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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Combined Effects Of Acute Temperature Change And Elevated Pco2 On The Metabolic Rates And Hypoxia Tolerances Of Clearnose Skate (Rostaraja Eglanteria), Summer Flounder (Paralichthys Dentatus), And Thorny Skate (Amblyraja Radiata), Gail D. Schwieterman, Daniel P. Crear, Brooke N. Anderson, Danielle R. Lavoie, James A. Sulikowski, Peter G. Bushnell, Richard W. Brill Jul 2019

Combined Effects Of Acute Temperature Change And Elevated Pco2 On The Metabolic Rates And Hypoxia Tolerances Of Clearnose Skate (Rostaraja Eglanteria), Summer Flounder (Paralichthys Dentatus), And Thorny Skate (Amblyraja Radiata), Gail D. Schwieterman, Daniel P. Crear, Brooke N. Anderson, Danielle R. Lavoie, James A. Sulikowski, Peter G. Bushnell, Richard W. Brill

VIMS Articles

Understanding how rising temperatures, ocean acidification, and hypoxia affect the performance of coastal fishes is essential to predicting species-specific responses to climate change. Although a population’s habitat influences physiological performance, little work has explicitly examined the multi-stressor responses of species from habitats differing in natural variability. Here, clearnose skate (Rostaraja eglanteria) and summer flounder (Paralichthys dentatus) from mid-Atlantic estuaries, and thorny skate (Amblyraja radiata) from the Gulf of Maine, were acutely exposed to current and projected temperatures (20, 24, or 28 °C; 22 or 30 °C; and 9, 13, or 15 °C, respectively) and acidification conditions (pH 7.8 ...


Toward A Coordinated Global Observing System For Seagrasses And Marine Macroalgae, J. Emmett Duffy, L. Benedetti-Cecchi, Et Al, Robert J. Orth, Et Al Jul 2019

Toward A Coordinated Global Observing System For Seagrasses And Marine Macroalgae, J. Emmett Duffy, L. Benedetti-Cecchi, Et Al, Robert J. Orth, Et Al

VIMS Articles

In coastal waters around the world, the dominant primary producers are benthic macrophytes, including seagrasses and macroalgae, that provide habitat structure and food for diverse and abundant biological communities and drive ecosystem processes. Seagrass meadows and macroalgal forests play key roles for coastal societies, contributing to fishery yields, storm protection, biogeochemical cycling and storage, and important cultural values. These socio-economically valuable services are threatened worldwide by human activities, with substantial areas of seagrass and macroalgal forests lost over the last half-century. Tracking the status and trends in marine macrophyte cover and quality is an emerging priority for ocean and coastal ...


Mechanisms Involving Sensory Pathway Steps Inform Impacts Of Global Climate Change On Ecological Processes, Emily B. Rivest, Brittany Jellison, Gabriel Ng, Et Al Jul 2019

Mechanisms Involving Sensory Pathway Steps Inform Impacts Of Global Climate Change On Ecological Processes, Emily B. Rivest, Brittany Jellison, Gabriel Ng, Et Al

VIMS Articles

Human-caused environmental change will have significant non-lethal and indirect impacts on organisms due to altered sensory pathways, with consequences for ecological interactions. While a growing body of work addresses how global ocean change can impair the way organisms obtain and use information to direct their behavior, these efforts have typically focused on one step of the pathway (e.g., reception of a cue/signal), one sensory modality (e.g., visual), or one environmental factor (e.g., temperature). An integrated view of how aspects of environmental change will impact multiple sensory pathways and related ecological processes is needed to better anticipate ...


Treading Water: Tools To Help Us Coastal Communities Plan For Sea Level Rise Impacts, E A. Smith, W Sweet, M Mitchell, R Domingues, C P. Weaver, M Baringer, G Goni, J Haines, J D. Loftis, J Boon, D Malmquist Jun 2019

Treading Water: Tools To Help Us Coastal Communities Plan For Sea Level Rise Impacts, E A. Smith, W Sweet, M Mitchell, R Domingues, C P. Weaver, M Baringer, G Goni, J Haines, J D. Loftis, J Boon, D Malmquist

VIMS Articles

As communities grapple with rising seas and more frequent flooding events, they need improved projections of future rising and flooding over multiple time horizons, to assist in a multitude of planning efforts. There are currently a few different tools available that communities can use to plan, including the Sea Level Report Card and products generated by a United States. Federal interagency task force on sea level rise. These tools are a start, but it is recognized that they are not necessarily enough at present to provide communities with the type of information needed to support decisions that range from seasonal ...


