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All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

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Articles 1 - 30 of 2623

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Management Of Garlic Mustard (Alliaria Petiolata), Sahara Mustard (Brassica Tournefortii), And Elongated Mustard (Brassica Elongata) In Utah, Natalie Layne Fronk Aug 2022

Management Of Garlic Mustard (Alliaria Petiolata), Sahara Mustard (Brassica Tournefortii), And Elongated Mustard (Brassica Elongata) In Utah, Natalie Layne Fronk

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The invasive mustard species Sahara mustard (Brassica tournefortii), garlic mustard (Alliaria petiolata) and elongated mustard (Brassica elongata) negatively impact a variety of ecological systems across the state of Utah. The distribution of these species in Utah is relatively limited at the current time. If prompt action is taken, it may be possible to contain and manage these species before irreparable ecological and agricultural damage occurs. For this reason, all three mustards are listed by the State of Utah as weeds of high priority for management.

This project tested multiple strategies to determine effective species-specific methods for invasive mustard management. Field ...


Quantification Of Hydrologic Response To Forest Disturbance In Western U.S. Watersheds, Sara A. Goeking Aug 2022

Quantification Of Hydrologic Response To Forest Disturbance In Western U.S. Watersheds, Sara A. Goeking

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Forested watersheds produce more than half of the water supply in the United States. Forests affect how precipitation is partitioned into available water versus evapotranspiration. This dissertation investigated how water yield and snowpack responded to forest disturbance following recent disturbances in western U.S. forests during the period 2000-2019.

Chapter 2 systematically reviewed 78 recent studies that examined how water yield or snowpack changed after forest disturbances. Water yield and snowpack often increased after disturbance, but decreased in some circumstances. Decreased water yield was most likely to occur following disturbances that did not remove the entire forest canopy. It was ...


Differential Transcriptome Analysis Reveals That Cache Valley Pm2.5 Triggers The Unfolded Protein Response In Human Lung Cells, Morgan Eggleston May 2022

Differential Transcriptome Analysis Reveals That Cache Valley Pm2.5 Triggers The Unfolded Protein Response In Human Lung Cells, Morgan Eggleston

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Worldwide, exposure to air pollution is a serious human health threat. Particulate matter (PM) air pollution is a mixture of suspended solid and/or liquid particles and particle size is determined by its aerodynamic diameter. Fine, or “respirable” particles, typically from vehicle emissions, manufacturing, power generation, agriculture, as well as secondary photochemical reactions, are classified as ≤2.5μm in diameter (PM2.5). Upon inhalation, PM2.5 particles can reach the lower, more sensitive regions of the lung, enter the bloodstream, and be distributed to other areas in the body. Large-scale epidemiology studies have shown that PM2.5 ...


Quantifying The Indirect Effect Of Wolves On Aspen In Northern Yellowstone National Park: Evidence For A Trophic Cascade?, Elaine M. Brice May 2022

Quantifying The Indirect Effect Of Wolves On Aspen In Northern Yellowstone National Park: Evidence For A Trophic Cascade?, Elaine M. Brice

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Yellowstone National Park is renowned for its incredible wildlife, and perhaps the most famous of these species is the gray wolf, which was reintroduced to the Park in the mid-1990s. After reintroduction, it was highly publicized by scientists, journalists, and environmentalists that the wolf both decreased elk density and changed elk behavior in a way that reduced elk effects on plants, a process known as a “trophic cascade.” Aspen, which is eaten by elk in winter, is one species at the forefront of Yellowstone trophic cascade research because it has been in decline across the Park for over a century ...


The Effects Of Seed Mix Composition, Sowing Density, And Seedling Survival On Plant Community Reassembly In Great Salt Lake Wetlands, Rae Robinson May 2022

The Effects Of Seed Mix Composition, Sowing Density, And Seedling Survival On Plant Community Reassembly In Great Salt Lake Wetlands, Rae Robinson

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Wetlands are known for their valuable benefits (e.g., providing habitat, improving water quality, lessening the negative impacts of drought and flooding). Invasive wetland plant species are species that cause harm to ecosystems, the economy, or human health, and replace native wetland plant communities. The revegetation of native plants may be one way to improve wetlands that have been impacted by invasive species. In Great Salt Lake (Utah, USA) wetlands, the invasive, non-native grass Phragmites australis (common reed) reduces the quality and quantity of habitat for both wildlife and humans (e.g., birdwatchers, waterfowl hunters). Even when P. australisis greatly ...


