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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Bycatch In A Commercial Lobster Fishery: Effects On Two Benthic Predators, Sea Raven And Longhorn Sculpin, Brooke N. Anderson, Amelia M. Weissman, Brett Sweezey, John Mandelman, David Rudders, James A. Sulikowski Apr 2020

Bycatch In A Commercial Lobster Fishery: Effects On Two Benthic Predators, Sea Raven And Longhorn Sculpin, Brooke N. Anderson, Amelia M. Weissman, Brett Sweezey, John Mandelman, David Rudders, James A. Sulikowski

VIMS Articles

Studying the species‐specific responses to fishing capture is critical for effective management and conservation of bycatch species given that acute stress incurred from capture and handling may ultimately lead to mortality. While species of low commercial value are often overlooked, having accurate information on the effects of capture on all species is necessary for ecosystem‐based management. Sea Raven (SR) Hemitripterus americanus and Longhorn Sculpin (LHS) Myoxocephalus octodecemspinosus are routinely captured in the commercial American lobster Homarus americanus fishery in the Gulf of Maine, and they are discarded due to low commercial value. Despite a lack of economic value ...


In The Face Of Climate Change And Exhaustive Exercise: The Physiological Response Of An Important Recreational Fish Species, Daniel P. Crear, Richard Brill, Lauren M.L. Averilla, Sara C. Meakem, Kevin C. Weng Mar 2020

In The Face Of Climate Change And Exhaustive Exercise: The Physiological Response Of An Important Recreational Fish Species, Daniel P. Crear, Richard Brill, Lauren M.L. Averilla, Sara C. Meakem, Kevin C. Weng

VIMS Articles

Cobia (Rachycentron canadum) support recreational fisheries along the US mid- and south-Atlantic states and have been recently subjected to increased fishing effort, primarily during their spawning season in coastal habitats where increasing temperatures and expanding hypoxic zones are occurring due to climate change. We therefore undertook a study to quantify the physiological abilities of cobia to withstand increases in temperature and hypoxia, including their ability to recover from exhaustive exercise. Respirometry was conducted on cobia from Chesapeake Bay to determine aerobic scope, critical oxygen saturation, ventilation volume and the time to recover from exhaustive exercise under temperature and oxygen conditions ...


Barriers To Eastern Oyster Aquaculture Expansion In Virginia, Jennifer Beckensteiner, David M. Kaplan, Andrew M. Scheld Mar 2020

Barriers To Eastern Oyster Aquaculture Expansion In Virginia, Jennifer Beckensteiner, David M. Kaplan, Andrew M. Scheld

VIMS Articles

The eastern oyster once provided major societal and ecosystem benefits, but these benefits have been threatened in recent decades by large declines in oyster harvests. In many areas, recovery of oyster aquaculture faces significant societal opposition and spatial constraints limiting its ability to meet expectations regarding future food needs and provision of ecosystem services. In Virginia, oyster aquaculture has begun to expand, concurrent with an increase in subaqueous leased areas (over 130,000 acres of grounds are currently leased). Though private leases must in theory be used for oyster production, in practice, they can be held for other reasons, such ...


The Role Of Sexual Reproduction In The Maintenance Of Established Zostera Marina Meadows, Andrew J. Johnson, R J. Orth, Ken Moore Mar 2020

The Role Of Sexual Reproduction In The Maintenance Of Established Zostera Marina Meadows, Andrew J. Johnson, R J. Orth, Ken Moore

VIMS Articles

For clonal plants, the role of sexual reproduction in the maintenance of populations can vary widely. Some species are dependent on repeated seedling recruitment. For other species, interactions between adults and seedlings within existing populations can affect seedling survival and limit sexual reproduction in existing populations. Genetic studies of seagrass populations increasingly suggest sexual reproduction is important for the resilience and stability of their populations, but as of yet little observational data support these findings. Because seagrass populations provide important ecosystem services and are threatened with increasing anthropogenic impacts, understanding their reliance on sexual reproduction is evolutionarily and ecologically important ...


