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Human–Wildlife Interactions

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Spatial And Temporal Dynamics Of Human–Wildlife Conflicts In The Kenya Greater Tsavo Ecosystem, Joseph M. Mukeka, Joseph O. Ogutu, Erustus Kanga, Eivin Røskaft Oct 2020

Spatial And Temporal Dynamics Of Human–Wildlife Conflicts In The Kenya Greater Tsavo Ecosystem, Joseph M. Mukeka, Joseph O. Ogutu, Erustus Kanga, Eivin Røskaft

Human–Wildlife Interactions

Biodiversity conservation in developing countries is faced with many and mounting challenges, including increasing human–wildlife conflicts (HWCs). In Africa and other developing countries, increasing HWCs, particularly those adjacent to protected areas, can adversely affect local stakeholder perceptions and support for conservation. We analyzed HWC reports for multiple wildlife species compiled >23 years (1995–2017) from the Greater Tsavo Ecosystem (GTE) in Kenya to determine HWC trends. The GTE is the largest protected area in Kenya, covering 22,681 km2. Overall, 39,022 HWC incidents were reported in 6 GTE regions (i.e., Taveta, Mutomo, Kibwezi, Rombo, Galana, Bachuma ...


How Close Is Too Close To Wildlife?, Terry A. Messmer Oct 2020

How Close Is Too Close To Wildlife?, Terry A. Messmer

Human–Wildlife Interactions

This is the Letter from the Editor.


Intake Of Supplemental Deer Pellets Containing Ground Blueberry Juniper By Wild Pigs, Jessica L. Glasscock, Travis R. Whitney, David G. Hewitt, Susan M. Cooper, Fred C. Bryant, Christina M. Toenjes Oct 2020

Intake Of Supplemental Deer Pellets Containing Ground Blueberry Juniper By Wild Pigs, Jessica L. Glasscock, Travis R. Whitney, David G. Hewitt, Susan M. Cooper, Fred C. Bryant, Christina M. Toenjes

Human–Wildlife Interactions

Supplemental feeding of cervid species such as white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus; deer) is now a common management practice in the United States. Supplemental feeding can be costly and more expensive when supplements are consumed by non-target species such as wild pigs (Sus scrofa; pigs). From May 13 to June 17, 2015, we evaluated the effects of using ground blueberry juniper (Juniperus ashei) or cottonseed (Gossypium spp.) hulls as a roughage ingredient in a supplemental deer pellet to deter pig consumption at the Texas A&M AgriLife Research Center in San Angelo, Texas, USA. We analyzed dry matter intake, growth performance, in vitro digestibility and fermentation, and blood serum chemistry of pigs using a 2 × 2 factorial study design that included 3 feeding periods. Pigs were assigned to 1 of 4 supplement diets (n = 5 pigs/supplement) or to a commercially available swine diet (BASAL; n = 4 pigs). Animals assigned to supplement diets were also offered BASAL based on percentage of ...


Monograph Reduced Box Price: Managing Human–Deer Conflicts Oct 2020

Monograph Reduced Box Price: Managing Human–Deer Conflicts

Human–Wildlife Interactions

Order form for HWI monograph, Methods for Managing Human–Deer Conflicts in Urban, Suburban, and Exurban Areas.


Table Of Contents Oct 2020

Table Of Contents

Human–Wildlife Interactions

This is the table of contents.


Cover, Editorial Staff, Journal Information Oct 2020

Cover, Editorial Staff, Journal Information

Human–Wildlife Interactions

This includes the cover, editorial staff, and journal information.


When Pigs Virtually Fly, Jessica L. Tegt Oct 2020

When Pigs Virtually Fly, Jessica L. Tegt

Human–Wildlife Interactions

Planning for the 2020 Wild Pig Conference was well underway until March 10, 2020, when word was received that federal travel was placed on indefinite hiatus due to COVID-19. The National Wild Pig Task Force leadership and conference organizers took immediate action to cancel the conference and then later announced they would host the first totally virtual wildlife management conference. This Back Page article describes the shift to a fully virtual conference.


