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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Treading Water: Tools To Help Us Coastal Communities Plan For Sea Level Rise Impacts, E A. Smith, W Sweet, Molly Mitchell, R Domingues, C P. Weaver, M Baringer, G Goni, J Haines, Jon Derek Loftis, John D. Boon, David M. Malmquist Jun 2019

Treading Water: Tools To Help Us Coastal Communities Plan For Sea Level Rise Impacts, E A. Smith, W Sweet, Molly Mitchell, R Domingues, C P. Weaver, M Baringer, G Goni, J Haines, Jon Derek Loftis, John D. Boon, David M. Malmquist

VIMS Articles

As communities grapple with rising seas and more frequent flooding events, they need improved projections of future rising and flooding over multiple time horizons, to assist in a multitude of planning efforts. There are currently a few different tools available that communities can use to plan, including the Sea Level Report Card and products generated by a United States. Federal interagency task force on sea level rise. These tools are a start, but it is recognized that they are not necessarily enough at present to provide communities with the type of information needed to support decisions that range from seasonal ...


Examining Derelict Pot Impacts On Harvest In A Commercial Blue Crab Callinectes Sapidus Fishery, James A. Delbene, Donna M. Bilkovic, Andrew M. Scheld Feb 2019

Examining Derelict Pot Impacts On Harvest In A Commercial Blue Crab Callinectes Sapidus Fishery, James A. Delbene, Donna M. Bilkovic, Andrew M. Scheld

VIMS Articles

Pot fisheries occur worldwide with a significant proportion of the gear becoming derelict. Derelict pots induce detrimental ecological and economic impacts, and more recently were found to reduce blue crab harvests in the Chesapeake Bay commercial fishery. We simulated the presence of derelict pots near actively fished pots in seasonal field experiments to quantify the effect derelict pots have on blue crab harvest. Derelict pots reduced harvests by 30% during the summer, but not during the fall. Female blue crab capture rates were consistently lower when derelict pots were present; while capture rates of the less abundant males were not ...


New Constraints On Coseismic Slip During Southern Cascadia Subduction Zone Earthquakes Over The Past 4600 Years Implied By Tsunami Deposits And Marine Turbidites, Gr Priest, Rc Witter, Yinglong J. Zhang, C Goldfinger, Kl Wang, Jc Allen Jan 2018

New Constraints On Coseismic Slip During Southern Cascadia Subduction Zone Earthquakes Over The Past 4600 Years Implied By Tsunami Deposits And Marine Turbidites, Gr Priest, Rc Witter, Yinglong J. Zhang, C Goldfinger, Kl Wang, Jc Allen

VIMS Articles

This correction stands to correct Figure 7c listing a low minimum slip of 12 m for Case 2 instead of the correct value of 8 m, as stated in the body of the text and depicted on the chart of cumulative slip. The corrected chart explanation and caption are shown below. This error did not affect any of the findings of the paper or the chart itself. This is a correction to the original article.


Cross-Scale Baroclinic Simulation Of The Effect Of Channel Dredging In An Estuarine Setting, Fei Ye, Harry V. Wang, H Huang, Zg Wang, Z Liu, X Li Jan 2018

Cross-Scale Baroclinic Simulation Of The Effect Of Channel Dredging In An Estuarine Setting, Fei Ye, Harry V. Wang, H Huang, Zg Wang, Z Liu, X Li

VIMS Articles

Holistic simulation approaches are often required to assess human impacts on a river-estuary-coastal system, due to the intrinsically linked processes of contrasting spatial scales. In this paper, a Semi-implicit Cross-scale Hydroscience Integrated System Model (SCHISM) is applied in quantifying the impact of a proposed hydraulic engineering project on the estuarine hydrodynamics. The project involves channel dredging and land expansion that traverse several spatial scales on an ocean-estuary-river-tributary axis. SCHISM is suitable for this undertaking due to its flexible horizontal and vertical grid design and, more importantly, its efficient high-order implicit schemes applied in both the momentum and transport calculations. These ...


