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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Untangling The Economic And Social Impediments To Producer Adoption Of Organic Wheat, Donya L. Ralph-Quarnstrom May 2019

Untangling The Economic And Social Impediments To Producer Adoption Of Organic Wheat, Donya L. Ralph-Quarnstrom

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Consumer demand for organic products has shown double-digit growth in recent years encouraging the development of a wider range of goods (Greene, 2017). Americans with an annual household income under $30,000 actively purchase organic foods at nearly the same rate as households with over $75,000 in annual incomes, 42% versus 49% (Greene et al., 2017). Previous research observed the adoption of organic farming practices on a combination of different grains, fruits and vegetables, meat, and dairy products from across the globe. However, this is the first study to examine the adoption of organic wheat in the Western U ...


Impacts Of Cattle Grazing As A Tool To Control Phragmites Australis In Wetlands On Nitrogen, Phosphorus, And Carbon, Brittany L. Duncan May 2019

Impacts Of Cattle Grazing As A Tool To Control Phragmites Australis In Wetlands On Nitrogen, Phosphorus, And Carbon, Brittany L. Duncan

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Phragmites australis is a plant that is causing problems in wetlands by outcompeting native plants that provide food and shelter for millions of migratory birds. Currently, managers try to control Phragmites australis by spraying herbicide, burning, and mowing, but these methods are costly, time consuming, and have low levels of success. Adding grazing as a tool to control Phragmites australis provides a cheap and low labor alternative. However, there are many concerns regarding if grazing will cause nutrient loading in our wetlands that will decrease water quality and alter beneficial functions of wetlands.

To better understand the effects of grazing ...


Modifying The Physical Properties Of Butter Using High-Intensity Ultrasound, Jiwon Lee, Silvana Martini Jan 2019

Modifying The Physical Properties Of Butter Using High-Intensity Ultrasound, Jiwon Lee, Silvana Martini

Nutrition, Dietetics, and Food Sciences Faculty Publications

The physical qualities of butter are affected by the physical properties of the cream used to make it. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of high-intensity ultrasound (HIU) on the physical properties of cream and butter. High-intensity ultrasound (frequency: 20 kHz, amplitude: 108 µm), often called sonication, was applied for 0, 10, 30, 60, and 90 s using a 1.27-cm-diameter tip to heavy cream (40% fat; 300 g) that was aged at 7.5°C with low agitation (40 rpm) for 90 min. Sonicated cream was churned at 7.5°C until butter grains were ...


Spotted Lanternfly [Lycorma Delicatula (White)], Lori R. Spears, Ann Mull Jan 2019

Spotted Lanternfly [Lycorma Delicatula (White)], Lori R. Spears, Ann Mull

All Current Publications

This fact sheet describes spotted lanternfly, an invasive planthopper that is native to China and first detected in the U.S. in 2014. It includes information on plant hosts, damage symptoms, life history, monitoring, and management,


Landscaping For Season Long Color, Jaydee Gunnell, Sheriden Hansen, Linden Greenhalgh, Holly Christley Jan 2019

Landscaping For Season Long Color, Jaydee Gunnell, Sheriden Hansen, Linden Greenhalgh, Holly Christley

All Current Publications

This fact sheet describes plants that can give landscapes color all season long with blooms in spring, summer, fall and winter interests. It includes a listing of trees, shrubs, perennials, vines, ground covers, bulbs, and ornamental grasses.


Minimizing Regrowth When Removing Russia Olive = Points To Consider, Dennis Worwood, Ron Patterson, Steve Price Jan 2019

Minimizing Regrowth When Removing Russia Olive = Points To Consider, Dennis Worwood, Ron Patterson, Steve Price

All Current Publications

This fact sheet provides the results of a variety of trials conducted to gain a greater understanding of the patterns of Russian olive regrowth and determine management practices that reduce the regrowth potential of mechanically-removed Russian olive.


A Guide To Municipal Water Conservation Pricing In Utah, Eric C. Edwards, Sara A. Sutherland Jan 2019

A Guide To Municipal Water Conservation Pricing In Utah, Eric C. Edwards, Sara A. Sutherland

All Current Publications

This fact sheet provides information on the use of price to encourage water conservation in Utah.


Vegetable Irrigation: Leafy Greens, Dan Drost, Tiffany Maughan Jan 2019

Vegetable Irrigation: Leafy Greens, Dan Drost, Tiffany Maughan

All Current Publications

Different irrigation methods are commonly used to irrigate leafy greens, each with different management considerations. Furrow irrigation is quite common but many growers are converting to use drip irrigation to save water, improve plant growth, and optimize productivity. Regardless of the irrigation system used, there are some basic principles to understand that will help ensure proper irrigation. This fact sheet discusses these basic principles.


Strawberry Cultivars For The Intermountain West - Research Report, Tiffany Maughan, Brent Black, Shengrui Yao, Robert Flynn Jan 2019

Strawberry Cultivars For The Intermountain West - Research Report, Tiffany Maughan, Brent Black, Shengrui Yao, Robert Flynn

All Current Publications

This fact sheet reports on a strawberry cultivar trial conducted at New Mexico State University’s Alcalade facility.


