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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

A General Pattern Of Trade-Offs Between Ecosystem Resistance And Resilience To Tropical Cyclones, Christopher J. Patrick, John S. Kominoski, (...), Enie Hensel, Marc J. S. Hense, Bradley A. Strickland, (..), A. K. Hardison, Sean Kinard, Et Al Mar 2022

A General Pattern Of Trade-Offs Between Ecosystem Resistance And Resilience To Tropical Cyclones, Christopher J. Patrick, John S. Kominoski, (...), Enie Hensel, Marc J. S. Hense, Bradley A. Strickland, (..), A. K. Hardison, Sean Kinard, Et Al

VIMS Articles

Tropical cyclones drive coastal ecosystem dynamics, and their frequency, intensity, and spatial distribution are pre-dicted to shift with climate change. Patterns of resistance and resilience were synthesized for 4138 ecosystem time series from n = 26 storms occurring between 1985 and 2018 in the Northern Hemisphere to predict how coastal ecosystems will respond to future disturbance regimes. Data were grouped by ecosystems (fresh water, salt water, terrestrial, and wetland) and response categories (biogeochemistry, hydrography, mobile biota, sedentary fauna, and vascular plants). We observed a repeated pattern of trade-offs between resistance and resilience across analyses. These patterns are likely the outcomes of ...


Ecological Equivalency Of Living Shorelines And Natural Marshes For Fish And Crustacean Communities, Amanda Guthrie, Donna Marie Bilkovic, Molly Mitchell, Randolph Chambers, Jessica S. Thompson, Robert Isdell Mar 2022

Ecological Equivalency Of Living Shorelines And Natural Marshes For Fish And Crustacean Communities, Amanda Guthrie, Donna Marie Bilkovic, Molly Mitchell, Randolph Chambers, Jessica S. Thompson, Robert Isdell

VIMS Articles

Salt marshes provide valued services to coastal communities including nutrient cycling, erosion control, habitat provision for crustaceans and fish (including juvenile and forage fish), and energy transfer from the detrital based food web to the greater estuarine system. Living shorelines are erosion control structures that recreate natural shorelines, such as fringing marshes, while providing other beneficial ecosystem services. Living shorelines are expected to provide fish and crustacean (nekton) habitat, but few comprehensive studies have evaluated nekton habitat use across a range of living shoreline settings and ages. We sampled the intertidal marsh and subtidal shallow water nekton community at 13 ...


Aquaculture And Eelgrass Zostera Marina Interactions In Temperate Ecosystems, L. M. Howarth, L. M. Lewis-Mccrea, M. L. Kellogg, E. T. Apostolaki, G. K. Reid Feb 2022

Aquaculture And Eelgrass Zostera Marina Interactions In Temperate Ecosystems, L. M. Howarth, L. M. Lewis-Mccrea, M. L. Kellogg, E. T. Apostolaki, G. K. Reid

VIMS Articles

This paper reviews the impacts of shellfish and finfish aquaculture on eelgrass
Zostera marina, the most widely distributed seagrass species in the northern hemisphere. Shellfish aquaculture can have positive, neutral, and negative effects on eelgrass. Positive interactions can be generated by the filtering activity of cultured bivalves, which may improve water quality and reduce epiphyte loads, and shellfish biodeposits may provide more nutrients to eelgrass and other vegetation. However, negative responses are more commonly reported and can be caused
by shading and sedimentation. These negative effects tend to occur directly under and immediately surrounding shellfish farms and rapidly diminish with ...


The Biogeography Of Community Assembly: Latitude And Predation Drive Variation In Community Trait Distribution In A Guild Of Epifaunal Crustaceans, Collin P. Gross, J. Emmett Duffy, (...), Robert J. Orth, Et Al Feb 2022

The Biogeography Of Community Assembly: Latitude And Predation Drive Variation In Community Trait Distribution In A Guild Of Epifaunal Crustaceans, Collin P. Gross, J. Emmett Duffy, (...), Robert J. Orth, Et Al

VIMS Articles

While considerable evidence exists of biogeographic patterns in the intensity of species interactions, the influence of these patterns on variation in community structure is less clear. Studying how the distributions of traits in communities vary along global gradients can inform how variation in interactions and other factors contribute to the process of community assembly. Using a model selection approach on measures of trait dispersion in crustaceans associated with eelgrass (Zostera marina) spanning 30° of latitude in two oceans, we found that dispersion strongly increased with increasing predation and decreasing latitude. Ocean and epiphyte load appeared as secondary predictors; Pacific communities ...