Identifying Optimal Stocking Strategies To Support Recovery Of An Endemic Lake Sucker, Dale R. Fonken May 2022

Identifying Optimal Stocking Strategies To Support Recovery Of An Endemic Lake Sucker, Dale R. Fonken

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Endemic fishes in the intermountain west experienced significant population declines in the 20th century due to a variety of disturbances, including habitat fragmentation, water development, and the introduction of non-native, predatory fish species. The combination of habitat degradation with increased predation risk can severely limit natural recruitment for native fish species, and in response, fisheries manager shave employed a variety of recovery strategies to prevent extinction. Among the most prominent strategies is artificial propagation and subsequent release of individuals into the natural environment (i.e., stocking). Artificial propagation is an expensive endeavor, and when not coupled with a research component ...


Detecting Ecosystem Response To Restoration Efforts With Implications For Recovery Of The Threatened June Sucker (Chasmistes Liorus) In A Shallow, Eutrophic, Utah Lake, Ryan D. Dillingham May 2022

Detecting Ecosystem Response To Restoration Efforts With Implications For Recovery Of The Threatened June Sucker (Chasmistes Liorus) In A Shallow, Eutrophic, Utah Lake, Ryan D. Dillingham

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Environmental damage associated with a growing human population will increase globally without active management. Restoration can promote ecosystem recovery, yet often fails to produce desired results and may require decades to achieve noticeable benefits. Detecting small, incremental change sis imperative in these difficult situations. Here, I demonstrate that restoration focused on fish removal triggers incremental responses in aquatic plants and animals. Removing common carp is expected to encourage recovery of aquatic plants, increasing animal habitat, resulting in more macroinvertebrates (e.g., aquatic insects, snails). Carp removal should also increase water clarity, improving visibility for fishes, thus increasing their ability to ...


The Impacts Of Increased Precipitation Intensity On Dryland Ecosystems In The Western United States, Martin C. Holdrege May 2022

The Impacts Of Increased Precipitation Intensity On Dryland Ecosystems In The Western United States, Martin C. Holdrege

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

As the atmosphere warms, precipitation events become larger, but less frequent. Such increases in precipitation intensity are expected regardless of changes in total annual precipitation. Despite strong evidence for increases in precipitation intensity, disagreement exists regarding how these changes will impact plants, and studies are lacking in many types of ecosystems. This dissertation addresses how increased precipitation intensity affects soil water availability, and how plants respond to any such changes. I address this question in the context of big sagebrush ecosystems and dryland winter wheat agriculture, which are both environments that can be sensitive to changes in water availability. Results ...


Global Change Effects On Carbon Cycling In Terrestrial Ecosystems, Guopeng Liang May 2022

Global Change Effects On Carbon Cycling In Terrestrial Ecosystems, Guopeng Liang

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Since terrestrial ecosystems store approximately 3 times more carbon (C) than the atmosphere, they have a significant effect on the atmospheric CO2 concentration. Although many studies have been conducted to determine global change effects on C cycling in terrestrial ecosystems, the underlying mechanisms remain uncertain. To address this knowledge gap, I utilized meta-analysis, laboratory experiments, and soil microbial community analysis.

In chapter 2, I conducted a meta-analysis to examine whether effects of long-term N addition on plant productivity can shift over time. I found that 44% of studies showed a marked trend (increase or decrease) in the strength of ...