Plasticity In Standard And Maximum Aerobic Metabolic Rates In Two Populations Of An Estuarine Dependent Teleost, Spotted Seatrout (Cynoscion Nebulosus), Jingwei Song, Richard W. Brill, Jan R. Mcdowell Jun 2019

Plasticity In Standard And Maximum Aerobic Metabolic Rates In Two Populations Of An Estuarine Dependent Teleost, Spotted Seatrout (Cynoscion Nebulosus), Jingwei Song, Richard W. Brill, Jan R. Mcdowell

VIMS Articles

We studied the effects of metabolic cold adaptation (MCA) in two populations of a eurythermal species, spotted seatrout (Cynoscion nebulosus) along the U.S. East Coast. Fish were captured from their natural environment and acclimated at control temperatures 15 °C or 20 °C. Their oxygen consumption rates, a proxy for metabolic rates, were measured using intermittent flow respirometry during acute temperature decrease or increase (2.5 °C per hour). Mass-specific standard metabolic rates (SMR) were higher in fish from the northern population across an ecologically relevant temperature gradient (5 °C to 30 °C). SMR were up to 37% higher in ...


Parasitic Dinoflagellate Hematodinium Perezi Prevalence In Larval And Juvenile Blue Crabs Callinectes Sapidus From Coastal Bays Of Virginia, Hj Small, Jp Huchin-Mian, Ks Reece, Km Pagenkopp Lohan, Mj Butler Iv, Jd Shields Jun 2019

Parasitic Dinoflagellate Hematodinium Perezi Prevalence In Larval And Juvenile Blue Crabs Callinectes Sapidus From Coastal Bays Of Virginia, Hj Small, Jp Huchin-Mian, Ks Reece, Km Pagenkopp Lohan, Mj Butler Iv, Jd Shields

VIMS Articles

The parasitic dinoflagellate Hematodinium perezi infects the American blue crab Callinectes sapidus and other decapods along the Eastern seaboard and Gulf of Mexico coast of the USA. Large juvenile and adult blue crabs experience high mortality during seasonal outbreaks of H. perezi, but less is known about its presence in the early life history stages of this host. We determined the prevalence of H. perezi in megalopae and early benthic juvenile crabs from multiple locations along the Virginia portion of the Delmarva Peninsula. The DNA of H. perezi was not detected in any megalopae collected from several locations within the ...


Enhanced Nitrous Oxide Production In Denitrifying Dechloromonas Aromatica Strain Rcb Under Salt Or Alkaline Stress Conditions, H Han, B Song, Mj Song, S Yoon Jun 2019

Enhanced Nitrous Oxide Production In Denitrifying Dechloromonas Aromatica Strain Rcb Under Salt Or Alkaline Stress Conditions, H Han, B Song, Mj Song, S Yoon