Climate Drives Long-Term Change In Antarctic Silverfish Along The Western Antarctic Peninsula, Andrew D. Corso, Deborah K. Steinberg, Sharon E. Stammerjohn, Eric J. Hilton Feb 2022

Climate Drives Long-Term Change In Antarctic Silverfish Along The Western Antarctic Peninsula, Andrew D. Corso, Deborah K. Steinberg, Sharon E. Stammerjohn, Eric J. Hilton

VIMS Articles

Over the last half of the 20th century, the western Antarctic Peninsula has been one of the most rapidly warming regions on Earth, leading to substantial reductions in regional sea ice coverage. These changes are modulated by atmospheric forcing, including the Amundsen Sea Low (ASL) pressure system. We utilized a novel 25-year (1993–2017) time series to model the effects of environmental variability on larvae of a keystone species, the Antarctic Silverfish (Pleuragramma antarctica). Antarctic Silverfish use sea ice as spawning habitat and are important prey for penguins and other predators. We show that warmer sea surface temperature and decreased ...


Refining Real-Time Predictions Of Vibrio Vulnificus Concentrations In A Tropical Urban Estuary By Incorporating Dissolved Organic Matter Dynamics, Jessica Bullington, Abigal R. Golder, Grieg F. Steward, Et Al Jan 2022

Refining Real-Time Predictions Of Vibrio Vulnificus Concentrations In A Tropical Urban Estuary By Incorporating Dissolved Organic Matter Dynamics, Jessica Bullington, Abigal R. Golder, Grieg F. Steward, Et Al

VIMS Articles

The south shore of Oʻahu, Hawaiʻi is one of the most visited coastal tourism areas in the United States with some of the highest instances of recreational waterborne disease. A population of the pathogenic bacterium Vibrio vulnificus lives in the estuarine Ala Wai Canal in Honolulu which surrounds the heavily populated tourism center of Waikīkī. We developed a statistical model to predict V. vulnificus dynamics in this system using environmental measurements from moored oceanographic and atmospheric sensors in real time. During a year-long investigation, we analyzed water from 9 sampling events at 3 depths and 8 sites along the canal ...


New Technologies Aid Understanding Of The Factors Affecting Adélie Penguin Foraging, Walker O. Smith Jr., David G. Ainley, Karen J. Heywood, Grant Ballard Jan 2022

New Technologies Aid Understanding Of The Factors Affecting Adélie Penguin Foraging, Walker O. Smith Jr., David G. Ainley, Karen J. Heywood, Grant Ballard

VIMS Articles

The Ross Sea (Figure 1) is home to 33% of the world’s Adélie penguins (Pygoscelis adeliae), as well as substantial numbers of Emperor penguins (Aptenodytes forsteri), Weddell seals (Leptonychotes weddellii), and pelagic birds (Smith et al., 2014). Among these, the Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Resources (CCAMLR) has designated the Adélie penguin an “indicator species” for monitoring ecosystem structure and function in the newly designated Ross Sea Region Marine Protected Area (RSR-MPA). This penguin, among the best-known seabirds, has been studied for decades at multiple locations with investigations that have delved into its population history (both recent ...


Genome-Wide Analysis Of Acute Low Salinity Tolerance In The Eastern Oyster Crassostrea Virginica And Potential Of Genomic Selection For Trait Improvement, Alexandra J. Mccarty, Standish K. Allen Jr., Louis V. Plough Jan 2022

Genome-Wide Analysis Of Acute Low Salinity Tolerance In The Eastern Oyster Crassostrea Virginica And Potential Of Genomic Selection For Trait Improvement, Alexandra J. Mccarty, Standish K. Allen Jr., Louis V. Plough

VIMS Articles

As the global demand for seafood increases, research into the genetic basis of traits that can increase aquaculture production is critical. The eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica) is an important aquaculture species along the Atlantic and Gulf Coasts of the United States, but increases in heavy rainfall events expose oysters to acute low salinity conditions, which negatively impact production. Low salinity survival is known to be a moderately heritable trait, but the genetic architecture underlying this trait is still poorly understood. In this study, we used ddRAD sequencing to generate genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data for four F2 families to ...


