DIP) derived from urea on forage intake and digestion. Steers had ad libitum access to a low-quality tallgrass-prairie hay. Supplemental treatment groups were: 1) 0% of the supplemental DIP from urea, 2) 20% of the supplemental DIP from urea, and 3) 40% of the supplemental DIP from urea. Supplements were formulated to contain 30% CP and were fed with prairie hay once daily. Results from this study indicated that urea can replace up to 40% of the supplemental DIP without affecting ...


In Vitro Estimation Of Ruminal Protein Degradability Of Forages, I.E.O. Abdelgadir, R.C. Cochran, E.S. Vanzant, Evan C. Titgemeyer Jan 1996

In Vitro Estimation Of Ruminal Protein Degradability Of Forages, I.E.O. Abdelgadir, R.C. Cochran, E.S. Vanzant, Evan C. Titgemeyer

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Ruminal degradation of alfalfa and prairie hay protein was estimated using a proteolytic enzyme from Streptomyces griseus with or without pretreatment with cellulase or a broad spectrum carbohydrase (driselase). Estimates of the undegradable intake protein (UIP) as a percentage of total protein derived from the protease alone were higher than that measured in the animal (i.e., in vivo). Pretreatment of hay samples with cellulase (48 h incubation) or driselase improved the accuracy of UIP predictions compared with those determined using the protease alone.


Agronomic And Silage Quality Traits Of Winter Cereals, M.K. Siefers, G.L. Huck, J.E. Turner, J.S. Pendergraft, K.K. Bolsen, Matthew A. Young Jan 1996

Agronomic And Silage Quality Traits Of Winter Cereals, M.K. Siefers, G.L. Huck, J.E. Turner, J.S. Pendergraft, K.K. Bolsen, Matthew A. Young

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Agronomic and silage quality traits were examined for 12 winter cereals harvested at two stages of maturity. Forage dry matter (DM) yields were higher at the mid-dough than the early-heading stage. Post 90 barley had the highest whole-plant DM yield at the early-heading stage, and Presto triticale had the highest yield at the mid-dough stage. Newton wheat had the lowest whole-plant DM yield at both stages of maturity. The first cutting of all varieties originally was intended to be at the late-boot stage, but harvest was delayed by frequent rainfall and wet soils in May, and field-wilting conditions were less ...


Effect Of Bacterial Inoculants On The Fermentation Of Alfalfa Silages, K.K. Bolsen, D.R. Bonilla, R.A. Hart-Thakur, Matthew A. Young Jan 1996

Effect Of Bacterial Inoculants On The Fermentation Of Alfalfa Silages, K.K. Bolsen, D.R. Bonilla, R.A. Hart-Thakur, Matthew A. Young

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

The efficacy of 13 commercial bacterial silage inoculants was evaluated on 3rd and 4th cutting alfalfa. All inoculants supplied at least 100,000 colony-forming units (cfu) of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) per gram of ensiled crop, and each inoculant increased the rate and efficiency of the ensiling process. Inoculated alfalfa silages had lower pH values; higher lactic acid contents; and lower acetic acid, ethanol, and ammonia-nitrogen contents than control (untreated) silages. The addition of dextrose (fermentable substrate) in combination with a bacterial inoculant improved the quality of the fermentation phase in both cuttings of alfalfa.


Injection-Site Reactions From Clostridial Vaccines: A Critical Control Point?, B.J. Mcfarlane, Gerald L. Stokka, R. Basaraba Jan 1996

Injection-Site Reactions From Clostridial Vaccines: A Critical Control Point?, B.J. Mcfarlane, Gerald L. Stokka, R. Basaraba

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

One 550 lb steer was injected subcutaneously twice, once on each side of the neck, with 5 milliliters of Ultrabac 7 ficlostridial vaccine with a new 16 gauge, 3/4 inch needle. The injections were given 30 days and 36 hours prior to euthanasia, at which time the two resultant lesions were collected. The lesions were evaluated for tissue damage, and physical descriptors were recorded. The 36-hour injection caused an acute lesion with higher than normal levels of neutrophils and erythrocytes in its center. Within the surrounding skeletal muscle, levels of fibrin and edem a fluid were increased, causing separation ...