Linking The Abundance Of Estuarine Fish And Crustaceans In Nearshore Waters To Shoreline Hardening And Land Cover, Ms Kornis, D Breitburg, R Balouskus, Dm Bilkovic, La Davias, Rd Seitz, Et Al. Jan 2017

Linking The Abundance Of Estuarine Fish And Crustaceans In Nearshore Waters To Shoreline Hardening And Land Cover, Ms Kornis, D Breitburg, R Balouskus, Dm Bilkovic, La Davias, Rd Seitz, Et Al.

VIMS Articles

Human alteration of land cover (e.g., urban and agricultural land use) and shoreline hardening (e.g., bulkheading and rip rap revetment) are intensifying due to increasing human populations and sea level rise. Fishes and crustaceans that are ecologically and economically valuable to coastal systems may be affected by these changes, but direct links between these stressors and faunal populations have been elusive at large spatial scales. We examined nearshore abundance patterns of 15 common taxa across gradients of urban and agricultural land cover as well as wetland and hardened shoreline in tributary subestuaries of the Chesapeake Bay and Delaware ...


Mutualism Between Ribbed Mussels And Cordgrass Enhances Salt Marsh Nitrogen Removal, Donna Marie Bilkovic, Molly Mitchell, Robert E. Isdell, Matthew Schliep, Ashley R. Smyth Jan 2017

Mutualism Between Ribbed Mussels And Cordgrass Enhances Salt Marsh Nitrogen Removal, Donna Marie Bilkovic, Molly Mitchell, Robert E. Isdell, Matthew Schliep, Ashley R. Smyth

VIMS Articles

Salt marsh ecosystems have declined globally and are increasingly threatened by erosion, sea level rise, and urban development. These highly productive, physically demanding ecosystems are populated by core species groups that often have strong trophic interactions with implications for ecosystem function and service provision. Positive interactions occur between ribbed mussels (Geukensia demissa) and cordgrass (Spartina alterniflora). Mussels transfer particulate nitrogen from the water column to the marsh sediments, which stimulates cordgrass growth, and cordgrass provides predator and/or heat stress refuge for mussels. Here, we test mussel facilitation of two functions in salt marshes that relate to N removal: microbial ...


The Origins Of The Anomalous Warming In The California Coastal Ocean And San Francisco Bay During 2014-2016, Yi Chao, Et Al., Yinglong J. Zhang Jan 2017

The Origins Of The Anomalous Warming In The California Coastal Ocean And San Francisco Bay During 2014-2016, Yi Chao, Et Al., Yinglong J. Zhang

VIMS Articles

During 2014 exceptionally warm water temperatures developed across a wide area off the California coast and within San Francisco Bay (SFB) and persisted into 2016. Observations and numerical model output are used to document this warming and determine its origins. The coastal warming was mostly confined to the upper 100 m of the ocean and was manifested strongly in the two leading modes of upper ocean (0-100 m) temperature variability in the extratropical eastern Pacific. Observations suggest that the coastal warming in 2014 propagated into nearshore regions from the west while later indicating a warming influence that propagated from south ...


Seamless Cross-Scale Modeling With Schism, Yinglong J. Zhang, F Ye, Ev Stanev, S Grashorn Jan 2016

Seamless Cross-Scale Modeling With Schism, Yinglong J. Zhang, F Ye, Ev Stanev, S Grashorn

VIMS Articles

We present a new 3D unstructured-grid model (SCHISM) which is an upgrade from an existing model (SELFE). The new advection scheme for the momentum equation includes an iterative smoother to reduce excess mass produced by higher-order kriging method, and a new viscosity formulation is shown to work robustly for generic unstructured grids and effectively filter out spurious modes without introducing excessive dissipation. A new higher-order implicit advection scheme for transport (TVD2) is proposed to effectively handle a wide range of Courant numbers as commonly found in typical cross-scale applications. The addition of quadrangular elements into the model, together with a ...