Unresolved Taxonomy Confounds Invasive Species Identification: The Lysmata Vittata Stimpson, 1860 (Decapoda: Caridea: Lysmatidae) Species Complex And Recent Introduction Of Lysmata Vittata Sensu Stricto In The Western Atlantic, Robert Aguilar, Sanjeevi Prakash, (...), Troy D. Tuckey, J. Antonio Baeza Jan 2022

Unresolved Taxonomy Confounds Invasive Species Identification: The Lysmata Vittata Stimpson, 1860 (Decapoda: Caridea: Lysmatidae) Species Complex And Recent Introduction Of Lysmata Vittata Sensu Stricto In The Western Atlantic, Robert Aguilar, Sanjeevi Prakash, (...), Troy D. Tuckey, J. Antonio Baeza

VIMS Articles

Peppermint shrimp resembling Lysmata vittata Stimpson, 1860, a species native to the Indo- West Pacific, were found in the lower Chesapeake Bay and adjacent coastal embayments in 2013, representing the first recorded introduction of this species in the northwestern Atlantic. Conflicting morphological descriptions, inconsistent morphological terminology, and limited molecular data (i.e., unresolved taxonomy), as well as the destruction of the type material of L. vittata, created uncertainty regarding proper identification. We provide the first phylogeny incorporating individuals from across the presumed native and introduced range of L. vittata. Morphological and phylogenetic analyses clearly indicate L. vittata represents a species ...


A Deterministic Model For Understanding Nonlinear Viral Dynamics In Oysters, Qubin Qin, Jian Shen, Kimberly S. Reece Jan 2022

A Deterministic Model For Understanding Nonlinear Viral Dynamics In Oysters, Qubin Qin, Jian Shen, Kimberly S. Reece

VIMS Articles

Contamination of oysters with a variety of viruses is one key pathway to trigger outbreaks of massive oyster mortality as well as human illnesses, including gastroenteritis and hepatitis. Much effort has gone into examining the fate of viruses in contaminated oysters, yet the current state of knowledge of nonlinear virus-oyster interactions is not comprehensive because most studies have focused on a limited number of processes under a narrow range of experimental conditions. A framework is needed for describing the complex nonlinear virus-oyster interactions. Here, we introduce a mathematical model that includes key processes for viral dynamics in oysters, such as ...


Adaptive Carbon Export Response To Warming In The Sargasso Sea, Michael W. Lomas, Nicholas R. Bates, Rodney J. Johnson, Deborah K. Steinberg, Tatsuro Tanioka Jan 2022

Adaptive Carbon Export Response To Warming In The Sargasso Sea, Michael W. Lomas, Nicholas R. Bates, Rodney J. Johnson, Deborah K. Steinberg, Tatsuro Tanioka

VIMS Articles

Ocean ecosystem models predict that warming and increased surface ocean stratification will trigger a series of ecosystem events, reducing the biological export of particulate carbon to the ocean interior. We present a nearly three-decade time series from the open ocean that documents a biological response to ocean warming and nutrient reductions wherein particulate carbon export is maintained, counter to expectations. Carbon export is maintained through a combination of phytoplankton community change to favor cyanobacteria with high
cellular carbon-to-phosphorus ratios and enhanced shallow phosphorus recycling leading to increased nutrient use efficiency. These results suggest that surface ocean ecosystems may be more ...