The Effect Of Implants On Gain Of Steers And Heifers Grazing Native Grass, F.K. Brazle Jan 1996

The Effect Of Implants On Gain Of Steers And Heifers Grazing Native Grass, F.K. Brazle

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Four trials were con ducted to determine the effect of different implants on steers and heifers grazing native grass pastures for different lengths of time. In addition, two groups of steers were followed through a feeding period to determine if previous implanting had a residual effect on gain. The implanted (Ralgrofi, Ralgrofi Magnum , Synovex Sfi) steers gained faster than the controls; however, no differences in gain occurred among implants. In the finishing group that went on grass at 687 lb, implants had no effect on subsequent feedlot gain. In the second group (on grass at 569 lb and grazing for ...


Efficacy Of Electronic Identification In Beef Cattle, A.R. Spell, S.D. Utter, L.R. Corah Jan 1996

Efficacy Of Electronic Identification In Beef Cattle, A.R. Spell, S.D. Utter, L.R. Corah

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

To evaluate the potential of using electronic implants (transponders) for maintaining identity from birth to slaughter, calves born and implanted in Montana were followed through the feedlot phase to their ultimate slaughter at commercial packing plants. At spring branding, 138 calves were implanted with electronic identification transponders positioned underneath the scutiform cartilage at the base of the ear. Four steers died prior to weaning. After weaning, 109 steers were transported to a commercial feedlot i n Kansas (group 1) and the remaining 25 steers (group 2) were maintained at the Montana ranch for 1 year and then placed in a ...


Effect Of A Propionic Acid Bacterial Inoculant On Fermentation And Aerobic Stability Of Whole-Plant Corn Silage, K.K. Bolsen, D.R. Bonilla, G.L. Huck, R.A. Hart-Thakur, Matthew A. Young Jan 1996

Effect Of A Propionic Acid Bacterial Inoculant On Fermentation And Aerobic Stability Of Whole-Plant Corn Silage, K.K. Bolsen, D.R. Bonilla, G.L. Huck, R.A. Hart-Thakur, Matthew A. Young

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

The effects of a strain of Propionibacterium shermanii, applied with and without lactic acid bacteria (LAB), on the fermentation and aerobic stability of whole-plant corn silage was determined using laboratory-scale silos. The addition of LAB increased the rate of fermentation, and all inoculated silages underwent a more efficient ensiling process than control silage. Only silages made with P. shermanii had measurable levels of propionic acid in the 90-day silages. Corn silages made with P. shermanii were more stable when exposed to air than control or LAB-inoculated silages.


National Forage Survey Results: Trace Mineral And Related Nutrient Levels, L. Corah, D. Dargatz, C. Peters Jan 1996

National Forage Survey Results: Trace Mineral And Related Nutrient Levels, L. Corah, D. Dargatz, C. Peters

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

A National Forage Survey was conducted in 18 states to determine the trace mineral and related nutrient content of forages grown in the United States. Most forages sampled were harvested hays utilized as winter feed for beef cow herds. The trace element most commonly deficient in the forages sampled was zinc. Copper and cobalt levels were adequate in 36 and 34.1% of the samples, respectively. In contrast, manganese was adequate (above 40 ppm) in 76% of the samples and was deficient (below 20 ppm) only in 4.7%. The copper antagonists, such as iron and molybdenum, were marginal to ...


Supplementing Growing Holstein Steers Fed A Corn-Urea Diet With A Mixture Of Essential Amino Acids Increases Performance, R.H. Wessels, Evan C. Titgemeyer Jan 1996

Supplementing Growing Holstein Steers Fed A Corn-Urea Diet With A Mixture Of Essential Amino Acids Increases Performance, R.H. Wessels, Evan C. Titgemeyer

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Six ruminally cannulated Holstein steers (550 lb) implanted with Revalor-S were infused abomasally with water or a mixture of six amino acids in a crossover experiment (two 14-day periods) to evaluate effects on nitrogen balance. The mixture was comprised of amino acids that potentially may be limiting in lightweight steers, namely (g/day): lysine (5.3), methionine (3.3), threonine (3.2), tryptophan (1 .0), histidine (2.1), and arginine (5.5). Steers were fed at levels just below ad libitum intake. The diet contained 86% rolled corn, 10% prairie hay, 3% mineral and vitamin premixes, and 1% urea (as-fed ...