VIMS Articles

Salinity and pH have direct and indirect impacts on the growth and metabolic activities of microorganisms. In this study, the effects of salt and alkaline stresses on the kinetic balance between nitrous oxide (N2O) production and consumption in the denitrification pathway of Dechloromonas aromatica strain RCB were examined. N2O accumulated transiently only in insignificant amounts at low salinity (<= 0.5% NaCl) and circumneutral pH (7.0 and 7.5). As compared to these control conditions, incubation at 0.7% salinity resulted in substantially longer lag phase and slower growth rate, along with the increase in the amounts of transiently accumulated N2O (15.8 +/- 2.8 m moles N2O-N/vessel). Incubation at pH 8.0 severely inhibited growth and resulted in permanent ;accumulation of 29.9 +/- 1.3 mu moles N2O-N/vessel from reduction of 151 +/- 20 mu moles NO3-/vessel. Monitoring of temporal changes in nirS(1), nirS(2), and nosZ transcription suggested that the nosZ/(nirS(1) + nirS(2)) ratios were indicative of whether N2O was produced or consumed at the time points where measurements were taken. The salt and alkaline stresses altered the N2O consumption kinetics of the resting D. aromatica cells with expressed nitrous oxide reductases. The N2O consumption rates of the cells subjected to the salt and alkaline stress conditions were significantly reduced from 0.84 +/- 0.007 mu moles min(-1) mg protein(-1) of the control to 0.27 +/- 0.02 m moles min(-1) mg protein(-1) and 0.31 +/- 0.03 m moles min(-1) mg protein(-1), respectively, when the initial dissolved N2O concentration was 0.1 mM. As the rates of N2O production from NO2- reduction was not significantly affected by the stresses (0.45-0.55 m moles min(-1) mg protein(-1)), the N2O consumption rate was lower than the N2O production rate at the stress conditions, but not at the control condition. These results clearly indicate that the altered kinetics of expressed nitrous oxide reductase and the resultant disruption of kinetic balance between N2O production and consumption was another cause of enhanced N2O emission observed under the salt and alkaline stress conditions. These findings suggest that canonical denitrifiers may become a significant N2O source when faced with abrupt environmental changes.


Modeling Quantitative Value Of Habitats For Marine And Estuarine Populations, Romauld N. Lipcius, David B. Eggleston, F.J. Fodrie, Et Al May 2019

Modeling Quantitative Value Of Habitats For Marine And Estuarine Populations, Romauld N. Lipcius, David B. Eggleston, F.J. Fodrie, Et Al

VIMS Articles

Coastal habitats (e.g., seagrass beds, shallow mud and sand flats) strongly influence survival, growth, and reproduction of exploited marine fish and invertebrate species. Many of these species have declined over the past decades, coincident with widespread degradation of coastal habitats, such that an urgent need exists to model the quantitative value of coastal habitats to their population dynamics. Demand for habitat considerations will increase as fisheries management contends with habitat issues in stock assessments and management in general moves towards a more ecosystem-based approach. The modeling of habitat function to support fishery species has, to date, been done on ...


Quantifying Habitat Selection And Variability In Habitat Suitability For Juvenile White Sharks, Cf White, K Lyons, Sj Jorgensen, J O'Sullivan, C Winkler, Kc Weng, Cg Lowe May 2019

Quantifying Habitat Selection And Variability In Habitat Suitability For Juvenile White Sharks, Cf White, K Lyons, Sj Jorgensen, J O'Sullivan, C Winkler, Kc Weng, Cg Lowe

VIMS Articles

While adult white sharks (Carcharodon carcharias) are apex predators with a circumglobal distribution, juvenile white sharks (JWS) feed primarily on bottom dwelling fishes and tend to be coastally associated. Despite the assumedly easier access to juveniles compared to large, migratory adults, limited information is available on the movements, environments, and distributions of individuals during this life stage. To quantify movement and understand their distribution in the southern California Bight, JWS were captured and fitted with dorsal fin-mounted satellite transmitters (SPOT tags; n = 18). Nine individuals crossed the U.S. border into Baja California, Mexico. Individuals used shallow habitats (134.96 ...


A General Theory Of Age-Length Keys: Combining The Forward And Inverse Keys To Estimate Age Composition From Incomplete Data, Lisa E. Ailloud, John M. Hoenig Apr 2019

A General Theory Of Age-Length Keys: Combining The Forward And Inverse Keys To Estimate Age Composition From Incomplete Data, Lisa E. Ailloud, John M. Hoenig

VIMS Articles

There are two approaches to estimating age composition from a large number of length observations and a limited number of age determinations: the forward and the inverse age-length keys. The forward key looks at the distribution of age within each length bin while the inverse key looks at the distribution of length at each age. The former is more precise but has stringent requirements for the way data are collected. The latter approach is more widely applicable. We review the theory of the two keys with particular attention to necessary assumptions and the restrictions on when the methods are applicable ...