Follow Us On Social Media Oct 2020

Follow Us On Social Media

Human–Wildlife Interactions

How to follow HWI on social media.


Ecological Factors Influencing Wild Pig Damage To Planted Pine And Hardwood Seedlings, Micah P. Fern, James B. Armstrong, Rebecca J. Barlow, John S. Kush Sep 2020

Ecological Factors Influencing Wild Pig Damage To Planted Pine And Hardwood Seedlings, Micah P. Fern, James B. Armstrong, Rebecca J. Barlow, John S. Kush

Human–Wildlife Interactions

Expanding wild pig (Sus scrofa) populations across the southern United States has the potential to impact longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) restoration efforts. The depredation of planted pine seedlings is the most widespread and economically costly damage caused by wild pigs in forest plantations. A better understanding of the ecological factors affecting depredation rates will allow managers to implement best management practices to reduce seedling mortality from wild pigs at their most vulnerable stage of growth. From March 2016 to March 2017, we evaluated wild pig preferences for planted pine and hardwood species at a 34.4-ha cutover site and 4 ...


Resource Use By American Black Bears In Suburbia: A Landholder Step Selection Approach, Farshid S. Ahrestani, Mark A. Ternent, Matthew J. Lovallo, W. David Walter Sep 2020

Resource Use By American Black Bears In Suburbia: A Landholder Step Selection Approach, Farshid S. Ahrestani, Mark A. Ternent, Matthew J. Lovallo, W. David Walter

Human–Wildlife Interactions

Range expansion of American black bears (Ursus americanus; bear) and residential development have increased the bear presence in suburbia. Suburban landscapes exhibiting patchworks of variable-sized parcels and habitats and owned by landowners with diverse values can create large areas of suitable habitats with limited public access. These landscapes may limit the effectiveness of hunting as a traditional bear population management tool. Managers require better information regarding landowner attitudes about hunting before implementing harvest regulations intended to mitigate conflicts in suburban areas. To address this need, in 2013, we surveyed landowners to identify properties that allowed bear hunting in 3 suburban ...


Assessing Vulture Translocation As A Management Tool To Mitigate Airport Bird Strikes, Weber Galvão Novaes, Tarcísio Lyra Dos Santos Abreu, Rafael Soave Guerta Sep 2020

Assessing Vulture Translocation As A Management Tool To Mitigate Airport Bird Strikes, Weber Galvão Novaes, Tarcísio Lyra Dos Santos Abreu, Rafael Soave Guerta

Human–Wildlife Interactions

Collisions between wildlife and aircraft are a major safety concern for international aviation. In the Americas, vultures (Cathartidae) are considered to be one of the most hazardous bird species to airport operations. In this study, we evaluated the use of translocations as a management technique to reduce vulture abundance near the Manaus International Airport (MAO), Manaus, Brazil. The MAO is one of the busiest and most strategically important airports in South America, often referred to as the gateway to the Brazilian Amazon. We captured, wing-tagged, and translocated 98 vultures between August and October 2013 and between January and April 2014 ...


Distribution And Activity Patterns Of Large Carnivores And Their Implications For Human–Carnivore Conflict Management In Namibia, Summer Fink, Richard Chandler, Michael Chamberlain, Steven Castleberry, Shannon Glosenger-Thrasher Sep 2020

Distribution And Activity Patterns Of Large Carnivores And Their Implications For Human–Carnivore Conflict Management In Namibia, Summer Fink, Richard Chandler, Michael Chamberlain, Steven Castleberry, Shannon Glosenger-Thrasher

Human–Wildlife Interactions

Human–wildlife conflicts (HWCs) are increasing globally and contributing to the decline of wildlife species. In sub-Saharan African countries such as Namibia, most of the suitable land has been or is currently being converted to crop and livestock production to support income or subsistence agriculture. These changes in land use often incur increased levels of HWCs because of crop and livestock depredation by native species. To quantify livestock predation risks posed by carnivores in Namibia, we deployed 30 trail cameras on a 6,500-ha farm in the Khomas region of Namibia from May to July 2018. We developed occupancy models ...