Discard Mortality Of Sea Scallops Placopecten Magellanicus Following Capture And Handling In The U.S. Dredge Fishery, David Rudders, Hugues P. Benoıt, Ryan J. Knotek, John A. Mandelman, Sally Roman, James A. Sulikowski Jan 2022

Discard Mortality Of Sea Scallops Placopecten Magellanicus Following Capture And Handling In The U.S. Dredge Fishery, David Rudders, Hugues P. Benoıt, Ryan J. Knotek, John A. Mandelman, Sally Roman, James A. Sulikowski

VIMS Articles

Discard mortality can represent a potentially significant source of uncertainty for both stock assessments and fishery management measures. While the family Pectinidae is considered to be robust to the capture and handling process, understanding species-specific discard mortality rates is critical to characterize both population dynamics and to develop regulatory measures to meet management objectives. The discard mortality rate for the U.S. dredge fishery of sea scallop Placopecten magellanicus was estimated empirically via a retention study aboard industry vessels under commercial conditions. Over 16,000 sea scallops were assessed via a composite index of scallop vitality that consisted of semiqualitative ...


Spatial Variability Of Microzooplankton Grazing On Phytoplankton In Coastal Southern Florida, Usa, Nicole C. Millette, Christopher Kelble, Ian Smith, Kelly Montenero, Elizabeth Harvey Jan 2022

Spatial Variability Of Microzooplankton Grazing On Phytoplankton In Coastal Southern Florida, Usa, Nicole C. Millette, Christopher Kelble, Ian Smith, Kelly Montenero, Elizabeth Harvey

VIMS Articles

Microzooplankton are considered the primary consumers of phytoplankton in marine environments. Microzooplankton grazing rates on phytoplankton have been studied across the globe, but there are still large regions of the ocean that are understudied, such as sub-tropical coastal oceans. One of these regions is the coastal area around south Florida, USA. We measured microzooplankton grazing rates in two distinct environments around south Florida; the oligotrophic Florida Keys and the mesotrophic outflow from the Everglades. For 2-years from January 2018 to January 2020, we set up 55 dilution and light-dark bottle experiments at five stations to estimate the microzooplankton community grazing ...


Contrasting Controls On Seasonal And Spatial Distribution Of Marine Cable Bacteria (Candidatus Electrothrix) And Beggiatoaceae In Seasonally Hypoxic Chesapeake Bay, Sairah Y. Malkin, Pinky Liau, Carol Kim, Kalev G. Hantsoo, Maya L. Gomes, Bongkeun Song Jan 2022

Contrasting Controls On Seasonal And Spatial Distribution Of Marine Cable Bacteria (Candidatus Electrothrix) And Beggiatoaceae In Seasonally Hypoxic Chesapeake Bay, Sairah Y. Malkin, Pinky Liau, Carol Kim, Kalev G. Hantsoo, Maya L. Gomes, Bongkeun Song

VIMS Articles

Marine cable bacteria (Candidatus Electrothrix) and large colorless sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (e.g., Beggiatoaceae) are widespread thiotrophs in coastal environments but may exert different influences on biogeochemical cycling. Yet, the factors governing their niche partitioning remain poorly understood. To map their distribution and evaluate their growth constraints in a natural setting, we examined surface sediments across seasons at two sites with contrasting levels of seasonal oxygen depletion in Chesapeake Bay using microscopy coupled with 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing and biogeochemical characterization. We found that cable bacteria, dominated by a single phylotype closely affiliated to Candidatus Electrothrix communis, flourished during winter ...


Reviews And Syntheses: Spatial And Temporal Patterns In Seagrass Metabolic Fluxes, Melissa Ward, Tye L. Kindinger, Heidi K. Hirsh, (...), Emily B. Rivest, Et Al Jan 2022

Reviews And Syntheses: Spatial And Temporal Patterns In Seagrass Metabolic Fluxes, Melissa Ward, Tye L. Kindinger, Heidi K. Hirsh, (...), Emily B. Rivest, Et Al

VIMS Articles

Seagrass meadow metabolism has been measured for decades to gain insight into ecosystem energy, biomass production, food web dynamics, and, more recently, to inform its potential in ameliorating ocean acidification (OA). This extensive body of literature can be used to infer trends and drivers of seagrass meadow metabolism. Here, we synthesize the results from 56 studies reporting in situ rates of seagrass gross primary productivity, respiration, and/or net community productivity to highlight spatial and temporal variability in oxygen (O2) fluxes. We illustrate that daytime net community production (NCP) is positive overall and similar across seasons and geographies. Full-day ...