Estimating Age Composition For Multiple Years When There Are Gaps In The Ageing Data: The Case Of Western Atlantic Bluefin Tuna, Lisa E. Ailloud, Matthew V. Lauretta, John F. Walker Iii, John M. Hoenig Apr 2019

Estimating Age Composition For Multiple Years When There Are Gaps In The Ageing Data: The Case Of Western Atlantic Bluefin Tuna, Lisa E. Ailloud, Matthew V. Lauretta, John F. Walker Iii, John M. Hoenig

VIMS Articles

Age–length key (ALK) methods generally perform well when length samples and age samples are representative of the underlying population. It is unclear how well these methods perform when lengths are representative but age samples are sparse (i.e. age samples are small or missing in many years, and some length groups do not have any age observations). With western Atlantic bluefin tuna, the available age data are sparse and have been, for the most part, collected opportunistically. We evaluated two methods capable of accommodating sparse age data: a novel hybrid ALK (combining forward ALKs and cohort slicing) and the ...


Advancing Marine Biogeochemical And Ecosystem Reanalyses And Forecasts As Tools For Monitoring And Managing Ecosystem Health, K Fennel, M Gehlen, P Brasseur, Cw Brown, C Ciavatta, G Cossarini, A Crise, Ca Edwards, D Ford, Mam Friedrichs, Et Al Mar 2019

Advancing Marine Biogeochemical And Ecosystem Reanalyses And Forecasts As Tools For Monitoring And Managing Ecosystem Health, K Fennel, M Gehlen, P Brasseur, Cw Brown, C Ciavatta, G Cossarini, A Crise, Ca Edwards, D Ford, Mam Friedrichs, Et Al

VIMS Articles

Ocean ecosystems are subject to a multitude of stressors, including changes in ocean physics and biogeochemistry, and direct anthropogenic influences. Implementation of protective and adaptive measures for ocean ecosystems requires a combination of ocean observations with analysis and prediction tools. These can guide assessments of the current state of ocean ecosystems, elucidate ongoing trends and shifts, and anticipate impacts of climate change and management policies. Analysis and prediction tools are defined here as ocean circulation models that are coupled to biogeochemical or ecological models. The range of potential applications for these systems is broad, ranging from reanalyses for the assessment ...


The Mechanisms Of Phenology: The Patterns And Processes Of Phenological Shifts, Helen E. Chmura, Heather M Kharouba, Jaime Ashander, Sean M. Ehlman, Emily B. Rivest, Louie H. Yang Feb 2019

The Mechanisms Of Phenology: The Patterns And Processes Of Phenological Shifts, Helen E. Chmura, Heather M Kharouba, Jaime Ashander, Sean M. Ehlman, Emily B. Rivest, Louie H. Yang

VIMS Articles

Species across a wide range of taxa and habitats are shifting phenological events in response to climate change. While advances are common, shifts vary in magnitude and direction within and among species, and the basis for this variation is relatively unknown. We examine previously suggested patterns of variation in phenological shifts in order to understand the cue-response mechanisms that underlie phenological change. Here, we review what is known about the mechanistic basis for nine factors proposed to predict phenological change (latitude, elevation, habitat type, trophic level, migratory strategy, ecological specialization, species' seasonality, thermoregulatory mode, and generation time). We find that ...


Examining Derelict Pot Impacts On Harvest In A Commercial Blue Crab Callinectes Sapidus Fishery, James A. Delbene, Donna M. Bilkovic, Andrew M. Scheld Feb 2019

Examining Derelict Pot Impacts On Harvest In A Commercial Blue Crab Callinectes Sapidus Fishery, James A. Delbene, Donna M. Bilkovic, Andrew M. Scheld

VIMS Articles

Pot fisheries occur worldwide with a significant proportion of the gear becoming derelict. Derelict pots induce detrimental ecological and economic impacts, and more recently were found to reduce blue crab harvests in the Chesapeake Bay commercial fishery. We simulated the presence of derelict pots near actively fished pots in seasonal field experiments to quantify the effect derelict pots have on blue crab harvest. Derelict pots reduced harvests by 30% during the summer, but not during the fall. Female blue crab capture rates were consistently lower when derelict pots were present; while capture rates of the less abundant males were not ...