Unstructured-Grid Model For The North Sea And Baltic Sea: Validation Against Observations, Yinglong J. Zhang, Ev Stanev, S Grashorn Jan 2016

Unstructured-Grid Model For The North Sea And Baltic Sea: Validation Against Observations, Yinglong J. Zhang, Ev Stanev, S Grashorn

VIMS Articles

A new unstructured grid model and its application to the North Sea and Baltic Sea are described. The research focus is on the dynamics in the two basins and in the multiple straits connecting them and more specifically on how the model replicates the temporal and spatial variability of physical processes. The comparison against observed data indicates the realism in the simulations of the exchange flows. The simulations demonstrated that in contrast to the tidal variability which decreases in the strait, the role of the barotropic forcing due to weather systems increases. In this zone reversal of transport is well ...


Effects Of Terrestrial–Aquatic Connectivity On An Estuarine Turtle, Robert E. Isdell, Randolph M. Chambers, Donna M. Bilkovic, Matthias Leu Jan 2015

Effects Of Terrestrial–Aquatic Connectivity On An Estuarine Turtle, Robert E. Isdell, Randolph M. Chambers, Donna M. Bilkovic, Matthias Leu

VIMS Articles

Estuaries world-wide have been modified or fragmented due to human stressors in their terrestrial and aquatic components. Estuary fragmentation often results in reductions in species richness, diversity and connectivity. Effects of human modification on estuaries have been well studied, but less is known about how land use alters connectivity of the terrestrial–aquatic ecotone. We studied the relationship between terrestrial–aquatic connectivity and the distri- bution of an estuarine turtle, diamondback terrapin (Malaclemys terrapin).


A Fully Coupled 3d Wave-Current Interaction Model On Unstructured Grids, Aron Roland, Yinglong J. Zhang, Harry V. Wang, Yanqiu Meng, Yi-Cheng Teng, Vladimir Maderich, Igor Brovchenko, Mathieu Dutour-Sikiric, Ulrich Zanke Jan 2012

A Fully Coupled 3d Wave-Current Interaction Model On Unstructured Grids, Aron Roland, Yinglong J. Zhang, Harry V. Wang, Yanqiu Meng, Yi-Cheng Teng, Vladimir Maderich, Igor Brovchenko, Mathieu Dutour-Sikiric, Ulrich Zanke

VIMS Articles

We present a new modeling system for wave-current interaction based on unstructured grids and thus suitable for very large-scale high-resolution multiscale studies. The coupling between the 3D current model (SELFE) and the 3rd generation spectral wave model (WWM-II) is done at the source code level and the two models share same sub-domains in the parallel MPI implementation in order to ensure parallel efficiency and avoid interpolation. We demonstrate the accuracy, efficiency, stability and robustness of the coupled SELFE-WWM-II model with a suite of progressively challenging benchmarks with analytical solution, laboratory data, and field data. The coupled model is shown to ...


State And Local Governments Plan For Development Of Most Land Vulnerable To Rising Sea Level Along The Us Atlantic Coast, J. G. Titus, Carl Hershner Jan 2009

State And Local Governments Plan For Development Of Most Land Vulnerable To Rising Sea Level Along The Us Atlantic Coast, J. G. Titus, Carl Hershner

VIMS Articles

Rising sea level threatens existing coastal wetlands. Overall ecosystems could often survive by migrating inland, if adjacent lands remained vacant. On the basis of 131 state and local land use plans, we estimate that almost 60% of the land below 1 m along the US Atlantic coast is expected to be developed and thus unavailable for the inland migration of wetlands. Less than 10% of the land below 1 m has been set aside for conservation. Environmental regulators routinely grant permits for shore protection structures (which block wetland migration) on the basis of a federal finding that these structures have ...