Development Of An Individual-Based Tag Recapture Model To Benchmark Biomass And Harvest Rates In An Iconic Lobster Fishery, Simon De Lestang, John Hoenig, Jason How Jan 2022

Development Of An Individual-Based Tag Recapture Model To Benchmark Biomass And Harvest Rates In An Iconic Lobster Fishery, Simon De Lestang, John Hoenig, Jason How

VIMS Articles

The West Coast Rock Lobster Managed Fishery (WCRLMF) moved from input to output controls in 2010. This change affected the relativity of fishery-based data sources (e.g., catch rates and landed size composition), making the assessment of the fishery problematic. A novel examination of the stock dynamics was required to ensure the robustness of the stock assessment and associated management arrangements. This study derived estimates of current biomass levels and harvest rates from the release of over 60,000 tagged western rock lobsters (Panulirus cygnus). A Brownie tag-recapture (BTR) model was initially implemented to provide an assessment on a fishery-wide ...


Rangewide Population Structure Of The Clearnose Skate, Lindsey Noel Nelson, Christian M. Jones, Jan Mcdowell Jan 2022

Rangewide Population Structure Of The Clearnose Skate, Lindsey Noel Nelson, Christian M. Jones, Jan Mcdowell

VIMS Articles

Skates (family Rajidae) are benthic elasmobranchs that are highly vulnerable to incidental fishery bycatch, are dis-carded at sea, and are poorly accounted for in catch records. Many aspects of skate life history, such as population structure, are not well understood. Without this knowledge, indiscriminate removal may have deleterious effects on scientific, conservation, and management efforts. The Clearnose Skate Rostroraja eglanteriais seasonally migratory and widely distributed in the coastal waters of the eastern United States and in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico. This study used molecular techniques to assess the population structure of Clearnose Skate for use as a biological reference ...


Spatiotemporal Modeling Of Nursery Habitat Using Bayesian Inference: Environmental Drivers Of Juvenile Blue Crab Abundance, A. Challen Hyman, Grace S. Chiu, Mary C. Fabrizio, Rom Lipcius Jan 2022

Spatiotemporal Modeling Of Nursery Habitat Using Bayesian Inference: Environmental Drivers Of Juvenile Blue Crab Abundance, A. Challen Hyman, Grace S. Chiu, Mary C. Fabrizio, Rom Lipcius

VIMS Articles

Nursery grounds provide conditions favorable for growth and survival of juvenile fish and crustaceans through abundant food resources and refugia, and enhance secondary production of populations. While small-scale studies remain important tools to assess nursery value of structured habitats and environmental factors, targeted applications that unify survey data over large spatial and temporal scales are vital to generalize inference of nursery function, identify highly productive regions, and inform management strategies. Using 21 years of spatio-temporally indexed survey data (i.e., water chemistry, turbidity, blue crab, and predator abundance) and GIS information on potential nursery habitats (i.e., seagrass, salt marsh ...


Effects Of Unregulated International Fishing On Recovery Potential Of The Sandbar Shark Within The Southeast United States, Cassidy Peterson, Michael J. Wilbert, Enric Cortes, Dean Courtney, Robert J. Latour Jan 2022

Effects Of Unregulated International Fishing On Recovery Potential Of The Sandbar Shark Within The Southeast United States, Cassidy Peterson, Michael J. Wilbert, Enric Cortes, Dean Courtney, Robert J. Latour

VIMS Articles

Coastal sharks are challenging to manage in the United States due to their slow life history, limited data availability, history of overexploitation, and competing stakeholder interests. Furthermore, species like the sandbar shark are subjected to international exploitation unmanaged by the U.S. We conducted a management strategy evaluation using Stock Synthesis on the sandbar shark to test the performance of various configurations of a threshold harvest control rule. In addition to uncertainties addressed in the operating model, we built multiple implementation models to address uncertainties related to future levels of a partially unmanaged source of removals, the combined Mexican and ...