Vertical Stratification Of Sediment Microbial Communities Along Geochemical Gradients Of A Subterranean Estuary Located At The Gloucester Beach Of Virginia, United States, Yiguo Hong, Jiapeng Wu, Stephanie Wilson, Bongkeun Song Jan 2019

Vertical Stratification Of Sediment Microbial Communities Along Geochemical Gradients Of A Subterranean Estuary Located At The Gloucester Beach Of Virginia, United States, Yiguo Hong, Jiapeng Wu, Stephanie Wilson, Bongkeun Song

VIMS Articles

Subterranean estuaries (STEs) have been recognized as important ecosystems for the exchange of materials between the land and sea, but the microbial players of biogeochemical processes have not been well examined. In this study, we investigated the bacterial and archaeal communities within 10 cm depth intervals of a permeable sediment core (100 cm in length) collected from a STE located at Gloucester Point (GP-STE), VA, United States. High throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA genes and subsequent bioinformatics analyses were conducted to examine the composition, diversity, and potential functions of the sediment communities. The community composition varied significantly from the surface ...


Are Coastal Habitats Important Nurseries? A Meta-Analysis, Jonathan S. Lefcheck, Brent B. Hughes, Andrew J. Johnson, Bruce W. Pfirrman, Douglas B. Rasher, Ashley R. Smyth, Bethany L. Williams, Michael W. Beck, Robert J. Orth Jan 2019

Are Coastal Habitats Important Nurseries? A Meta-Analysis, Jonathan S. Lefcheck, Brent B. Hughes, Andrew J. Johnson, Bruce W. Pfirrman, Douglas B. Rasher, Ashley R. Smyth, Bethany L. Williams, Michael W. Beck, Robert J. Orth

VIMS Articles

Nearshore‐structured habitats—including underwater grasses, mangroves, coral, and other biogenic reefs, marshes, and complex abiotic substrates—have long been postulated to function as important nurseries for juvenile fishes and invertebrates. Here, we review the evolution of the “nursery habitat hypothesis” and use >11,000 comparisons from 160 peer‐reviewed studies to test whether and which structured habitats increase juvenile density, growth, and survival. In general, almost all structured habitats significantly enhanced juvenile density—and in some cases growth and survival—relative to unstructured habitats. Underwater grasses and mangroves also promoted juvenile density and growth beyond what was observed in ...


Evaluating Confidence In The Impact Of Regulatory Nutrient Reduction On Chesapeake Bay Water Quality, Isaac D. Irby, Marjorie A. M. Friedrichs Jan 2019

Evaluating Confidence In The Impact Of Regulatory Nutrient Reduction On Chesapeake Bay Water Quality, Isaac D. Irby, Marjorie A. M. Friedrichs

VIMS Articles

Excess nutrients derived from anthropogenic activity have resulted in the degradation of coastal water quality and an increase in low-oxygen and hypoxic events worldwide. In an effort to curb these impacts and restore water quality in the Chesapeake Bay, a maximum load of nutrients has been established based on a framework of regulatory standards and models. This research aims to evaluate the projected changes in water quality resulting from the implementation of these nutrient reductions by applying the regulatory methodology to two different models that have been previously shown to have similar model skill. Results demonstrate that although the two ...


Evaluating Summer Flounder Spatial Sex-Segregation In A Southern New England Estuary, Joseph A. Langan, M. Conor Mcmanus, Adena J. Schonfeld, Corinne L. Truesdale, Jeremy S. Collie Jan 2019

Evaluating Summer Flounder Spatial Sex-Segregation In A Southern New England Estuary, Joseph A. Langan, M. Conor Mcmanus, Adena J. Schonfeld, Corinne L. Truesdale, Jeremy S. Collie

VIMS Articles

Marine fish species can exhibit sex-specific differences in their biological traits. Not accounting for these characteristics in the stock assessment or management of a species can lead to misunderstanding its population dynamics and result in ineffective regulatory strategies. Summer Flounder Paralichthys dentatus, a flatfish that supports significant commercial and recreational fisheries along the northeastern U.S. shelf, expresses variation in several traits between the sexes, including growth and habitat preference. To further understand these patterns, 1,302 Summer Flounder were collected and sexed in 2016 and 2017 from fisheries-independent surveys conducted in Rhode Island state waters. Female flounder were more ...