Positive Ecological Interactions And The Success Of Seagrass Restoration, Stephanie R. Valdez, Y. Stacy Zhang, Tjisse Van Der Heide, Mathew A. Vanderklift, Flavia Tarquinio, R J. Orth, Brian R. Silliman Feb 2020

Positive Ecological Interactions And The Success Of Seagrass Restoration, Stephanie R. Valdez, Y. Stacy Zhang, Tjisse Van Der Heide, Mathew A. Vanderklift, Flavia Tarquinio, R J. Orth, Brian R. Silliman

VIMS Articles

Seagrasses provide multiple ecosystem services including nursery habitat, improved water quality, coastal protection, and carbon sequestration. However, seagrasses are in crisis as global coverage is declining at an accelerating rate. With increased focus on ecological restoration as a conservation strategy, methods that enhance restoration success need to be explored. Decades of work in coastal plant ecosystems, including seagrasses, has shown that positive species relationships and feedbacks are critical for ecosystem stability, expansion, and recovery from disturbance. We reviewed the restoration literature on seagrasses and found few studies have tested for the beneficial effects of including positive species interactions in seagrass ...


Timing Of The Reproductive Cycle Of Waved Whelk, Buccinum Undatum, On The Us Mid-Atlantic Bight, Sarah Borsetti, Daphne Munroe, David Rudders, Jul-Han Chang Feb 2020

Timing Of The Reproductive Cycle Of Waved Whelk, Buccinum Undatum, On The Us Mid-Atlantic Bight, Sarah Borsetti, Daphne Munroe, David Rudders, Jul-Han Chang

VIMS Articles

Development of the unmanaged waved whelk (Buccinum undatum) fishery on the Mid-Atlantic continental shelf of the United States has initiated investigation into fisheries-related biological and population attributes of the species in this region. Maturation and reproduction timing vary by location for this species and are likely linked to bottom water temperature. This study examined the seasonal fluctuations in relevant body metrics and gonadosomatic index in relation to bottom temperature to assess the timing of the reproductive cycle of the B. undatum population in the southern-most extent of this species' range in the Atlantic. To characterize variation over the maturation schedule ...


Alternative Substrates Used For Oyster Reef Restoration: A Review, Taylor Goelz, Bruce Vogt, Troy Hartley Jan 2020

Alternative Substrates Used For Oyster Reef Restoration: A Review, Taylor Goelz, Bruce Vogt, Troy Hartley

VIMS Articles

Oyster populations and reef habitats have notably declined in the last century around the world. The ecological, economic, and cultural values of oysters have led to a variety of restoration efforts seeking to recover these lost benefits. Limitations of the native oyster shell substrate and the large-scale nature of many restoration projects have resulted in the increased use of a variety of alternative, or artificial, substrates to create reef structures. A text mining package was used to conduct a review of alternative substrates used for oyster restoration. Specifically, the review (1) assessed commonly used alternative substrates, (2) locations where alternative ...


Drivers And Trends In Catch Of Benthic Resources In Chilean Turfs And Surrounding Open Access Areas, Jennifer Beckensteiner, Andrew M. Scheld, Miriam Fernandez, David M. Kaplan Jan 2020

Drivers And Trends In Catch Of Benthic Resources In Chilean Turfs And Surrounding Open Access Areas, Jennifer Beckensteiner, Andrew M. Scheld, Miriam Fernandez, David M. Kaplan

VIMS Articles

Beginning in the 1990’s, Chile implemented an extensive Territorial User Rights for Fisheries (TURFs) network that now comprises nearly 1,000 TURFs. This network provides a rare opportunity to examine spatial and temporal trends in TURF use and impacts on surrounding open access areas (OAAs). In this analysis, landings of keyhole limpet (Fissurella spp.), kelp (Lessonia spp.) and red sea urchin (Loxechinus albus) were used to estimate catch-per-unit effort (CPUEs) and catch-per-unit area (CPUAs) indices inside and outside TURFs by fishing cove. For these species, CPUEs and CPUAs in 2015 were significantly higher inside TURFs. However, temporal trends analyzed ...