Role Of Mitochondria In Postmortem Proteolysis And Meat Tenderness, David Son Dang May 2022

Role Of Mitochondria In Postmortem Proteolysis And Meat Tenderness, David Son Dang

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Among all eating quality characteristics in beef, tenderness is regarded as one of the most important traits. Previous research indicates that consumers are willing to pay a premium for beef guaranteed to be tender. Yet, tenderness is difficult to control and predict as it is influenced by a multitude of factors. Among these factors, meat aging has been shown to be a strong determinant of tenderness. Meat aging describes a process in which muscle tissue is broken down by other proteins within the muscle, resulting in a more tender product after cooking. Two well-recognized proteins that participate in the breakdown ...


Comparative Studies In Rangeland Management: Examining The Foundational Assessments Relationship To The Greater Sage-Grouse Habitat Assessment Framework And Assessment Of Predicted Cattle Distributions Using Gps Collars In Rich County, Utah, Michael T. Anderson May 2022

Comparative Studies In Rangeland Management: Examining The Foundational Assessments Relationship To The Greater Sage-Grouse Habitat Assessment Framework And Assessment Of Predicted Cattle Distributions Using Gps Collars In Rich County, Utah, Michael T. Anderson

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) is being used as an umbrella species to manage for 350 plant and animal species that also depend on rangeland communities. Sage-grouse habitat assessments have been carried out using multiple methods. Standard sage-grouse methods described by Connelly et al 2003, include line intercept (LI) and Daubenmire frames (DF) measuring canopy cover. These methods were adopted broadly among sage-grouse biologist and used to develop habitat objectives for greater sage-grouse. Federal land management agencies now use the Habitat Assessment Framework (HAF). Specifically, HAF employs line-point intercept (LPI), to assess foliar cover in sage-grouse habitat. While there is ...


Efficacy Of Conservation Actions For Imperiled Colorado River Fishes In The Grand Canyon, Arizona, Brian D. Healy May 2022

Efficacy Of Conservation Actions For Imperiled Colorado River Fishes In The Grand Canyon, Arizona, Brian D. Healy

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Many fishes are critically imperiled, particularly in their native rivers, due to human water use and dam construction, which can dramatically alter habitats and block fish migratory routes. The introduction of invasive sport-fishes that prey on native fish further threatens native species that maybe restricted to only a single river basin (i.e., “endemic”). To preserve native fishes in river systems with degraded habitats, managers need to understand the effects of conservation actions to ensure limited resources are applied effectively. Two commonly applied native fish conservation actions include removal of invasive fishes, and translocations of native fish from one place ...


Impact Of Ph And Palmitic Acid On Ruminal Fermentation And Microbial Community Composition, Lexie Padilla May 2022

Impact Of Ph And Palmitic Acid On Ruminal Fermentation And Microbial Community Composition, Lexie Padilla

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of dietary palmitic acid and pH on rumen fermentation, fiber digestibility, and bacterial community composition. The two factors in the experiment were palmitic acid treatment and pH treatment. Palmitic acid treatments included a control diet compared to a diet containing 1.5% palmitic acid. pH treatments included normal pH (6.6 to 7.0) compared to low pH (6.0 to 6.4). Rumen fluid from a cow was added to artificial rumens to study the effects of the two treatments relative to fermentation and changes within the microbial community ...


Forecasting Fine Fuels In The Intermountain West Rangelands, Mira Ensley-Field May 2022

Forecasting Fine Fuels In The Intermountain West Rangelands, Mira Ensley-Field

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The objective of this thesis project was to develop a fine fuels forecast to help fire managers anticipate spatial variation in fuel loads before the start of the fire season. In Chapter 1 we compile and analyze the methodologies of the historical record of fine fuel loads reported to the Great Basin Coordination Center. Based on our data analysis, we developed a series of recommendations for improving the methods used to sample fine fuels in the future as well as more broad ideas for how land managers can use emerging technologies to more effectively monitor fine fuels. In Chapter 2 ...