Nursery Habitat Quality Assessed By The Condition Of Juvenile Fishes: Not All Estuarine Areas Are Equal, Ryan W. Schloesser, Mary C. Fabrizio Jan 2019

Nursery Habitat Quality Assessed By The Condition Of Juvenile Fishes: Not All Estuarine Areas Are Equal, Ryan W. Schloesser, Mary C. Fabrizio

VIMS Articles

High-quality nursery habitats support greater numbers of juveniles that survive to adulthood, but characteristics underlying high-quality habitats remain elusive because their productivity varies spatially and temporally and may be species-specific. Fish condition is an energy-integrative measure of ecological interactions, stress, and activity within a habitat, such that juvenile fish condition is representative of the quality of nursery habitats. We apply spatially explicit models to examine patterns in nursery habitat quality of Virginia estuaries based on nutritional condition for Atlantic croaker Micropogonias undulatus, summer flounder Paralichthys dentatus, and striped bass Morone saxatilis. Environmental factors (water temperature, dissolved oxygen, salinity, and depth ...


Tooth Development And Replacement In The Atlantic Cutlassfish, Trichiurus Lepturus, With Comparisons To Other Scombroidei, Katherine E. Bemis, Samantha M. Burke, Carl A. St John, Eric Hilton, William E. Bemis Jan 2019

Tooth Development And Replacement In The Atlantic Cutlassfish, Trichiurus Lepturus, With Comparisons To Other Scombroidei, Katherine E. Bemis, Samantha M. Burke, Carl A. St John, Eric Hilton, William E. Bemis

VIMS Articles

Atlantic Cutlassfish, Trichiurus lepturus, have large, barbed, premaxillary and dentary fangs, and sharp dagger-shaped teeth in their oral jaws. Functional teeth firmly ankylose to the dentigerous bones. We used dry skeletons, histology, SEM, and micro-CT scanning to study 92 specimens of T. lepturus from the western North Atlantic to describe its dentition and tooth replacement. We identified three modes of intraosseous tooth replacement in T. lepturus depending on the location of the tooth in the jaw. Mode 1 relates to replacement of premaxillary fangs, in which new tooth germs enter the lingual surface of the premaxilla, develop horizontally, and rotate ...


Tracking Triploid Mortalities Of Eastern Oysters Crassostrea Virginica In The Virginia Portion Of The Chesapeake Bay, Eric Guevelou, Ryan B. Carnegie, Jessica Moss Small, Karen Hudson, Kimberley S. Reece, Molly M. Rybovich, Standish K. Allen Jr. Jan 2019

Tracking Triploid Mortalities Of Eastern Oysters Crassostrea Virginica In The Virginia Portion Of The Chesapeake Bay, Eric Guevelou, Ryan B. Carnegie, Jessica Moss Small, Karen Hudson, Kimberley S. Reece, Molly M. Rybovich, Standish K. Allen Jr.

VIMS Articles

Since 2012, aquacultured eastern oysters Crassostrea virginica have been reported by oyster farmers to display mortality approaching 30%, and in some cases 85%, in areas of the lower Chesapeake Bay, VA. Based on accounts from industry, this mortality has typically affected 1-y-old oysters between May and early July, and has tended to occur in triploid oysters, which represent the vast bulk of production in the area. During this period, samples submitted for pathology have not revealed the presence of major pathogens as a cause. In 2015, to gain deeper insight into this mortality and determine whether specific sites, ploidy condition ...


Variations In The Abundance And Distribution Of Aggregates In The Ross Sea, Antarctica, Vernon L. Asper, Walker O. Smith Jan 2019

Variations In The Abundance And Distribution Of Aggregates In The Ross Sea, Antarctica, Vernon L. Asper, Walker O. Smith

VIMS Articles

The vertical distribution and temporal changes in aggregate abundance and sizes were measured in the Ross Sea, Antarctica between 2002 and 2005 to acquire a more complete understanding of the mechanisms and rates of carbon export from the euphotic layer. Aggregate abundance was determined by photographic techniques, and water column parameters (temperature, salinity, fluorescence, transmissometry) were assessed from CTD profiles. During the first three years the numbers of aggregates increased seasonally, being much more abundant within the upper 200 m in late summer than in early summer from 50 to 100 m (12.5 L–1 in early summer vs ...