Quantifying The Behavioral And Economic Effects Of Regulatory Change In A Recreational Cobia Fishery, Andrew M. Scheld, William M. Goldsmith, Shelby White, Hamish J. Small, Susanna Musick Jan 2020

Quantifying The Behavioral And Economic Effects Of Regulatory Change In A Recreational Cobia Fishery, Andrew M. Scheld, William M. Goldsmith, Shelby White, Hamish J. Small, Susanna Musick

VIMS Articles

Fisheries economists typically assume recreational anglers make decisions that maximize individual angler utility, which may depend on fishery and regulatory conditions. Under this framework, changes in regulations can lead to target species substitution by anglers in response to shifts in expectations of trip utility. A stated preference survey was developed and distributed to recreational cobia (Rachycentron canadum) anglers in Virginia to explore the effects of regulatory change on angler decision-making, species targeting, and resulting economic outcomes. The survey included a series of hypothetical choice scenarios, where respondents were asked to select their most preferred alternative after being presented with different ...


Worker Exposure To Flame Retardants In Manufacturing, Construction And Service Industries, C. Fairfield Estill, J. Slone, A. Mayer, I-C Chen, M. J. La Guardia Jan 2020

Worker Exposure To Flame Retardants In Manufacturing, Construction And Service Industries, C. Fairfield Estill, J. Slone, A. Mayer, I-C Chen, M. J. La Guardia

VIMS Articles

Workers in several industries are occupationally exposed to flame retardants. This study characterizes flame retardant exposure for nine industries through air and hand wipe measures for 105 workers. Specifically, we analyzed 24 analytes from three chemical classes: organophosphate flame retardants (OFRs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and non-PBDE brominated flame retardants (NPBFRs). The industries were: carpet installation, chemical manufacturing, foam manufacturing, electronic scrap, gymnastics, rigid board installation, nail salons, roofing, and spray polyurethane foam. Workers wore personal air samplers for two entire workdays and provided hand wipe samples before and after the second work day. Bulk products were also analyzed. The ...


Water Temperature During Winter May Control Striped Bass Recruitment During Spring By Affecting The Development Time Of Copepod Nauplii, Nicole C. Millette, J. J. Pierson, E. W. North Jan 2020

Water Temperature During Winter May Control Striped Bass Recruitment During Spring By Affecting The Development Time Of Copepod Nauplii, Nicole C. Millette, J. J. Pierson, E. W. North

VIMS Articles

Striped bass (Morone saxatilis) are anadromous fish that support an important fishery along the east coast of North America. In Chesapeake Bay, strong juvenile recruitment of striped bass can occur when larvae overlap with high concentrations of their zooplankton prey, but the mechanisms fostering the temporal overlap are unknown. Here, the influence of winter temperature on the peak abundances of a key prey, Eurytemora carolleeae, was estimated with a temperature-dependent developmental model. The role of these peaks in regulating striped bass recruitment was explored in three nursery areas: upper Chesapeake Bay, Choptank River, and Patuxent River. Model results indicated that ...


"Microplastics Affect Sedimentary Microbial Communities And Nitrogen Cycling, Meredith E. Seeley, Bk Song, Renia Passie, Robert C. Hale Jan 2020

"Microplastics Affect Sedimentary Microbial Communities And Nitrogen Cycling, Meredith E. Seeley, Bk Song, Renia Passie, Robert C. Hale

VIMS Articles

Microplastics are ubiquitous in estuarine, coastal, and deep sea sediments. The impacts of microplastics on sedimentary microbial ecosystems and biogeochemical carbon and nitrogen cycles, however, have not been well reported. To evaluate if microplastics influence the composition and function of sedimentary microbial communities, we conducted a microcosm experiment using salt marsh sediment amended with polyethylene (PE), polyvinyl chloride(PVC), polyurethane foam (PUF) or polylactic acid (PLA) microplastics. We report that the presence of microplastics alters sediment microbial community composition and nitrogen cycling processes. Compared to control sediments without microplastic, PUF- and PLA-amended sediments promote nitrification and denitrification, while PVC amendment ...