Do Urban Red Foxes Attack People? An Exploratory Study And Review Of Incidents In Britain, Bethany Bridge, Stephen Harris Sep 2020

Do Urban Red Foxes Attack People? An Exploratory Study And Review Of Incidents In Britain, Bethany Bridge, Stephen Harris

Human–Wildlife Interactions

Human–wildlife interactions are believed to be increasing worldwide, and a number of studies have analyzed the risks posed by larger carnivores. However, people can also perceive smaller species of carnivores as threatening, particularly in urban areas. Red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) started to colonize British cities in the 1930s, and there is growing public concern about foxes biting people, particularly babies. These events are generally described in the press as attacks and generate intense media coverage and speculation that foxes view human infants as potential prey. Because foxes rely primarily on auditory cues for hunting, we conducted acoustic playback experiments ...


Join The Email List Or Update Your Contact Information Jan 2020

Join The Email List Or Update Your Contact Information

Human–Wildlife Interactions

How to join the email list for HWI. Be the first to know about our newest publications.


Evaluation Of The Impacts Of Radio-Marking Devices On Feral Horses And Burros In A Captive Setting, Kathryn A. Schoenecker, Sarah R. B. King, Gail H. Collins Jan 2020

Evaluation Of The Impacts Of Radio-Marking Devices On Feral Horses And Burros In A Captive Setting, Kathryn A. Schoenecker, Sarah R. B. King, Gail H. Collins

Human–Wildlife Interactions

Radio-collars and other radio-marking devices have been invaluable tools for wildlife managers for >40 years. These marking devices have improved our understanding of wildlife spatial ecology and demographic parameters and provided new data facilitating model development for species conservation and management. Although these tools have been used on virtually all North American ungulates, their deployment on feral horses (Equus ferus caballus) or burros (E. asinus) has been limited. To determine if radio-collars and radio-tags could be safely deployed on feral equids, we conducted a 1-year observational study in 2015 to investigate fit and wear of radio-collars on feral horses and ...


Table Of Contents Jan 2020

Table Of Contents

Human–Wildlife Interactions

This is the table of contents.


The Times They Are A-Changin’, Terry A. Messmer Jan 2020

The Times They Are A-Changin’, Terry A. Messmer

Human–Wildlife Interactions

This is the Letter from the Editor.


Can Farmers And Bats Co-Exist? Farmer Attitudes, Knowledge, And Experiences With Bats In Belize, Hannah G. Shapiro, Adam S. Willcox, Mallory Tate, Emma V. Willcox Jan 2020

Can Farmers And Bats Co-Exist? Farmer Attitudes, Knowledge, And Experiences With Bats In Belize, Hannah G. Shapiro, Adam S. Willcox, Mallory Tate, Emma V. Willcox

Human–Wildlife Interactions

Bats (Chiroptera) are often viewed negatively by the public. Negative public perceptions of bats may hinder efforts to conserve declining populations. In Belize, the presence of vampire bats (Desmodus rotundus and Diphylla ecaudata) exacerbates the potential for conflicts with humans because of the increased rabies transmission risks. To mitigate these risks, the Belize government provides farmers with assistance to trap and remove vampire bats. In June 2018, we surveyed farmers (n = 44) in and adjacent to the Vaca Forest Reserve in Belize to learn more about their attitudes, knowledge, and experiences with bats. This information may provide new insights and ...