A Biologging Database Of Juvenile White Sharks From The Northeast Pacific, J. O'Sullivan, C. G. Lowe, (...), Kevin C. Weng, Et Al Jan 2022

A Biologging Database Of Juvenile White Sharks From The Northeast Pacific, J. O'Sullivan, C. G. Lowe, (...), Kevin C. Weng, Et Al

VIMS Articles

Species occurrence records are vital data streams in marine conservation with a wide range of important applications. From 2001–2020, the Monterey Bay Aquarium led an international research collaboration to understand the life cycle, ecology, and behavior of white sharks (Carcharodon carcharias) in the southern California Current. The collaboration was devoted to tagging juveniles with animal-borne sensors, also known as biologging. Here we report the full data records from 59 pop-up archival (PAT) and 20 smart position and temperature transmitting (SPOT) tags that variously recorded pressure, temperature, and light-level data, and computed depth and geolocations for 63 individuals. Whether transmitted ...


Reproduction, Body Condition, Age, And Growth Of A Large Sandy Intertidal Bivalve, Tivela Stultorum, Alexandria R. Marquardt, Noël M. Clark, Eliana G. Maietta, Et Al Jan 2022

Reproduction, Body Condition, Age, And Growth Of A Large Sandy Intertidal Bivalve, Tivela Stultorum, Alexandria R. Marquardt, Noël M. Clark, Eliana G. Maietta, Et Al

VIMS Articles

The iconic Pismo clam Tivela stultorum (Mawe, 1823) once supported a thriving commercial and recreational fishery in California, but populations have declined statewide in recent decades, in part due to overfishing. To manage and restore populations, fishery managers need accurate life history information, but critical data on reproductive cycles, maturity, and growth rates is either unknown or many decades old. This project aimed to (1) determine annual reproductive cycles and body condition of Pismo clams; (2) identify environmental drivers of reproduction and body condition; (3) determine size-age relationships among clams in California; and (4) estimate growth rates. Up to 70 ...


A Rapid Phenotype Change In The Pathogen Perkinsus Marinus Was Associated With A Historically Significant Marine Disease Emergence In The Eastern Oyster, Ryan Carnegie, Susan E. Ford, Rita K. Crockett, Peter R. Kingsley-Smith, Lydia M. Bienlien, Lucia S.L. Safi, Laura A. Whitefleet-Smith, Eugene M. Burreson Jun 2021

A Rapid Phenotype Change In The Pathogen Perkinsus Marinus Was Associated With A Historically Significant Marine Disease Emergence In The Eastern Oyster, Ryan Carnegie, Susan E. Ford, Rita K. Crockett, Peter R. Kingsley-Smith, Lydia M. Bienlien, Lucia S.L. Safi, Laura A. Whitefleet-Smith, Eugene M. Burreson

VIMS Articles

The protozoan parasite Perkinsus marinus, which causes dermo disease in Crassostrea virginica, is one of the most ecologically important and economically destructive marine pathogens. The rapid and persistent intensification of dermo in the USA in the 1980s has long been enigmatic. Attributed originally to the effects of multi-year drought, climatic factors fail to fully explain the geographic extent of dermo’s intensification or the persistence of its intensified activity. Here we show that emergence of a unique, hypervirulent P. marinus phenotype was associated with the increase in prevalence and intensity of this disease and associated mortality. Retrospective histopathology of 8355 ...


A Decade Of Incorporating Social Sciences In The Integrated Marine Biosphere Research Project (Imber): Much Done, Much To Do?, Ingrid Van Putten, Rachel Kelly, (...), Kevin Weng, Et Al Jun 2021

A Decade Of Incorporating Social Sciences In The Integrated Marine Biosphere Research Project (Imber): Much Done, Much To Do?, Ingrid Van Putten, Rachel Kelly, (...), Kevin Weng, Et Al

VIMS Articles

Successful management and mitigation of marine challenges depends on cooperation and knowledge sharing which often occurs across culturally diverse geographic regions. Global ocean science collaboration is therefore essential for developing global solutions. Building effective global research networks that can enable collaboration also need to ensure inter- and transdisciplinary research approaches to tackle complex marine socio-ecological challenges. To understand the contribution of interdisciplinary global research networks to solving these complex challenges, we use the Integrated Marine Biosphere Research (IMBeR) project as a case study. We investigated the diversity and characteristics of 1,827 scientists from 11 global regions who were attendees ...