First Comparison Of French And Australian Oshv-1 Μvars By Bath Exposure, Ca Burge, Kimberly S. Reece, Ak Dhar, P Kirkland, B Morga, L Dégremont, N Faury, B Whipple, A Macintyre, C Friedman Jan 2020

First Comparison Of French And Australian Oshv-1 Μvars By Bath Exposure, Ca Burge, Kimberly S. Reece, Ak Dhar, P Kirkland, B Morga, L Dégremont, N Faury, B Whipple, A Macintyre, C Friedman

VIMS Articles

Economically devastating mortality events of farmed and wild shellfish due to infectious disease have been reported globally. Currently, one of the most significant disease threats to Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas culture is the ostreid herpesvirus 1 (OsHV-1), in particular the emerging OsHV-1 microvariant genotypes. OsHV-1 microvariants (OsHV-1 μvars) are spreading globally, and concern is high among growers in areas unaffected by OsHV-1. No study to date has compared the relative virulence among variants. We provide the first challenge study comparing survival of naïve juvenile Pacific oysters exposed to OsHV-1 μvars from Australia (AUS μvar) and France (FRA μvar). Oysters challenged ...


Density-Dependence Mediates The Effects Of Temperature On Growth Of Juvenile Blue Catfish In Nonnative Habitats, Vaskar Nepal, Mary C. Fabrizio Jan 2020

Density-Dependence Mediates The Effects Of Temperature On Growth Of Juvenile Blue Catfish In Nonnative Habitats, Vaskar Nepal, Mary C. Fabrizio

VIMS Articles

The combined effects of conspecific density and climate warming on the vital rates of invasive fish species have not been well studied, but may be important in predicting how successful they will be in the future. We evaluated the effects of temperature and population density on monthly time series of sizes of age-0 Blue Catfish Ictalurus furcatus in the James, York, and Rappahannock River subestuaries (defined here as tidally influenced bodies of water that feed into the Chesapeake Bay) from 1996 to 2017, using growing degree-days (GDDs, °C day) as a measure of thermal time. Our pre- dictive linear mixed-effects ...


Multidisciplinary Observing In The World Ocean's Oxygen Minimum Zone Regions: From Climate To Fish - The Voice Initiative, V Garcon, J Karstensen, A Palacz, Et Al, Kevin C. Weng Dec 2019

Multidisciplinary Observing In The World Ocean's Oxygen Minimum Zone Regions: From Climate To Fish - The Voice Initiative, V Garcon, J Karstensen, A Palacz, Et Al, Kevin C. Weng

VIMS Articles

Multidisciplinary ocean observing activities provide critical ocean information to satisfy ever-changing socioeconomic needs and require coordinated implementation. The upper oxycline (transition between high and low oxygen waters) is fundamentally important for the ecosystem structure and can be a useful proxy for multiple observing objectives connected to eastern boundary systems (EBSs) that neighbor oxygen minimum zones (OMZs). The variability of the oxycline and its impact on the ecosystem (VOICE) initiative demonstrates how societal benefits drive the need for integration and optimization of biological, biogeochemical, and physical components of regional ocean observing related to EBS. In liaison with the Global Ocean Oxygen ...