Nutrient Uptake And Water Quality In Great Salt Lake Wetland Impoundments, Rachel L. Buck May 2022

Nutrient Uptake And Water Quality In Great Salt Lake Wetland Impoundments, Rachel L. Buck

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The Great Salt Lake (GSL) is the largest inland body of water on the Pacific flyway, a major pathway for migratory birds in the Americas that extends from Alaska to Patagonia. The lake is surrounded by approximately 360,000 acres of wetlands, providing critical food, shelter, cover, nesting areas, and protection to between 4–6 million birds that visit each year. Impounded wetlands were created as part of the GSL ecosystem to support waterfowl habitat. These large, shallow, submergent wetlands are diked to control water levels to sustain aquatic plants which are an important food source. Besides providing critical habitat ...


Carnivoran Frugivory And Its Effect On Seed Dispersal, Plant Community Composition, Migration, And Biotic Carbon Storage, John P. Draper May 2022

Carnivoran Frugivory And Its Effect On Seed Dispersal, Plant Community Composition, Migration, And Biotic Carbon Storage, John P. Draper

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Seed dispersal by animals is important for the ecology of plants. It is particularly important to understand which animals are involved and how they move seeds differently from one another. Some seed dispersers are understudied despite ample evidence they consume fruits and seeds. This includes animals commonly referred to as carnivores in the order Carnivora. The overall goal of my dissertation was to describe the extent and quality of seed dispersal by Carnivorans, estimate important aspects of seed dispersal for a specific Carnivoran, the coyote, and estimate how differences between a coyote and songbirds affect where plants will occur in ...


Effects Of Providing Novel Feedstuffs To Livestock On Production And Skeletal Muscle Growth, Laura A. Motsinger May 2022

Effects Of Providing Novel Feedstuffs To Livestock On Production And Skeletal Muscle Growth, Laura A. Motsinger

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

As the population increases and available land for food production decreases, it is necessary for livestock producers to continually work towards increasing livestock production efficiency. In livestock operations, feed accounts for the majority of input costs associated with raising livestock. As such, it is necessary to improve growth and production of livestock animals, while also optimizing feed utilization. Different feedstuffs can be included in the diet of livestock animals to maximize growth and production. However, the effects of some of these novel feedstuffs on growth and production of livestock animals has not been elucidated. As such, we investigated the effects ...


4r Nitrogen And Water Optimization Combinations For Intermountain West Field Crops, Tina Sullivan May 2022

4r Nitrogen And Water Optimization Combinations For Intermountain West Field Crops, Tina Sullivan

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The concept of 4R (right source, rate, placement, and timing) management needs little introduction due to the surplus of nutrient studies in the literature for most cultivated crops. However, few studies have looked at these practices in the Intermountain West with nitrogen use, and fewer looked at 4R irrigation management. A survey was conducted to explore the interactions of nitrogen and irrigation management, test sensitivity to supply and price changes of nitrogen and irrigation for Utah and Idaho growers of small grains, corn, and potatoes, and determine the current adoption of precision agriculture options and identify the opportunities to improve ...


Refining, Testing, And Applying Thermal Species Distribution Models To Enhance Ecological Assessments, Donald J. Benkendorf May 2022

Refining, Testing, And Applying Thermal Species Distribution Models To Enhance Ecological Assessments, Donald J. Benkendorf

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The temperature of streams and rivers is changing rapidly in response to a variety of human activities. This rapid change is concerning because the abundances and distributions of many aquatic species in streams and rivers are strongly associated with temperature. Linking observations of temperature effects on species distributions with observations of temperature effects on fitness is important for improving confidence that temperature (and not some other variable) is causing the distributions we observe. Furthermore, producing accurate models of temperature effects on species distributions may allow us to develop tools to diagnose whether or not thermal pollution has impaired aquatic life ...


Comparing Multiple Approaches To Reconstructing The Phosphorus History Of Marl Lakes: A Utah Lake Case Study, Mark R. Devey May 2022

Comparing Multiple Approaches To Reconstructing The Phosphorus History Of Marl Lakes: A Utah Lake Case Study, Mark R. Devey

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Freshwater lakes around the world have suffered from the increasing occurrence of harmful algal blooms in recent decades. One of the most pressing reasons water quality managers try to address harmful algal blooms is that some of the species that occur with them produce toxins which can affect humans, pets, and wildlife. In many lakes, the nutrient phosphorus controls whether these harmful algal and bacterial species can occur. Therefore, efforts to control harmful algal blooms often center around reducing inputs of phosphorus from a variety of sources within the watershed. Scientists and water quality managers have long been challenged by ...


