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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Green Marine Construction, Sylvain Pioch, Kirk Kilfoyle, Harold Levrel, Richard E. Spieler Oct 2011

Green Marine Construction, Sylvain Pioch, Kirk Kilfoyle, Harold Levrel, Richard E. Spieler

Marine & Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles

The oceans incorporate three-quarters of the Earth's surface, and most of humanity lives in coastal regions. For example, more than half of the total U.S. population presently lives in coastal areas, and the coastal population is projected to increase by 7 million between now and 2015. Similar projections can be made for other developed countries many of which depend on the coastal zone as a major source of tourism-related income. The long-term ecological health and sustainability of the marine and coastal environments are obviously at risk. Coastal projects such as beach re-nourishment, housing developments, and pipe-line, harbor and ...


Present Limits To Heat-Adaptability In Corals And Population-Level Responses To Climate Extremes, Bernhard Riegl, Samuel J. Purkis, Ashraf S. Al-Cibahy, Mohammed A. Abdel-Moati, Ove Hoegh-Guldberg Sep 2011

Present Limits To Heat-Adaptability In Corals And Population-Level Responses To Climate Extremes, Bernhard Riegl, Samuel J. Purkis, Ashraf S. Al-Cibahy, Mohammed A. Abdel-Moati, Ove Hoegh-Guldberg

Marine & Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles

Climate change scenarios suggest an increase in tropical ocean temperature by 1–3°C by 2099, potentially killing many coral reefs. But Arabian/Persian Gulf corals already exist in this future thermal environment predicted for most tropical reefs and survived severe bleaching in 2010, one of the hottest years on record. Exposure to 33–35°C was on average twice as long as in non-bleaching years. Gulf corals bleached after exposure to temperatures above 34°C for a total of 8 weeks of which 3 weeks were above 35°C. This is more heat than any other corals can survive ...


Severe 2010 Cold-Water Event Caused Unprecedented Mortality To Corals Of The Florida Reef Tract And Reversed Previous Survivorship Patterns, Diego Lirman, Stephanie Schopmeyer, Derek Manzello, Lewis J. Gramer, William F. Precht, Frank E. Muller-Karger, Kenneth Banks, Brian Barnes, Erich Bartels, Amanda Bourque, James Byrne, Scott Donahue, Janice Duquesnel, Louis Fisher, David S. Gilliam, James C. Hendee, Meaghan E. Johnson, Kerry Maxwell, Erin Mcdevitt, Jamie Monty, Digna Rueda, Rob Ruzicka, Sara Thanner Aug 2011

Severe 2010 Cold-Water Event Caused Unprecedented Mortality To Corals Of The Florida Reef Tract And Reversed Previous Survivorship Patterns, Diego Lirman, Stephanie Schopmeyer, Derek Manzello, Lewis J. Gramer, William F. Precht, Frank E. Muller-Karger, Kenneth Banks, Brian Barnes, Erich Bartels, Amanda Bourque, James Byrne, Scott Donahue, Janice Duquesnel, Louis Fisher, David S. Gilliam, James C. Hendee, Meaghan E. Johnson, Kerry Maxwell, Erin Mcdevitt, Jamie Monty, Digna Rueda, Rob Ruzicka, Sara Thanner

Marine & Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles

Background

Coral reefs are facing increasing pressure from natural and anthropogenic stressors that have already caused significant worldwide declines. In January 2010, coral reefs of Florida, United States, were impacted by an extreme cold-water anomaly that exposed corals to temperatures well below their reported thresholds (16°C), causing rapid coral mortality unprecedented in spatial extent and severity.

Methodology/Principal Findings

Reef surveys were conducted from Martin County to the Lower Florida Keys within weeks of the anomaly. The impacts recorded were catastrophic and exceeded those of any previous disturbances in the region. Coral mortality patterns were directly correlated to in-situ ...


Study Of The Far Wake Of A Large Ship, M. Gilman, Alexander Soloviev, H. Graber May 2011

Study Of The Far Wake Of A Large Ship, M. Gilman, Alexander Soloviev, H. Graber

Marine & Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles

A large dataset of high-resolution photographic images of far wakes of a volunteer observing ship (Royal Caribbean’s Explorer of the Seas) has been acquired under various meteorological conditions and ship operation modes. This work presents the description of instrumentation, methodology, and the results of the experiment. Environmental and ship operation factors that affect appearance and geometric properties of ship wakes in photographic and satellite-based radar images have been analyzed. The photo imagery reveals an asymmetry of the wake depending on wind direction relative to the ship course. In addition, a good agreement between the averaged shape of the wakes ...


