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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Comparing Statistical Analyses To Estimate Thresholds In Ecotoxicology, Marcos Krull Apr 2020

Comparing Statistical Analyses To Estimate Thresholds In Ecotoxicology, Marcos Krull

VIMS Articles

Different methods are used in ecotoxicology to estimate thresholds in survival data. This paper uses Monte Carlo simulations to evaluate the accuracy of three methods (maximum likelihood (MLE) and Markov Chain Monte Carlo estimates (Bayesian) of the no-effect concentration (NEC) model and Piecewise regression) in estimating true and apparent thresholds in survival experiments with datasets having different slopes, background mortalities, and experimental designs. Datasets were generated with models that include a threshold parameter (NEC) or not (log-logistic). Accuracy was estimated using root-mean square errors (RMSEs), and RMSE ratios were used to estimate the relative improvement in accuracy by each design ...


Worker Exposure To Flame Retardants In Manufacturing, Construction And Service Industries, C. Fairfield Estill, J. Slone, A. Mayer, I-C Chen, M. J. La Guardia Jan 2020

Worker Exposure To Flame Retardants In Manufacturing, Construction And Service Industries, C. Fairfield Estill, J. Slone, A. Mayer, I-C Chen, M. J. La Guardia

VIMS Articles

Workers in several industries are occupationally exposed to flame retardants. This study characterizes flame retardant exposure for nine industries through air and hand wipe measures for 105 workers. Specifically, we analyzed 24 analytes from three chemical classes: organophosphate flame retardants (OFRs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and non-PBDE brominated flame retardants (NPBFRs). The industries were: carpet installation, chemical manufacturing, foam manufacturing, electronic scrap, gymnastics, rigid board installation, nail salons, roofing, and spray polyurethane foam. Workers wore personal air samplers for two entire workdays and provided hand wipe samples before and after the second work day. Bulk products were also analyzed. The ...


Bottom-Up Control Of Parasites, David S. Johnson, Richard Heard Oct 2017

Bottom-Up Control Of Parasites, David S. Johnson, Richard Heard

VIMS Articles

Parasitism is a fundamental ecological interaction. Yet we understand relatively little about the ecological role of parasites compared to the role of free-living organisms. Bottom-up theory predicts that resource enhancement will increase the abundance and biomass of free-living organisms. Similarly, parasite abundance and biomass should increase in an ecosystem with resource enhancement. We tested this hypothesis in a landscape-level experiment in which salt marshes (60,000 m2 each) received elevated nutrient concentrations via flooding tidal waters for 11 yr to mimic eutrophication. Nutrient enrichment elevated the densities of the talitrid amphipod, Orchestia grillus, and the density and biomass of its ...