Remote Sensing Applications For Abating Aircraft–Bird Strike Risks In Southeast Brazil, Natalia S. Novoselova, Alexey A. Novoselov, Arthur Macarrão, Guilherme Gallo-Ortiz, Wesley Rodrigues Silva Jan 2020

Remote Sensing Applications For Abating Aircraft–Bird Strike Risks In Southeast Brazil, Natalia S. Novoselova, Alexey A. Novoselov, Arthur Macarrão, Guilherme Gallo-Ortiz, Wesley Rodrigues Silva

Human–Wildlife Interactions

The rising number of aircraft collisions with birds requires the development of appropriate mitigation measures to control their populations in the vicinity of airports. The black vulture (Coragyps atratus; vultures) is considered one of the most dangerous species for aviation in Brazil. To better understand the spatial distribution patterns of flying vultures and the risks they may pose to aviation, we studied natural and anthropogenic superficial factors and then numerically estimated and mapped the risk of collision with birds over the Airport Safety Area (ASA) for the Amarais Airport and Presidente Prudente Airport in the southeast part of Brazil. To ...


Talking Trash In The Big Apple: Mitigating Bird Strikes Near The North Shore Marine Transfer Station, Stephan J. Beffre, Brian E. Washburn Jan 2020

Talking Trash In The Big Apple: Mitigating Bird Strikes Near The North Shore Marine Transfer Station, Stephan J. Beffre, Brian E. Washburn

Human–Wildlife Interactions

Anthropogenic activities that concentrate wildlife near airports increases the risk of wildlife–aircraft collisions. Placing waste management facilities, natural areas, golf courses, and other landscape features near airports have the potential to attract wildlife hazardous to aviation. We conducted a 3-year study (March 2013–February 2016) to determine if the implementation of a Wildlife Hazard Mitigation Program (WHMP) would influence the bird use of a waste transfer station located near LaGuardia Airport, New York City, New York, USA. We conducted wildlife surveys during 3 phases: (1) no mitigation program and no waste transfer station, (2) active mitigation and no waste ...


Using Environmental Dna To Detect Estuarine Crocodiles, A Cryptic-Ambush Predator Of Humans, Alea Rose, Yusuke Fukuda, Hamish A. Campbell Jan 2020

Using Environmental Dna To Detect Estuarine Crocodiles, A Cryptic-Ambush Predator Of Humans, Alea Rose, Yusuke Fukuda, Hamish A. Campbell

Human–Wildlife Interactions

Negative human–wildlife interactions can be better managed by early detection of the wildlife species involved. However, many animals that pose a threat to humans are highly cryptic, and detecting their presence before the interaction occurs can be challenging. We describe a method whereby the presence of the estuarine crocodile (Crocodylus porosus), a cryptic and potentially dangerous predator of humans, was detected using traces of DNA shed into the water, known as environmental DNA (eDNA). The estuarine crocodile is present in waterways throughout southeast Asia and Oceania and has been responsible for >1,000 attacks upon humans in the past ...


Monograph Available: Managing Human–Deer Conflicts Jan 2020

Monograph Available: Managing Human–Deer Conflicts

Human–Wildlife Interactions

Order form for HWI monograph, Methods for Managing Human–Deer Conflicts in Urban, Suburban, and Exurban Areas.


Cover, Editorial Staff, Journal Information Jan 2020

Cover, Editorial Staff, Journal Information

Human–Wildlife Interactions

This includes the cover, editorial staff, and journal information.


In The News, Jason Matthews, Joe N. Caudell Jan 2020

In The News, Jason Matthews, Joe N. Caudell

Human–Wildlife Interactions

Items in the news.


Use Of Roadside Deer Removal To Reduce Deer–Vehicle Collisions, John C. Kilgo, John I. Blake, Tracy E. Grazia, Andy Horcher, Michael Larsen, Thomas Mims, Stanley J. Zarnoch Jan 2020

Use Of Roadside Deer Removal To Reduce Deer–Vehicle Collisions, John C. Kilgo, John I. Blake, Tracy E. Grazia, Andy Horcher, Michael Larsen, Thomas Mims, Stanley J. Zarnoch

Human–Wildlife Interactions

Identification of management tools to reduce the incidence of deer–vehicle collisions (DVCs) is important to improve motorist safety. Sharpshooting to reduce white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus; deer) along roads has proven successful in urban situations but has not been evaluated in undeveloped areas. We used a before-after-control-impact (BACI) design to evaluate the use of sharpshooting to reduce DVCs along roads on the uninhabited U.S. Department of Energy’s Savannah River Site, South Carolina, USA, during 2011–2017. We removed 242 deer from 4 treatment roads during 2015 and 2016, with 2-year removal rates per road averaging 5.0 deer ...