A New Species Of Leucothoid Amphipod, Anamixis Bananarama, Sp. N., From Shallow Coral Reefs In French Polynesia (Crustacea, Amphipoda, Leucothoidae), James Darwin Thomas, Traudl Krapp-Shickel Apr 2011

A New Species Of Leucothoid Amphipod, Anamixis Bananarama, Sp. N., From Shallow Coral Reefs In French Polynesia (Crustacea, Amphipoda, Leucothoidae), James Darwin Thomas, Traudl Krapp-Shickel

Marine & Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles

Both leucomorph and anamorph developmental stages of Anamixis bananarama sp. n., are illustrated and described from shallow back reef environments of Moorea, French Polynesia. Distinguished by vestigial fi rst gnathopods that persist in post-transformational adult males, this is the second species in the genus to exhibit this unusual character. In other features such as coxae and second gnathopods A. bananarama sp. n. resembles other Pacific Plate endemics of Anamixis known from the region. Specific host association is not documented but suspected to be small calcareous asconoid sponges associated with coral rubble.


Suppression Subtractive Hybridization Pcr Isolation Of Cdnas From A Caribbean Soft Coral, Jose V. Lopez, Angela Ledger, Lory Z. Santiago-Vázquez, Mihai Pop, Dan D. Sommer, Llanie K. Ranzer, Robert A. Feldman, Russell G. Kerr Jan 2011

Suppression Subtractive Hybridization Pcr Isolation Of Cdnas From A Caribbean Soft Coral, Jose V. Lopez, Angela Ledger, Lory Z. Santiago-Vázquez, Mihai Pop, Dan D. Sommer, Llanie K. Ranzer, Robert A. Feldman, Russell G. Kerr

Marine & Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles

Transcriptomic studies of marine organisms are still in their infancy. A partial, subtracted expressed sequence tag (EST) library of the Caribbean octocoral Erythropodium caribaeorum and the sea fan Gorgonia ventalina has been analyzed in order to find novel genes or differences in gene expression related to potential secondary metabolite production or symbioses. This approach entails enrichment for potential non-"housekeeping" genes using the suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. More than 500 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were generated after cloning SSH products, which yielded at least 53 orthologous groups of proteins (COGs) and Pfam clusters, including transcription ...


Ecological Design Of Marine Construction For Socio-Economic Benefits: Ecosystem Integration Of A Pipeline In Coral Reef Area, Sylvain Pioch, Philippe Saussola, Kirk Kilfoyle, Richard E. Spieler Jan 2011

Ecological Design Of Marine Construction For Socio-Economic Benefits: Ecosystem Integration Of A Pipeline In Coral Reef Area, Sylvain Pioch, Philippe Saussola, Kirk Kilfoyle, Richard E. Spieler

Marine & Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles

It is critical to understand that an ecosystem integration of construction requires a close Engineering/Biology partnership to meet socio-economic benefits in management goals. Biologists are not typically trained or licensed for the requisite engineering involved in construction. Likewise, non-biologists designing habitat often can lead to egregious results. For example, unintentionally constructing the wrong habitat, i.e., refuge for predators in a nursery area, or habitat that facilitates the spread of non-desirable species can increase, rather than ameliorate, the impact of construction. In recent years, Pioch and co-workers (unpublished) developed an alternative to the “classic” engineering approach to marine construction ...


Sailfish Habitat Utilization And Vertical Movements In The Southern Gulf Of Mexico And Florida Straits, David W. Kerstetter, Shannon Michael Bayse, Jenny Fenton, John E. Graves Jan 2011

Sailfish Habitat Utilization And Vertical Movements In The Southern Gulf Of Mexico And Florida Straits, David W. Kerstetter, Shannon Michael Bayse, Jenny Fenton, John E. Graves

Marine & Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles

Pop-up satellite archival tags (PSATs) were deployed on 19 sailfish Istiophorus platypterus captured in the southern Gulf of Mexico and Florida Straits between 2005 and 2007 on commercial pelagic longline gear (n = 18) and recreational rod-and-reel gear (n = 1). The data from three tags indicated mortality events and were excluded from subsequent analyses. All PSATs were programmed to collect pressure (depth), temperature, and light-level data for 10 d at approximately 90-s intervals. These transmitted point data subsequently allowed the reconstruction of vertical movement patterns. The remaining 16 PSAT data sets indicate that sailfish are primarily associated with the upper surface ...