Selectivity Of Two Commercial Dredges Fished In The Northwest Atlantic Sea Scallop Fishery, Sally Roman, David Rudders Dec 2019

Selectivity Of Two Commercial Dredges Fished In The Northwest Atlantic Sea Scallop Fishery, Sally Roman, David Rudders

VIMS Articles

Size selectivity curves were estimated for two commercial dredge configurations used in the United States Atlantic sea scallop (Placopecten magellanicus) fishery. Traditionally, the New Bedford Style dredge (New Bedford dredge) has been used by the commercial fleet; however, since 2013, the Coonamessett Farm Turtle Deflector Dredge (turtle dredge) has been required seasonally in the Mid-Atlantic region to minimize the capture of sea turtles. This analysis provides estimates of selectivity and relative efficiency for the turtle dredge and the New Bedford dredge. Selectivity information for the turtle dredge is currently unknown, and selectivity for the New Bedford dredge was originally assessed ...


A Conservation Palaeobiological Perspective On Chesapeake Bay Oysters, Rowan Lockwood, Roger L. Mann Dec 2019

A Conservation Palaeobiological Perspective On Chesapeake Bay Oysters, Rowan Lockwood, Roger L. Mann

VIMS Articles

The eastern oyster plays a vital role in estuarine habitats, acting as an ecosystem engineer and improving water quality. Populations of Chesapeake Bay oysters have declined precipitously in recent decades. The fossil record, which preserves 500 000 years of once-thriving reefs, provides a unique opportunity to study pristine reefs to establish a possible baseline for mitigation. For this study, over 900 fossil oysters were examined from three Pleistocene localities in the Chesapeake region. Data on oyster shell lengths, lifespans and population density were assessed. Comparisons to modern Crassostrea virginica, sampled from monitoring surveys of similar environments, reveal that fossil oysters ...


Analysing Tropical Elasmobranch Blood Samples In The Field: Blood Stability During Storage And Validation Of The Hemocue® Haemoglobin Analyser, Gail D. Schwieterman, Ian A. Bouyoucos, Kristy Potgieter, Colin A. Simpfendorfer, Richard Brill, Jody L. Rummer Nov 2019

Analysing Tropical Elasmobranch Blood Samples In The Field: Blood Stability During Storage And Validation Of The Hemocue® Haemoglobin Analyser, Gail D. Schwieterman, Ian A. Bouyoucos, Kristy Potgieter, Colin A. Simpfendorfer, Richard Brill, Jody L. Rummer

VIMS Articles

Blood samples collected from wild-caught fishes can provide important information regarding the effects of capture (and thus post-release survival) as well as other stressors. Unfortunately, blood samples often cannot be analysed immediately upon sampling, and blood parameters (e.g. blood oxygen levels and acid–base parameters) are known to change with storage duration due to the metabolic activity of the red blood cells. We obtained blood samples from both untreated and stressed individuals of both blacktip reef shark (Carcharhinus melanopterus) and sicklefin lemon shark (Negaprion acutidens) to determine the effects of storage duration on blood pH, haematocrit and haemoglobin concentration ...


Minimal Effects Of Oyster Aquaculture On Local Water Quality: Examples From Southern Chesapeake Bay, Jessica Turner, M. Lisa Kellogg, Grace M. Massey, Carl Friedrichs Nov 2019

Minimal Effects Of Oyster Aquaculture On Local Water Quality: Examples From Southern Chesapeake Bay, Jessica Turner, M. Lisa Kellogg, Grace M. Massey, Carl Friedrichs

VIMS Articles

As the oyster aquaculture industry grows and becomes incorporated into management practices, it is important to understand its effects on local environments. This study investigated how water quality and hydrodynamics varied among farms as well as inside versus outside the extent of caged grow-out areas located in southern Chesapeake Bay. Current speed and water quality variables (chlorophyll-a fluorescence, turbidity, and dissolved oxygen) were measured along multiple transects within and adjacent to four oyster farms during two seasons. At the scale of individual aquaculture sites, we were able to detect statistically significant differences in current speed and water quality variables between ...