Effects Of Coastal Development On Nearshore Estuarine Nekton Communities, D. M. Bilkovic, Molly Mitchell Jan 2008

Effects Of Coastal Development On Nearshore Estuarine Nekton Communities, D. M. Bilkovic, Molly Mitchell

VIMS Articles

Coastal development affects estuarine resources by severing terrestrial-aquatic linkages, reducing shallow water habitats, and degrading ecosystem services, which is predicted to result in measurable declines in nekton community integrity. We assessed the effects of landscape features on nearshore habitats and biological communities, relating subtidal habitat, shoreline condition, upland land use and nearshore fish communities in a Chesapeake Bay tributary, the James River, Virginia. Both upland development and the placement of erosion control structures on the shoreline were associated with reduced fish community integrity, and shoreline alterations were linked with the amount of subtidal structural habitat in the nearshore. Ecological thresholds ...


Disappearance Of The Natural Emergent 3-Dimensional Oyster Reef System Of The James River, Virginia, 1871-1948, H Woods, Wj Hargis Jr., Carl Hershner, Pamela Mason Jan 2005

Disappearance Of The Natural Emergent 3-Dimensional Oyster Reef System Of The James River, Virginia, 1871-1948, H Woods, Wj Hargis Jr., Carl Hershner, Pamela Mason

VIMS Articles

Anecdotal reports have long indicated that oysters, Crassostrea virginica (Gmelin), in the Chesapeake Bay once grew in large 3-dimensional reef structures. However, hard evidence of widespread 3-dimensional oyster reefs in the Chesapeake Bay has been scarce. This study uses data collected from historic charts of the James River, one of the most productive oyster producing tributaries of the Chesapeake Bay, to examine the natural occurrence of these reefs as well as their destruction. An early series of charts from the 1870s clearly documents widespread emergent oyster reefs in the James River from Burwell's Bay to Newport News Point. They ...


Spawning Of American Shad (Alosa Sapidissima) And Striped Bass (Morone Saxatilis) In The Mattaponi And Pamunkey Rivers, Virginia, Donna M. Bilkovic, John E. Olney, Carl H. Hershner Jan 2002

Spawning Of American Shad (Alosa Sapidissima) And Striped Bass (Morone Saxatilis) In The Mattaponi And Pamunkey Rivers, Virginia, Donna M. Bilkovic, John E. Olney, Carl H. Hershner

VIMS Articles

No abstract provided.


The Use Of Night-Vision Equipment To Observe Wildlife In Forested Wetlands, Kirk J. Havens, Walter I. Priest Iii, Ann Jennings Jan 1995

The Use Of Night-Vision Equipment To Observe Wildlife In Forested Wetlands, Kirk J. Havens, Walter I. Priest Iii, Ann Jennings

VIMS Articles

Urban forested wetlands and rural forested wetlands were studied to investigate the effectiveness of night-vision image intensifier equipment in the observation of medium-to-large animals and to investigate if surrounding landscape type influences wetland habitat value. Bats, cats, dogs, owls, deer, and humans were easily observed using the night-vision equipment. Differences in species use between the rural and urban forested wetland were observed. Light levels and noise levels were significantly higher (p


Molting In The Mature Female Blue-Crab, Callinectes-Sapidus Rathbun, Kirk J. Havens, Jr Mcconaugha Jan 1990

Molting In The Mature Female Blue-Crab, Callinectes-Sapidus Rathbun, Kirk J. Havens, Jr Mcconaugha

VIMS Articles

The present study examined the hypothesis that mature female blue crabs, Callinectes sapidus, do not enter a terminal anecdysis. Induced molting via eyestalk ablation, size frequency distributions, gonad development and limb regeneration indices from field collected animals are used as indicators of potential post maturity molts. Eyestalk ablation of 15mature females resulted in ecdysis in II individuals approximately 51 days (standard error = 0.64) after ablation, indicating a physiological ability of mature females to complete ecdysis. Analysis of size frequency distributions from catch data indicated two distinct shifts from smaller to larger females, one in early spring and a second ...