Characterizing The Migratory Phenology And Routes Of The Lazuli Bunting (Passerina Amoena) In Northern Utah, Kim Savides May 2022

Characterizing The Migratory Phenology And Routes Of The Lazuli Bunting (Passerina Amoena) In Northern Utah, Kim Savides

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Migratory species time their movements to follow changes in food and environmental resources throughout the year. Despite the ubiquity of migration in birds, little is still known about how birds select routes and time migrations. Recent advancements in miniaturized tracking devices now allow tracking of small birds throughout their annual life cycle, presenting opportunities for migratory ecology research at scales immeasurable in the past. Here we investigated the migratory ecology of a northern Utah, USA breeding population of Lazuli Bunting, a common songbird in western North America for which few migratory studies have been completed. We sought to compare breeding ...


Opportunities For Optimal Apple Production Management In Arid Conditions, Sam Johnson May 2022

Opportunities For Optimal Apple Production Management In Arid Conditions, Sam Johnson

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Apple trees are susceptible to biotic and abiotic stresses in the Intermountain West. The arid climate along with non-ideal soils make apple production challenging. Also, as high-quality agricultural land is developed, crop production gets pushed to land that often is saline. Apple trees grow poorly in saline soils. If apples are going to be grown in Utah, rootstocks must be identified that will tolerate saline soils. The USDA rootstock breeding program produced some rootstocks that may show salt tolerance. This project assessed the salt tolerance of these apple rootstocks in the greenhouse and in the field. Test rootstocks were compared ...


Greater Sage-Grouse Brood Responses To Livestock Grazing In Sagebrush Rangelands, Hailey Peatross Wayment May 2022

Greater Sage-Grouse Brood Responses To Livestock Grazing In Sagebrush Rangelands, Hailey Peatross Wayment

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The distribution and abundance of the greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus; sage-grouse) have declined in the last 60 years. Range contractions and population declines have been attributed to loss and fragmentation of their sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) habitats. Grazing by livestock remains the predominant anthropogenic land-use across sagebrush ecosystems in North America, occurring on 87% of remaining sage-grouse habitat. Most of the peer-reviewed literature reports the potential for negative impacts of sagebrush reduction treatments, to increase livestock forage, on sage-grouse habitat. However, few studies have linked livestock grazing at the landscape level to vital rates (e.g., nest initiation rates, nest success ...


Numerical Cognition And Autism Spectrum Traits In Adults, Benjamin Covington Dec 2021

Numerical Cognition And Autism Spectrum Traits In Adults, Benjamin Covington

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Evidence suggests that individuals with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder (ASD) may be particularly inclined toward math proficiency, especially in adulthood. There is also evidence, however, that many of those with an ASD struggle in math as children compared to their typically-developing peers. These ostensibly inconsistent findings may indicate that individuals with an ASD struggle with number sense, a precursor to formal math, rather than with formal math per se. This account is compatible with evidence of a specific form of neural dysregulation, excitatory/inhibitory imbalance, in ASD that results in reduced signal-to-noise ratios (SNR) for processes that occur in downstream ...


The Plant Growth Promoting Ability Of The Microbiome Of Ceanothus Velutinus From The Intermountain West Region, Jyothsna Ganesh Dec 2021

The Plant Growth Promoting Ability Of The Microbiome Of Ceanothus Velutinus From The Intermountain West Region, Jyothsna Ganesh

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Due to the ever-changing climate and deterioration of the earth’s ecosystem, environmental stresses like abiotic (drought, salinity) and biotic stresses (pathogen infection) gravely affected plant growth. Native plants are a great way of improving these effects on the urban landscape. They can be used as ornamental plants in landscaping as they are accustomed to their natural environment. The Center for Water-Efficient Landscaping at Utah State University has released a list of plants to be used for low water use landscaping. One such native plant is Ceanothus velutinus (snowbrush ceanothus). They are evergreen plants that can grow in dry and ...