Natural Degradable Protein And Roughage Type For Implanted Finishing Steers Fed Dry-Rolled Corn Diets, C.T. Milton, Robert T. Brandt Jr., Gerry L. Kuhl, Evan C. Titgemeyer, James S. Drouillard Jan 1996

Natural Degradable Protein And Roughage Type For Implanted Finishing Steers Fed Dry-Rolled Corn Diets, C.T. Milton, Robert T. Brandt Jr., Gerry L. Kuhl, Evan C. Titgemeyer, James S. Drouillard

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Three hundred eighty-four crossbred, yearling steers (810 lb) were used to evaluate soybean meal (SBM), sunflower meal (SFM), and combinations of the two as protein supplements and supplemental protein effects in diets containing silage or alfalfa as dietary roughage. All diets contained 1.0% urea (dry matter basis). An additional 2 percentage units of crude protein were either not provided or provided as SBM, SFM, or a 50:50 combination (protein basis) of SBM and SFM. Steers were implanted with Revalor-Sfi and fed experimental diets for 126 days. No interactions between protein supplementation and roughage source were observed. Daily feed ...


Effects Of Temporarily Altering Alfalfa Levels In High-Concentrate Diets On Subacute Acidosis, B.J. Healy, Robert T. Brandt Jr. Jan 1996

Effects Of Temporarily Altering Alfalfa Levels In High-Concentrate Diets On Subacute Acidosis, B.J. Healy, Robert T. Brandt Jr.

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Four ruminally cannulated crossbred steers (882 lb) were used to investigate the effects of temporarily altering the levels of alfalfa in a high-concentrate diet on ruminal characteristics during a bout of experimentally induced subacute acidosis. A diet based on dry rolled corn with 8% alfalfa hay was fed before and after a 2-day challenge phase when steers were forced to consume 2.5% of their body weight in 90 minutes each day after a prior 24-hour fast. During the challenge phase, steers were fed diets containing 5, 8, 11, or 14% alfalfa. Feed intake quickly recovered for steers fed all ...


Effect Of Monensin On Grain Bloat In Cattle, M.L. Coe, N. Wallace, Kenneth E. Kemp, J.C. Parrott, Tiruvoor G. Nagaraja Jan 1996

Effect Of Monensin On Grain Bloat In Cattle, M.L. Coe, N. Wallace, Kenneth E. Kemp, J.C. Parrott, Tiruvoor G. Nagaraja

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Twelve ruminally cannulated Holstein steers were used to determine the effect of monensin (0, 20, 30, and 40 g/ton) on grain bloat. Steers were fed a bloat-provocative, high-grain diet at 1% of body weight twice daily. Monensin premix was added directly to individual steers diets at the time of feeding. The severity of bloat was scored daily on a scale of 0 (no bloat) to 5 (severe bloat). The scoring was based on the degree of frothiness and abdominal distention. Bloat scores (mean of wk 2, 3, and 4) were lower (P<.0l) for monensin-fed steers than for the controls. The mean bloat scores were 1.43, 1.18, 1.00, and .93 for 0, 20, 30 and 40 g/ton monensin, respectively. Total gas production during in vitro ruminal fermentation tended to be higher (P=.12) for control than for monensin-fed steers. Ruminal pH and total volatile fatty acid concentrations were unaffected by treatment. Monensin decreased frothy bloat caused by the bloat-provocative diet, and the degree of control appeared to be greater with higher levels of monensin.


Probiotic Frozen Yogurt Containing High Protein And Calcium, M.S. Forbes, I.J. Jeon, Karen A. Schmidt Jan 1996

Probiotic Frozen Yogurt Containing High Protein And Calcium, M.S. Forbes, I.J. Jeon, Karen A. Schmidt

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

A new frozen yogurt manufacturing procedure that is easily adaptable to the current practices of the frozen yogurt industry has been developed with probiotic culture and ultrafiltrated milk. The ultrafiltrated milk was heated to 185 degrees F for 35 min to obtain a desirable gel structure when fermented with the traditional yogurt culture of Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus. Probiotic cultures (Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus spp.) were added to the yogurt mix just before freezing. The yogurt mix was frozen to an 85% overrun and hardened at -20 degrees F. The frozen product contained viable culture organisms at greater than or ...