Leadership Keys: Unlocking Doors To Success, Cindy Nelson Jan 2019

Leadership Keys: Unlocking Doors To Success, Cindy Nelson

All Current Publications

This leadership curriculum is designed to teach leadership skills to adolescents using the leadership keys theme and fun, hands-on activities. The five lessons are intended to be used in a series, but lessons and activities may be successfully used individually.


Greater Sage-Grouse Translocations: The Science Behind Utah's Conservation Policy, Michel Kohl, Melissa Chelak, Terry Messmer Jan 2019

Greater Sage-Grouse Translocations: The Science Behind Utah's Conservation Policy, Michel Kohl, Melissa Chelak, Terry Messmer

All Current Publications

This fact sheet discusses the history of translocating greater sage-grouse in Utah. This includes information on protocols, success rates, and genetic implications.


Power In Pairs: Assessing The Statistical Value Of Paired Samples In Tests For Differential Expression, John R. Stevens, Jennifer S. Herrick, Roger K. Wolff, Martha L. Slattery Dec 2018

Power In Pairs: Assessing The Statistical Value Of Paired Samples In Tests For Differential Expression, John R. Stevens, Jennifer S. Herrick, Roger K. Wolff, Martha L. Slattery

Mathematics and Statistics Faculty Publications

Background: When genomics researchers design a high-throughput study to test for differential expression, some biological systems and research questions provide opportunities to use paired samples from subjects, and researchers can plan for a certain proportion of subjects to have paired samples. We consider the effect of this paired samples proportion on the statistical power of the study, using characteristics of both count (RNA-Seq) and continuous (microarray) expression data from a colorectal cancer study.

Results: We demonstrate that a higher proportion of subjects with paired samples yields higher statistical power, for various total numbers of samples, and for various strengths of ...


Parent And Household Influences On Calcium Intake Among Early Adolescents, Jinan Banna, Jessica O'Driscoll, Carol J. Boushey, Garry Auld, Beth Olson, Mary Cluskey, Miriam Edlefsen Ballejos, Christine Bruhn, Scottie Misner, Marla Reicks, Siew Sun Wong, Sahar Zaghloul Dec 2018

Parent And Household Influences On Calcium Intake Among Early Adolescents, Jinan Banna, Jessica O'Driscoll, Carol J. Boushey, Garry Auld, Beth Olson, Mary Cluskey, Miriam Edlefsen Ballejos, Christine Bruhn, Scottie Misner, Marla Reicks, Siew Sun Wong, Sahar Zaghloul

Nutrition, Dietetics, and Food Sciences Faculty Publications

Background: Calcium intake during early adolescence falls short of requirements for maximum bone accretion. Parents and the home food environment potentially influence children’s calcium intakes. This study aimed to quantify parental psychosocial factors (PSF) predicting calcium intakes of Asian, Hispanic, and non-Hispanic white (NHW) early adolescent children from a parental perspective.

Methods: This was a cross-sectional study involving the administration of a validated calcium-specific food frequency questionnaire to a convenience sample of children aged 10–13 years and the primary individual responsible for food acquisition in the child’s household. Based on Social Cognitive Theory, parental factors potentially associated ...


Chemical Analysis Of Aerosol Particle Surfaces, Hillary Woolf Dec 2018

Chemical Analysis Of Aerosol Particle Surfaces, Hillary Woolf

Fall Student Research Symposium 2018

Aerosol particles are thought to impact climate properties. The ability to probe aerosols to understand their chemical properties has been difficult due to a lack of appropriate analytical techniques. Here we present interface-specific SHS techniques to allow for in situ analysis of aerosol particles. Transportation of aerosols from their collection site to the laboratory disturbs their chemical and physical properties thus making it difficult to take accurate measurements of aerosol particles. We show that using a CCD detector is a more effective option for producing more sensitive results and can greatly reduce sampling time and could possibly detect measurements from ...


Optimizing Robotic Milk: A Qualitative Research Approach To Understanding Challenges That May Inhibit Optimal Usage Of Automatic Milking Systems In Northern Utah, Jessica Felts Dec 2018

Optimizing Robotic Milk: A Qualitative Research Approach To Understanding Challenges That May Inhibit Optimal Usage Of Automatic Milking Systems In Northern Utah, Jessica Felts

Fall Student Research Symposium 2018

Automatic Milking Systems (AMS) – or robotic milkers – have been on the market for over twenty years. However, AMS introduction is relatively new to the Western U.S., and requires challenging adjustments and new management systems.


Modeling The Effect Of Post-Dispersal Seed Predation On Tropical Tree Species In Panama, Justin Tirrell Dec 2018

Modeling The Effect Of Post-Dispersal Seed Predation On Tropical Tree Species In Panama, Justin Tirrell

Fall Student Research Symposium 2018

Palm trees provide a unique opportunity to study what conditions optimize the probability that a seed will grow successfully. The seeds of palm trees, endocarps, are large and easy to locate. When they don't grow, predators leave marks on them that tell the story of their fate. The focus of my experiment is to determine how the current distribution pattern of parent palm trees in Panama Palm trees affects the the future distribution of seedlings. I have programmed a versatile model that takes the assumption that bruchid beetles are the sole predators acting on the seeds, and that these ...