Confronting Sources Of Systematic Error To Resolve Historically Contentious Relationships: A Case Study Using Gadiform Fishes (Teleostei, Paracanthopterygii, Gadiformes), Adela Roa-Varón, Rebecca B. Dikow, (...), Eric J. Hilton Jun 2021

Confronting Sources Of Systematic Error To Resolve Historically Contentious Relationships: A Case Study Using Gadiform Fishes (Teleostei, Paracanthopterygii, Gadiformes), Adela Roa-Varón, Rebecca B. Dikow, (...), Eric J. Hilton

VIMS Articles

Reliable estimation of phylogeny is central to avoid inaccuracy in downstream macroevolutionary inferences. However, limitations exist in the implementation of concatenated and summary coalescent approaches, and Bayesian and full coalescent inference methods may not yet be feasible for computation of phylogeny using complicated models and large data sets. Here, we explored methodological (e.g., optimality criteria, character sampling, model selection) and biological (e.g., heterotachy, branch length heterogeneity) sources of systematic error that can result in biased or incorrect parameter estimates when reconstructing phylogeny by using the gadiform fishes as a model clade. Gadiformes include some of the most economically ...


Modeling Changes In Baleen Whale Seasonal Abundance, Timing Of Migration, And Environmental Variables To Explain The Sudden Rise In Entanglements In California, Kaytlin Ingman, Ellen Hines, Piero L. F. Mazzini, Et Al Apr 2021

Modeling Changes In Baleen Whale Seasonal Abundance, Timing Of Migration, And Environmental Variables To Explain The Sudden Rise In Entanglements In California, Kaytlin Ingman, Ellen Hines, Piero L. F. Mazzini, Et Al

VIMS Articles

We document changes in the number of sightings and timing of humpback (Megaptera novaeangliae), blue (Balaenoptera musculus), and gray (Eschrichtius robustus) whale migratory phases in the vicinity of the Farallon Islands, California. We hypothesized that changes in the timing of migration off central California were driven by local oceanography, regional upwelling, and basin-scale climate conditions. Using 24 years of daily whale counts collected from Southeast Farallon Island, we developed negative binomial regression models to evaluate trends in local whale sightings over time. We then used linear models to assess trends in the timing of migration, and to identify potential environmental ...


Variation In Seagrass-Associated Macroinvertebrate Communities Along The Gulf Coast Of Peninsular Florida: An Exploration Of Patterns And Ecological Consequences, Savanna C. Barry, A. Challen Hyman, Charles A. Jacoby, Laura K. Reynolds, Mark Kowalewski, Thomas K. Frazer Mar 2021

Variation In Seagrass-Associated Macroinvertebrate Communities Along The Gulf Coast Of Peninsular Florida: An Exploration Of Patterns And Ecological Consequences, Savanna C. Barry, A. Challen Hyman, Charles A. Jacoby, Laura K. Reynolds, Mark Kowalewski, Thomas K. Frazer

VIMS Articles

Seagrasses form vast meadows of structurally complex habitat that support faunal communities with greater numbers of species and individuals than nearby unstructured habitats. The Gulf coast of peninsular Florida represents a natural laboratory ideally suited to the study of processes that shape seagrass-associated invertebrate and fish communities within meadows of a single species of seagrass, Thalassia testudinum. This suitability arises from a pronounced structural and chemical gradient that exists over ecologically relevant spatial and temporal scales, as revealed by extensive monitoring of water quality and seagrass. We hypothesized that seagrass-associated invertebrate communities would vary across five estuarine systems spread along ...


Ribbed Mussel Geukensia Demissa Population Response To Living Shoreline Design And Ecosystem Development, Donna Marie Bilkovic, Robert Isdell, Amanda G. Guthrie, Molly Mitchell, Randolph M. Chambers Mar 2021

Ribbed Mussel Geukensia Demissa Population Response To Living Shoreline Design And Ecosystem Development, Donna Marie Bilkovic, Robert Isdell, Amanda G. Guthrie, Molly Mitchell, Randolph M. Chambers

VIMS Articles

Coastal communities increasingly invest in natural and nature-based features (e.g., living shorelines) as a strategy to protect shorelines and enhance coastal resilience. Tidal marshes are a common component of these strategies because of their capacity to reduce wave energy and storm surge impacts. Performance metrics of restoration success for living shorelines tend to focus on how the physical structure of the created marsh enhances shoreline protection via proper elevation and marsh plant presence. These metrics do not fully evaluate the level of marsh ecosystem development. In particular, the presence of key marsh bivalve species can indicate the capability of ...