Method For Serial Passage Of Infectious Hematopoietic Necrosis Virus (Ihnv) In Rainbow Trout, Juliette Doumayrou, M. Gray Ryan, Andrew R. Wargo Jan 2019

Method For Serial Passage Of Infectious Hematopoietic Necrosis Virus (Ihnv) In Rainbow Trout, Juliette Doumayrou, M. Gray Ryan, Andrew R. Wargo

VIMS Articles

Transmission is a fundamental component of pathogen fitness. A better understanding of pathogen transmission can greatly improve disease management. In particular, controlled studies of multiple rounds of natural transmission (i.e. serial passage) can provide powerful epidemiological and evolutionary inferences. However, such studies are possible in only a few systems because of the challenges in successfully initiating and maintaining transmission in the laboratory. Here we developed an efficient and reproducible cohabitation method for conducting controlled experiments investigating the effects of serial passage on infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) in rainbow trout. This method was used to investigate the transmission efficiency ...


Herbivory Regulates The Establishment Of A Native Species Of Submerged Aquatic Vegetation (Sav) In A Tidal Estuary Of The Usa, A. J. Johnson, R. J. Orth, K. A. Moore Jan 2019

Herbivory Regulates The Establishment Of A Native Species Of Submerged Aquatic Vegetation (Sav) In A Tidal Estuary Of The Usa, A. J. Johnson, R. J. Orth, K. A. Moore

VIMS Articles

Herbivores are a diverse group of fauna that shape the distribution and composition of plant communities. In some cases, herbivory may prevent the re-establishment of submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV), such as Vallisneria americana, into systems. The goal of this study was to investigate the role and nature of herbivory on V. americana transplants with camera and transect surveys of grazing intensity and with field and laboratory grazing experiments using a suspected herbivore, the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus. Camera surveys recorded C. sapidus clipping and consuming shoots of V. americana for the first time. Grazing intensity surveys in low-salinity regions of ...


Monitoring Demographics Of A Commercially Exploited Population Of Shovelnose Sturgeon In The Wabash River, Illinois/Indiana, Usa, Jessica L. Thornton, Vaskar Nepal Kc, Leslie D. Frankland, Craig R. Jansen, Jana Hirst, Robert E. Colombo Jan 2019

Monitoring Demographics Of A Commercially Exploited Population Of Shovelnose Sturgeon In The Wabash River, Illinois/Indiana, Usa, Jessica L. Thornton, Vaskar Nepal Kc, Leslie D. Frankland, Craig R. Jansen, Jana Hirst, Robert E. Colombo

VIMS Articles

Shovelnose sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus platorynchus, Rafinesque, 1820) in the Wabash River, Illinois/Indiana, USA, provide an important recreational sport and commercial caviar fishery. In fact, it is one of the last commercially viable populations for sturgeon roe harvest. Due to increased demand in the caviar trade and endangered species legislation that protect shovelnose sturgeon in only a portion of their range, efforts of the roe harvest market may continue to divert toward unprotected populations like the shovelnose sturgeon in the Wabash River. Previous studies have shown that increased harvest pressure in this species can affect the age‐at‐maturation and result ...


Environmental Controls On Pteropod Biogeography Along The Western Antarctic Peninsula, Ps Thibodeau, Dk Steinberg, Se Stammerjohn, C Hauri Jan 2019

Environmental Controls On Pteropod Biogeography Along The Western Antarctic Peninsula, Ps Thibodeau, Dk Steinberg, Se Stammerjohn, C Hauri

VIMS Articles

Pteropods are abundant zooplankton in the Western Antarctic Peninsula (WAP) and important grazers of phytoplankton and prey for higher trophic levels. We analyzed long-term (1993-2017) trends in summer (January-February) abundance of WAP pteropods in relation to environmental controls (sea ice, sea surface temperature, climate indices, phytoplankton biomass and productivity, and carbonate chemistry) and interspecies dynamics using general linear models. There was no overall directional trend in abundance of thecosomes, Limacina helicina antarctica and Clio pyramidata, throughout the entire WAP, although L. antarctica abundance increased in the slope region and C. pyramidata abundance increased in the South. High L. antarctica abundance ...