Peregrine Falcons Nest Successfully During Reconstruction Of Bridge Over Ohio River, Kate G. Slankard, Loren F. Taylor, Dan M. Stoelb, Charlie Gannon Jan 2020

Peregrine Falcons Nest Successfully During Reconstruction Of Bridge Over Ohio River, Kate G. Slankard, Loren F. Taylor, Dan M. Stoelb, Charlie Gannon

Human–Wildlife Interactions

Peregrine falcons (Falco peregrinus) often nest on bridges over rivers and other waterways, resulting in the need for mitigation planning for bridge maintenance and reconstruction. However, mitigation guidelines for peregrine falcon nests during bridge reconstruction are lacking in the literature. In this paper, we describe the monitoring, spatial, and temporal buffers, nest box installation, and other methods that allowed peregrine falcons to nest successfully on the Milton-Madison (US-421) Bridge during demolition and reconstruction. Construction activities occurred over a 4-year period (2011–2014), and coordination with local road departments and contracted engineers was necessary to accommodate the falcon nest. Nonetheless, construction ...


After Decades Of Suburban Deer Research And Management In The Eastern United States: Where Do We Go From Here?, Paul D. Curtis Jan 2020

After Decades Of Suburban Deer Research And Management In The Eastern United States: Where Do We Go From Here?, Paul D. Curtis

Human–Wildlife Interactions

State wildlife agencies have regulatory authority and oversight over deer (Cervidae) management in the United States. However, increased urban sprawl and overabundant deer populations have created increased human–deer conflicts. Because of the growing controversy surrounding the use of traditional management practices such as regulated hunting in suburban areas in the eastern United States, managers are now using specialized tools and management approaches to reduce deer conflicts in urban areas. However, this has created new challenges as they try to meet the desires of diverse stakeholder groups. Although deer management programs in urban areas differ somewhat in every state, effective ...


Stone-Stacking As A Looming Threat To Rock-Dwelling Biodiversity, Ricardo Rocha, Paulo A. V. Borges, Pedro Cardoso, Mirza Dikari Kusrini, José Luis Martín-Esquivel, Dília Menezes, Mário Mota-Ferreira, Sara F. Nunes, Inês Órfão, Catarina Serra-Gonçalves, Manuela Sim-Sim, Pedro Sepúlveda, Dinarte Teixeira, Anna Traveset Jan 2020

Stone-Stacking As A Looming Threat To Rock-Dwelling Biodiversity, Ricardo Rocha, Paulo A. V. Borges, Pedro Cardoso, Mirza Dikari Kusrini, José Luis Martín-Esquivel, Dília Menezes, Mário Mota-Ferreira, Sara F. Nunes, Inês Órfão, Catarina Serra-Gonçalves, Manuela Sim-Sim, Pedro Sepúlveda, Dinarte Teixeira, Anna Traveset

Human–Wildlife Interactions

This letter to the editor describes the surge of “photo-friendly” stacks of stones as an emerging tourism-associated threat to rock-dwelling biodiversity.


Book Review: Saving Species On Private Lands: Unlocking Incentives To Conserve Wildlife And Their Habitats, Lorien Belton Jan 2020

Book Review: Saving Species On Private Lands: Unlocking Incentives To Conserve Wildlife And Their Habitats, Lorien Belton

Human–Wildlife Interactions

This is a book review of Saving Species on Private Lands: Unlocking Incentives to Conserve Wildlife and their Habitats.


Humans, Wildlife, And Our Environment: One Health Is The Common Link, Terry A. Messmer Jan 2020

Humans, Wildlife, And Our Environment: One Health Is The Common Link, Terry A. Messmer

Human–Wildlife Interactions

One Health has become more important in recent years because interactions between people, animals, plants, and our environment have dramatically changed. This Back Page article discusses One Health during the COVID-19 pandemic.