Spatiotemporal Distribution Of Phycotoxins And Their Co-Occurrence Within Nearshore Waters, Michelle D. Onofrio, Todd A. Egerton, Kimberly S. Reece, Sarah K.D. Pease, Marta P. Sanderson, William Jones Iii, Evan Yeargan, Amanda Roach, Caroline Dement, William G. Reay, Allen R. Place, Juliette L. Smith Mar 2021

Spatiotemporal Distribution Of Phycotoxins And Their Co-Occurrence Within Nearshore Waters, Michelle D. Onofrio, Todd A. Egerton, Kimberly S. Reece, Sarah K.D. Pease, Marta P. Sanderson, William Jones Iii, Evan Yeargan, Amanda Roach, Caroline Dement, William G. Reay, Allen R. Place, Juliette L. Smith

VIMS Articles

Harmful algal blooms (HABs), varying in intensity and causative species, have historically occurred throughout the Chesapeake Bay, U.S.; however, phycotoxin data are sparse. The spatiotemporal distribution of phycotoxins was investigated using solid-phase adsorption toxin tracking (SPATT) across 12 shallow, nearshore sites within the lower Chesapeake Bay and Virginia's coastal bays over one year (2017-2018). Eight toxins, azaspiracid-1 (AZA1), azaspiracid-2 (AZA2), microcystin-LR (MC-LR), domoic acid (DA), okadaic acid (OA), dinophysistoxin-1 (DTX1), pectenotoxin-2 (PTX2), and goniodomin A (GDA) were detected in SPATT extracts. Temporally, phycotoxins were always present in the region, with at least one phycotoxin group (i.e., consisting ...


The Path To An Ecosystem Approach For Forage Fish Management: A Case Study Of Atlantic Menhaden, Kristen A. Anstead, Katie Drew, David Chagaris, (...), Robert J. Latour, Et Al Feb 2021

The Path To An Ecosystem Approach For Forage Fish Management: A Case Study Of Atlantic Menhaden, Kristen A. Anstead, Katie Drew, David Chagaris, (...), Robert J. Latour, Et Al

VIMS Articles

Atlantic menhaden (Brevoortia tyrannus) support the largest fishery by volume on the United States East Coast, while also playing an important role as a forage species. Managers’ and stakeholders’ increasing concerns about the impact of Atlantic menhaden harvest on ecosystem processes led to an evolution in the assessment and management of this species from a purely single-species approach to an ecosystem approach. The first coastwide stock assessment of Atlantic menhaden for management used a single-species virtual population analysis (VPA). Subsequent assessments used a forward projecting statistical catch-at-age framework that incorporated estimates of predation mortality from a multispecies VPA while analytical ...


Comparative Study Of The Hemolymph Microbiome Between Live And Recently Dead American Lobsters Homarus Americanus, Jibom Jung, Patrick M. Gillevet, Masoumeh Sikaroodi, Jamal Andrews, Bk Song, Jeffrey D. Shields Feb 2021

Comparative Study Of The Hemolymph Microbiome Between Live And Recently Dead American Lobsters Homarus Americanus, Jibom Jung, Patrick M. Gillevet, Masoumeh Sikaroodi, Jamal Andrews, Bk Song, Jeffrey D. Shields

VIMS Articles

Lobsters and other crustaceans do not have sterile hemolymph. Despite this, little is known about the microbiome in the hemolymph of the lobster Homarus americanus. The purpose of this study was to characterize the hemolymph microbiome in lobsters. The lobsters were part of a larger study on the effect of temperature on epizootic shell disease, and several died during the course of the study, providing an opportunity to examine differences in the microbiomes between live and recently dead (1−24 h) animals. The hemolymph microbiomes of live lobsters was different from those in dead animals and both were different from ...