High Salinity Tolerance Of Invasive Blue Catfish Suggests Potential For Further Range Expansion In The Chesapeake Bay Region, Vaskar Nepal, Mary C. Fabrizio Nov 2019

High Salinity Tolerance Of Invasive Blue Catfish Suggests Potential For Further Range Expansion In The Chesapeake Bay Region, Vaskar Nepal, Mary C. Fabrizio

VIMS Articles

In estuaries, salinity is believed to limit the colonization of brackish water habitats by freshwater species. Blue catfish Ictalurus furcatus, recognized as a freshwater species, is an invasive species in tidal rivers of the Chesapeake Bay. Salinity tolerance of this species, though likely to determine its potential range expansion and dispersal in estuarine habitats, is not well-known. To address this issue, we subjected blue catfish to a short-term salinity tolerance experiment and found that this species tolerates salinities higher than most freshwater fishes and that larger blue catfish tolerate elevated salinities for longer periods compared with smaller individuals. Our results ...


Characterization Of Microsporidian Ameson Herrnkindi Sp. Nov. Infecting Caribbean Spiny Lobsters Panulirus Argus, Hamish J. Small, Gd Stentiford, Dc Behringer, Ma Freeman, Nam Atherley, Kimberly S. Reece, Jeffrey D. Shields Oct 2019

Characterization Of Microsporidian Ameson Herrnkindi Sp. Nov. Infecting Caribbean Spiny Lobsters Panulirus Argus, Hamish J. Small, Gd Stentiford, Dc Behringer, Ma Freeman, Nam Atherley, Kimberly S. Reece, Jeffrey D. Shields

VIMS Articles

The Caribbean spiny lobster Panulirus argus supports a large and valuable fishery in the Caribbean Sea. In 2007-2008, a rare microsporidian parasite with spore characteristics typical of the Ameson genus was detected in 2 spiny lobsters from southeast Florida (FL). However, the parasite species was not confirmed by molecular analyses. To address this deficiency, reported here are structural and molecular data on single lobsters displaying comparable ‘cotton-like’ abdominal muscle containing ovoid microsporidian spores found at different locations in FL in 2014 and 2018 and in Saint Kitts and Nevis Islands in 2017. In the lobster from 2014, multiple life stages ...


The Importance Of Antarctic Krill In Biogeochemical Cycles, El Cavan, A Belcher, Sl Hill, S Kawaguchi, S Mccormack, B Meyer, S Nicol, K Schmidt, Deborah K. Steinberg, Ga Tarling, Pw Boyd Oct 2019

The Importance Of Antarctic Krill In Biogeochemical Cycles, El Cavan, A Belcher, Sl Hill, S Kawaguchi, S Mccormack, B Meyer, S Nicol, K Schmidt, Deborah K. Steinberg, Ga Tarling, Pw Boyd

VIMS Articles

Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) are swarming, oceanic crustaceans, up to two inches long, and best known as prey for whales and penguins – but they have another important role. With their large size, high biomass and daily vertical migrations they transport and transform essential nutrients, stimulate primary productivity and influence the carbon sink. Antarctic krill are also fished by the Southern Ocean’s largest fishery. Yet how krill fishing impacts nutrient fertilisation and the carbon sink in the Southern Ocean is poorly understood. Our synthesis shows fishery management should consider the influential biogeochemical role of both adult and larval Antarctic krill.


Ecosystem Services Of Restored Oyster Reefs In A Chesapeake Bay Tributary: Abundance And Foraging Of Estuarine Fishes, Bruce Pfirrmann, Rd Seitz Oct 2019

Ecosystem Services Of Restored Oyster Reefs In A Chesapeake Bay Tributary: Abundance And Foraging Of Estuarine Fishes, Bruce Pfirrmann, Rd Seitz

VIMS Articles

Restoration of oyster reefs in coastal ecosystems may enhance fish and fisheries by providing valuable refuge and foraging habitat, but understanding the effects of restoration requires an improved understanding of fish habitat use and trophic dynamics, coupled with long-term (>5 yr) monitoring of restored habitats. We evaluated the relationship between large (3-5 ha) restored subtidal oyster reefs and mobile estuarine fishes in the Lynnhaven River System (LRS), Virginia, more than 8 yr following reef construction. We compared the (1) diversity, (2) abundance, (3) size, (4) stomach fullness, (5) diet composition, and (6) daily consumption rate of fishes collected from restored ...