Prey Lysate Enhances Growth And Toxin Production In An Isolate Of Dinophysis Acuminata, Han Gao, Mengmeng Tong, Xinlong An, Juliette L. Smith Jan 2019

Prey Lysate Enhances Growth And Toxin Production In An Isolate Of Dinophysis Acuminata, Han Gao, Mengmeng Tong, Xinlong An, Juliette L. Smith

VIMS Articles

The physiological and toxicological characteristics of Dinophysis acuminata have been increasingly studied in an attempt to better understand and predict diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) events worldwide. Recent work has identified prey quantity, organic nitrogen, and ammonium as likely contributors to increased Dinophysis growth rates and/or toxicity. Further research is now needed to better understand the interplay between these factors, for example, how inorganic and organic compounds interact with prey and a variety of Dinophysis species and/or strains. In this study, the exudate of ciliate prey and cryptophytes were investigated for an ability to support D. acuminata growth and ...


Comparison Of Methods For Determining Biogeochemical Fluxes From A Restored Oyster Reef, Melanie Jackson, Michael S. Owens, Jeffrey C. Cornwell, M. Lisa Kellogg Dec 2018

Comparison Of Methods For Determining Biogeochemical Fluxes From A Restored Oyster Reef, Melanie Jackson, Michael S. Owens, Jeffrey C. Cornwell, M. Lisa Kellogg

VIMS Articles

Oyster reef restoration can significantly increase benthic denitrification rates. Methods applied to measure nutrient fluxes and denitrification from oyster reefs in previous studies include incubations of sediment cores collected adjacent to oyster clumps, benthic chambers filled with intact reef segments that have undergone in situ equilibration and ex situ incubation, and cores with single oysters. However, fluxes of nutrients vary by orders of magnitude among oyster reefs and methods. This study compares two methods of measuring nutrient and metabolic fluxes on restored oyster reefs: incubations including intact segments of oyster reef and incubations containing oyster clumps without underlying sediments. Fluxes ...


Intensive Oyster Aquaculture Can Reduce Disease Impacts On Sympatric Wild Oysters, Tal Ben-Horin, Colleen Burge, David Bushek, Maya Groner, Dina Proestou, Lauren Huey, Gorka Bidegain, Ryan Carnegie Dec 2018

Intensive Oyster Aquaculture Can Reduce Disease Impacts On Sympatric Wild Oysters, Tal Ben-Horin, Colleen Burge, David Bushek, Maya Groner, Dina Proestou, Lauren Huey, Gorka Bidegain, Ryan Carnegie

VIMS Articles

Risks associated with disease spread from fish and shellfish farming have plagued the growth and public perception of aquaculture worldwide. However, by processing nutrients and organic material from the water column, the culture of many suspension-feeding bivalves has been proposed as a novel solution toward mitigating problems facing coastal water quality, including the removal of disease-causing parasites. Here we developed and simulated an epidemiological model describing sympatric oyster Crassostrea virginica populations in aquaculture and the wild impacted by the protozoan parasite Perkinsus marinus. Our model captured the indirect interaction between wild and cultured populations that occurs through sharing water-borne P ...


Canopy Functions Of R. Maritima And Z. Marina In The Chesapeake Bay, Emily French, Kenneth Moore Dec 2018

Canopy Functions Of R. Maritima And Z. Marina In The Chesapeake Bay, Emily French, Kenneth Moore

VIMS Articles

Shoots in seagrass beds form canopies: structurally complex habitats that provide refuge for fauna and trap sediment particles by dampening water movement. Unfortunately, seagrasses are faced with continuing negative impacts to survival, including climate change and poor water quality. In areas where several seagrass species coexist, changing conditions may influence composition of beds so one species is favored over another. Two species found worldwide, Zostera marina and Ruppia maritima, are undergoing this shift: as Z marina dies back, in some locations it is replaced by R. maritima, a smaller-form seagrass with shorter, thinner shoots. This process is occurring in Virginia ...