Host Plant Use, Phenology, And Biological Control Of The Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae; Halymorpha Halys) In Northern Utah, Mark Cody Holthouse Dec 2021

Host Plant Use, Phenology, And Biological Control Of The Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae; Halymorpha Halys) In Northern Utah, Mark Cody Holthouse

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The invasive brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål), has become a significant agricultural and urban nuisance pest in North America, causing millions of dollars of damage to specialty fruit and vegetable crops over the past two decades. This pest uses over 170 host plant species in North America and is difficult to control with most conventional insecticides. Following the establishment of H. halys in Utah in 2012, this dissertation explores the plant host species, seasonal development, and biological control agents found in the unique climate conditions of the Intermountain West. Chapter II documents important plant species utilized by each ...


Influence Of External Ph And Organic Acids On Internal Ph And Acid Anion Accumulation In Listeria Monocytogenes And Escherichia Coli, Savannah R. Branson Dec 2021

Influence Of External Ph And Organic Acids On Internal Ph And Acid Anion Accumulation In Listeria Monocytogenes And Escherichia Coli, Savannah R. Branson

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli are both among the most common microbial pathogens that cause foodborne illnesses and death. They both are capable of growing over a wide range of conditions. Organic acids are widely employed in the food industry to control growth of these pathogens to help prevent foodborne illnesses. There is substantial evidence that intracellular accumulation of organic acid anions is a major inhibitor to cell growth, and that many bacteria may combat anion accumulation by lowering their intracellular pH (pHi). In this study, we followed the accumulation of acid anion into the cell pellet and parallel ...


Control Of Three Invasive Annual Grasses In Utah Using Herbicides Including Indaziflam, Hailey L. Buell Dec 2021

Control Of Three Invasive Annual Grasses In Utah Using Herbicides Including Indaziflam, Hailey L. Buell

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Invasive grasses pose a threat to rangeland ecosystems in Utah. Three grasses in particular: downy brome, medusahead, and ventenata can push out native plants and prevent other vegetation from germinating. These grasses can also degrade grazing lands for cattle and act as kindling for wildfires. The use of herbicides is the most common way to rid a site of invasive plants. Herbicides that prevent germination for many years work well to keep annual grasses at bay while not harming the many long-living native plants that are already growing.

A study was designed on a site infested with downy brome to ...


Impact Of Fish Oil On Intestinal Permeability, Inflammation, And Performance In Swine, Anthony Fernando Alberto Dec 2021

Impact Of Fish Oil On Intestinal Permeability, Inflammation, And Performance In Swine, Anthony Fernando Alberto

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Our research examined the effects of fish oil supplementation on intestinal permeability, systemic inflammation and performance in piglets. An lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge was done to stimulate the synthesis and release of the cytokines, in an effort to mimic the immune response that piglets would have when facing stress or pathogen challenge. Fish oil increased feed intake but did not affect growth when compared to control. Total fatty acid digestibility increased by 6% when fish oil was included in the diet. Also, we observed a 16% increase on 16-carbon fatty acids digestibility. Fish oil did not affect the plasma D-xylose concentration ...


A Comparison Of The Ecology Of Resident And Translocated Beavers Used For Passive Restoration In Degraded Desert Rivers, Emma Doden Dec 2021

A Comparison Of The Ecology Of Resident And Translocated Beavers Used For Passive Restoration In Degraded Desert Rivers, Emma Doden

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Ecosystem engineers are species that create, destroy, modify, or maintain habitat. As ecosystem engineers, beavers have the potential to assist in stream restoration. Translocation is the capture and relocation of an animal to another area. Translocation of nuisance beavers has become a popular method to reduce human-wildlife conflict and restore waterways. However, few projects monitor beavers after release and compare behavior to naturally occurring resident beavers. Translocations to desert rivers are also rare. We captured, tagged, and monitored 47 beavers which we translocated to desert river restoration sites on the Price and San Rafael Rivers, Utah, USA. We compared translocated ...