Hormonal And Behavioral Characteristics Associated With The Onset Of Radiotelemetric-Detected Estrus, G.C. Lamb, D.P. Hoffman, Y. Kobayashi, Jeffrey S. Stevenson Jan 1996

Hormonal And Behavioral Characteristics Associated With The Onset Of Radiotelemetric-Detected Estrus, G.C. Lamb, D.P. Hoffman, Y. Kobayashi, Jeffrey S. Stevenson

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

The objective of this study was to examine changes in ovarian steroids in relation to the onset of first standing estrus detected by pressure-sensitive rump-mounted devices (ABS HeatWatch® [HW]). Twenty Holstein heifers were treated with PGF on days 5 to 8 (early) 2a or 12 to 15 (late) of the estrous cycle to induce estrus. The following traits were different (P<.05) in early vs late heifers: serum progesterone before PGF (2.3 vs 5 ± .3 ng/ml); 2a interval from PGF to estrus (HW devices: 42 2a vs 52.4 ± 2.8 hr or visual: 45 vs 57 ± 2.5 hr); interval (40.6 vs 57.8 ± 2.2 hr) from PGF to 2a estradiol-17b (E2) peak concentrations in blood serum (17.7 vs 12.3 ± 1 pg/ml) at estrus; duration of estrous cycle after treatment injection of PGF (20 vs 21.4 ± .2 days); interval 2a from onset of estrus to the peak in E2 (1.4 vs "“5.4 ± 1.8 hr); and E2 peak associated with the first dominant ovarian follicle of the estrous cycle following the treatment injection of PGF (2.2 vs 5.2 ± .6 pg/ml), respectively. 2a Durations of estrus and standing events were similar regardless of when the corpus luteum was regressed during either the early or late luteal phase. When all sexual behavior was evaluated after 41 injections of PGF , the 2a number of standing events (28.1 vs 16.1 ± 3.1) was greater (P<.05) in heifers after early-cycle regression of the corpus luteum. Results indicated that the number of standing events per estrus and concentrations of E2 during estrus were related to the duration of progesterone exposure before a PGF -induced luteolysis. 2a The first standing event of estrus detected by the HW device corresponded closely to the peak in E2 and LH at the onset of estrus.; Dairy Day, 1996, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS, 1996;


Coping With Summer Weather: Management Strategies To Control Heat Stress, John F. Smith, Joseph P. Harner Jan 1996

Coping With Summer Weather: Management Strategies To Control Heat Stress, John F. Smith, Joseph P. Harner

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Heat stress occurs when a dairy cow's heat load is greater than her capacity to lose heat. The effects of heat stress include: increased respiration rate, increased water intake, increased sweating, decreased dry matter intake, slower rate of feed passage, decreased blood flow to internal organs, decreased milk production, and poor reproductive performance. The lower milk production, and reproductive performance cause economic losses to commercial dairy producers. This review will discuss methods that can be used on commercial dairy farms to reduce the effects of heat stress on dairy cattle.; Dairy Day, 1996, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS, 1996;


Performance Of Young Calves Supplemented With Vitamins C And E And Beta-Carotene, R.H. Greenwood, J.L Morrill, J.R. Schwenke Jan 1996

Performance Of Young Calves Supplemented With Vitamins C And E And Beta-Carotene, R.H. Greenwood, J.L Morrill, J.R. Schwenke

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Newborn Holstein calves were used to investigate responses to supplemental antioxidants provided in daily milk allotments. Treated calves assigned to receive daily 100 IU of d-α tocopherol (vitamin E), 5 mg of beta-carotene, and 500 mg of ascorbic acid (vitamin C) in a 5-ml carrier. Control calves received the carrier alone. Additional vitamins C and E and beta carotene did not affect weaning age, weekly or total body weight gain, or dry feed intake. Supplementation of these antioxidants affected bull and heifer calves scour scores differently at different birth weights. Antioxidant supplementation increased the severity of scours during the first ...


Factors Affecting Titratable Acidity In Raw Milk, Karen A. Schmidt, J. Stupar, John E. Shirley, S. Adapa Jan 1996

Factors Affecting Titratable Acidity In Raw Milk, Karen A. Schmidt, J. Stupar, John E. Shirley, S. Adapa

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

The value of titratable acidity (TA) as an indicator of raw milk quality has been challenged recently, because milk is refrigerated within minutes after it leaves the cow until it reaches the consumer. Also, high milk protein may interfere with the test or confer falsely high TA values. Samples of milk containing <2.8% protein to >3.8% protein were used to examine the impact of protein on TA. The effects of milk age and bacterial counts also were investigated. Titratable acidity increased as milk protein content increased but the influence of bacterial populations and age were much more dramatic. As bacterial counts increased ...