Temporal, Spatial, And Biological Variation Of Nematode Epidemiology In American Eels, Zt Warshafsky, Troy D. Tuckey, Wk Vogelbein, Rj Latour, Ar Wargo Oct 2019

Temporal, Spatial, And Biological Variation Of Nematode Epidemiology In American Eels, Zt Warshafsky, Troy D. Tuckey, Wk Vogelbein, Rj Latour, Ar Wargo

VIMS Articles

This is the accepted manuscript version of the article.

American eels (Anguilla rostrata) are infected by the non-native parasitic nematode Anguillicoloides crassus, which can cause severe swim bladder damage. We investigated epidemiology of A. crassus to better understand its population-level effects on American eels. Nematode prevalence, abundance, and intensity and swim bladder damage were quantified in glass eels, elvers, and yellow eels from the lower Chesapeake Bay and related to season of capture, river system, and total length. Age-variant force-of-infection and disease-associated mortality were estimated using a three-state irreversible disease model, which assumes recovery is not possible. Results showed glass ...


Scientific Considerations For Acidification Monitoring In The Us Mid-Atlantic Region, Ka Goldsmith, S Lau, Et Al, Eh Shadwick, Et Al Sep 2019

Scientific Considerations For Acidification Monitoring In The Us Mid-Atlantic Region, Ka Goldsmith, S Lau, Et Al, Eh Shadwick, Et Al

VIMS Articles

Coastal and ocean acidification has the potential to cause significant environmental and societal impacts. Monitoring carbonate chemistry parameters over spatial and temporal scales is challenging, especially with limited resources. A lack of monitoring data can lead to a limited understanding of real-world conditions. Without such data, robust experimental and model design is challenging, and the identification and understanding of episodic acidification events is nearly impossible. We present considerations for resource managers, academia, and industry professionals who are currently developing acidification monitoring programs in the Mid-Atlantic region. We highlight the following considerations for deliberation: 1) leverage existing infrastructure to include multiple ...


Bacterial And Archaeal Specific-Predation In The North Atlantic Basin, Lm Seyler, S Tuorto, Lr Mcguinness, Dl Gong, Lj Kerkof Sep 2019

Bacterial And Archaeal Specific-Predation In The North Atlantic Basin, Lm Seyler, S Tuorto, Lr Mcguinness, Dl Gong, Lj Kerkof

VIMS Articles

Stable isotope probing (SIP) was used to track prokaryotic and eukaryotic carbon uptake along a meridional transect (Long. 52°W) in the North Atlantic to assess if 13C-resource partitioning between bacteria and archaea and 13C-labeled eukaryotic predators could be detected. One-liter SIP microcosms were amended with 13C-acetate or 13C-urea and incubated for 48 h. Our data indicated archaea often outcompeted bacteria for 13C-urea while both archaea and bacteria could incorporate 13C-acetate. This 13C label could also be tracked into eukaryotic microbes. The largest number of 13C-labeled eukaryotic OTUs, and the greatest percentage ...


Global Change Effects On Plant Communities Are Magnified By Time And The Number Of Global Change Factors Imposed, Kj Komatsu, Ml Avolio, Et Al, David S. Johnson, Et Al Sep 2019

Global Change Effects On Plant Communities Are Magnified By Time And The Number Of Global Change Factors Imposed, Kj Komatsu, Ml Avolio, Et Al, David S. Johnson, Et Al

VIMS Articles

Global change drivers (GCDs) are expected to alter community structure and consequently, the services that ecosystems provide. Yet, few experimental investigations have examined effects of GCDs on plant community structure across multiple ecosystem types, and those that do exist present conflicting patterns. In an unprecedented global synthesis of over 100 experiments that manipulated factors linked to GCDs, we show that herbaceous plant community responses depend on experimental manipulation length and number of factors manipulated. We found that plant communities are fairly resistant to experimentally manipulated GCDs in the short term (< 10 y). In contrast, long-term (>= 10 y) experiments show increasing community divergence of treatments from ...


Evaluation Of The Stock Structure Of Cobia (Rachycentron Canadum) In The Southeastern United States By Using Dart-Tag And Genetics Data, M Perkinson, T Darden, M Jamison, Mj Walker, Mr Denson, J Franks, R Hendon, Susanna Musick, Es Orbesen Aug 2019

Evaluation Of The Stock Structure Of Cobia (Rachycentron Canadum) In The Southeastern United States By Using Dart-Tag And Genetics Data, M Perkinson, T Darden, M Jamison, Mj Walker, Mr Denson, J Franks, R Hendon, Susanna Musick, Es Orbesen

VIMS Articles

Available tag-recapture and population genetics data for cobia (Rachycentron canadum) in the south-eastern United States were evaluated to provide information on population structure and determine the geographic boundary between stocks in the Gulf of Mexico and the Atlantic Ocean. The movements of 1750 cobia were evaluated on the basis of assigned tagging and recapture zones. Genetic samples from an additional 2796 cobia collected during the presumed spawning season were genotyped at 10 microsatellite loci, and standard population genetic statistical analyses were applied to the resulting sample data set. Tag- recapture results indicate that cobia tagged south of Cape Canaveral, Florida ...


It’S About Time: A Synthesis Of Changing Phenology In The Gulf Of Maine Ecosystem, Md Staudinger, Ke Mills, Et Al, Ds Johnson, Et Al Aug 2019

It’S About Time: A Synthesis Of Changing Phenology In The Gulf Of Maine Ecosystem, Md Staudinger, Ke Mills, Et Al, Ds Johnson, Et Al

VIMS Articles

The timing of recurring biological and seasonal environmental events is changing on a global scale relative to temperature and other climate drivers. This study considers the Gulf of Maine ecosystem, a region of high social and ecological importance in the Northwest Atlantic Ocean and synthesizes current knowledge of (a) key seasonal processes, patterns, and events; (b) direct evidence for shifts in timing; (c) implications of phenological responses for linked ecological-human systems; and (d) potential phenology-focused adaptation strategies and actions. Twenty studies demonstrated shifts in timing of regional marine organisms and seasonal environmental events. The most common response was earlier timing ...


Combined Effects Of Acute Temperature Change And Elevated Pco2 On The Metabolic Rates And Hypoxia Tolerances Of Clearnose Skate (Rostaraja Eglanteria), Summer Flounder (Paralichthys Dentatus), And Thorny Skate (Amblyraja Radiata), Gail D. Schwieterman, Daniel P. Crear, Brooke N. Anderson, Danielle R. Lavoie, James A. Sulikowski, Peter G. Bushnell, Richard Brill Jul 2019

Combined Effects Of Acute Temperature Change And Elevated Pco2 On The Metabolic Rates And Hypoxia Tolerances Of Clearnose Skate (Rostaraja Eglanteria), Summer Flounder (Paralichthys Dentatus), And Thorny Skate (Amblyraja Radiata), Gail D. Schwieterman, Daniel P. Crear, Brooke N. Anderson, Danielle R. Lavoie, James A. Sulikowski, Peter G. Bushnell, Richard Brill

VIMS Articles

Understanding how rising temperatures, ocean acidification, and hypoxia affect the performance of coastal fishes is essential to predicting species-specific responses to climate change. Although a population’s habitat influences physiological performance, little work has explicitly examined the multi-stressor responses of species from habitats differing in natural variability. Here, clearnose skate (Rostaraja eglanteria) and summer flounder (Paralichthys dentatus) from mid-Atlantic estuaries, and thorny skate (Amblyraja radiata) from the Gulf of Maine, were acutely exposed to current and projected temperatures (20, 24, or 28 °C; 22 or 30 °C; and 9, 13, or 15 °C, respectively) and acidification conditions (pH 7.8 ...