Reducing Bovine Leukosis In Dairy Cattle, John F. Smith, Gerald L. Stokka, R.K Scoby, Anne T. Van Jan 1996

Reducing Bovine Leukosis In Dairy Cattle, John F. Smith, Gerald L. Stokka, R.K Scoby, Anne T. Van

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Bovine leukosis virus (BLV) is a cancerous condition of tissues in which lymph nodes and lymphocytes are affected. Infected cattle may be identified by testing blood sera for BLV antibodies using the agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) test that requires 2 days for processing. Most dairy farms have infected animals, but the condition is not considered important because less than 1% of infected cattle show clinical signs. However, many of these cows are culled because of poor milk production or reproductive performance. Procedures for reducing and(or) eliminating the disease are outlined. Results obtained at the Kansas State University Dairy Teaching ...


Field Day 1996, Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station And Cooperative Extension Service Jan 1996

Field Day 1996, Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station And Cooperative Extension Service

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Each Field Day report consists of individual research reports on topics specific to the region, including cultural methods for most of the major crops grown in Kansas, mitigating the effects of weeds, insects, and disease associated with those crops, and irrigation. Research is conducted and reports written by staff of the K-State Research and Extension Southwest Research Extension Center.


1996 Agricultural Research Southeast Agricultural Research Center, Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station And Cooperative Extension Service Jan 1996

1996 Agricultural Research Southeast Agricultural Research Center, Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station And Cooperative Extension Service

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

No abstract provided.


Evaluation Of The Total Sulfur Amino Acid Requirement Of Finishing Pigs, J A. Loughmiller, J W. Smith Ii, J R. Bergstrom, Robert D. Goodband, Michael D. Tokach, Jim L. Nelssen Jan 1996

Evaluation Of The Total Sulfur Amino Acid Requirement Of Finishing Pigs, J A. Loughmiller, J W. Smith Ii, J R. Bergstrom, Robert D. Goodband, Michael D. Tokach, Jim L. Nelssen

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Sixty four gilts (initially 120 lb) were used to evaluate the effects of increasing total sulfur amino acid (TSAA):lysine ratios on growth performance and carcass characteristics. Diets included two levels of lysine (.55% and .70% total lysine) and three TSAA:lysine ratios (60, 65, and 70% of lysine) arranged in a 2 x 3 factorial. A tendency for a lysine x TSAA interaction was observed for ADG and ADFI. Increasing TSAA:lysine ratio decreased ADG and ADFI in pigs fed .55% lysine; however, ADG and ADFI were increased in pigs fed .70% lysine and 65% TSAA:lysine. Pigs fed ...


Determination Of Contract Base Payments To Feeder-Pig Finishers, J L. Parcell, Michael R. Langemeier Jan 1996

Determination Of Contract Base Payments To Feeder-Pig Finishers, J L. Parcell, Michael R. Langemeier

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Risks associated with independent feeder-pig finishing have prompted finishers to seek alternative finishing and marketing methods. A means of reducing risk has developed through contract feeder-pig finishing. Research results indicated that slightly risk-averse finishers required contract base payments ranging from $11.00 to $30.00 per head. Strongly risk-averse finishers required contract base payments ranging from $8.50 to $19.00 per head. The lower end of the ranges is for a low-profit finisher. The upper end of the ranges is for a high-profit finisher.; Swine Day, Manhattan, KS, November 21, 1996


Influence Of Pellet Size On Growth Performance In Nursery Pigs And Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility, And Stomach Morphology In Finishing Pigs, S L. Traylor, Keith C. Behnke, P Sorrell, Fred J. Fairchild, Robert H. Hines, Joe D. Hancock Jan 1996

Influence Of Pellet Size On Growth Performance In Nursery Pigs And Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility, And Stomach Morphology In Finishing Pigs, S L. Traylor, Keith C. Behnke, P Sorrell, Fred J. Fairchild, Robert H. Hines, Joe D. Hancock

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Pellet size (i.e., 3/32 in., 5/32 in., 5/16 in., and 1/2 in. diameter) had little effect on growth performance during the early stages (d 0 to 5) of the nursery phase. However, the 5/32 in. diameter pellets supported the best efficiencies of gain during the overall nursery (d °to 29) and finishing phases.; Swine Day, Manhattan, KS, November 21, 1996