Reducing Protected Lands In A Hotspot Of Bee Biodiversity: Bees Of Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument, Joseph S. Wilson, Matt Kelly, Olivia Messinger Carril Dec 2018

Reducing Protected Lands In A Hotspot Of Bee Biodiversity: Bees Of Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument, Joseph S. Wilson, Matt Kelly, Olivia Messinger Carril

Biology Faculty Publications

Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument is a federally protected area found in central southern Utah. Designated in 1996 by President William J. Clinton, it was recently reduced in size by President Donald J. Trump in a proclamation that turned the one large monument into three smaller ones. A long-term, standardized study of the bees had been conducted from 2000–2003, revealing 660 species. The bee communities of the area are characterized by being spatially heterogeneous; most of the bees occur in isolated areas, with only a few being both abundant and widespread. Here we examine what affect the recent resizing of ...


Assessment Of The Effects Of Climate Change On Evapotranspiration With An Improved Elasticity Method In A Nonhumid Area, Lei Tian, Jiming Jin, Pute Wu, Guo-Yue Niu Dec 2018

Assessment Of The Effects Of Climate Change On Evapotranspiration With An Improved Elasticity Method In A Nonhumid Area, Lei Tian, Jiming Jin, Pute Wu, Guo-Yue Niu

Watershed Sciences Faculty Publications

Climatic elasticity is a crucial metric to assess the hydrological influence of climate change. Based on the Budyko equation, this study performed an analytical derivation of the climatic elasticity of evapotranspiration (ET). With this derived elasticity, it is possible to quantitatively separate the impacts of precipitation, air temperature, net radiation, relative humidity, and wind speed on ET in a watershed. This method was applied in the Wuding River Watershed (WRW), located in the center of the Yellow River Watershed of China. The estimated rate of change in ET caused by climatic variables is −10.69 mm/decade, which is close ...


Quantifying The Impact Of Climate Change And Human Activities On Streamflow In A Semi-Arid Watershed With The Budyko Equation Incorporating Dynamic Vegetation Information, Lei Tian, Jiming Jin, Pute Wu, Guo-Yue Niu Dec 2018

Quantifying The Impact Of Climate Change And Human Activities On Streamflow In A Semi-Arid Watershed With The Budyko Equation Incorporating Dynamic Vegetation Information, Lei Tian, Jiming Jin, Pute Wu, Guo-Yue Niu

Watershed Sciences Faculty Publications

Understanding hydrological responses to climate change and land use and land cover change (LULCC) is important for water resource planning and management, especially for water-limited areas. The annual streamflow of the Wuding River Watershed (WRW), the largest sediment source of the Yellow River in China, has decreased significantly over the past 50 years at a rate of 5.2 mm/decade. Using the Budyko equation, this study investigated this decrease with the contributions from climate change and LULCC caused by human activities, which have intensified since 1999 due to China’s Grain for Green Project (GFGP). The Budyko parameter that ...


Long-Term Experimental Hybridisation Results In The Evolution Of A New Sex Chromosome In Swordtail Fish, Paolo Franchini, Julia C. Jones, Peiwen Xiong, Susanne Kneitz, Zachariah Gompert, Wesley C. Warren, Ronald B. Walter, Axel Meyer, Manfred Schartl Dec 2018

Long-Term Experimental Hybridisation Results In The Evolution Of A New Sex Chromosome In Swordtail Fish, Paolo Franchini, Julia C. Jones, Peiwen Xiong, Susanne Kneitz, Zachariah Gompert, Wesley C. Warren, Ronald B. Walter, Axel Meyer, Manfred Schartl

Biology Faculty Publications

The remarkable diversity of sex determination mechanisms known in fish may be fuelled by exceptionally high rates of sex chromosome turnovers or transitions. However, the evolutionary causes and genomic mechanisms underlying this variation and instability are yet to be understood. Here we report on an over 30-year evolutionary experiment in which we tested the genomic consequences of hybridisation and selection between two Xiphophorus fish species with different sex chromosome systems. We find that introgression and imposing selection for pigmentation phenotypes results in the retention of an unexpectedly large maternally derived genomic region. During the hybridisation process, the sex-determining region of ...


Identifying And Assessing Conflicts Between Future Development And Current Migratory Bird Habitat Around Farmington Bay, Utah, Aubin A. Douglas Dec 2018

Identifying And Assessing Conflicts Between Future Development And Current Migratory Bird Habitat Around Farmington Bay, Utah, Aubin A. Douglas

All Graduate Plan B and other Reports

Every year, the Great Salt Lake (GSL) and its associated wetlands provide critical habitat for over 250 migratory bird species from both the Pacific and Central Flyways. The GSL borders the Wasatch Front, which is the fastest growing and most populous region in Utah. To support the ever-increasing working population, the government of Utah aspires to increase the robust economic growth of the region through economic incentives and development of infrastructure. As this area continues to develop, greater pressure will be placed on the surrounding natural resources, including the GSL, its wetlands, and the open space and agricultural land that ...


The Macroinvertebrate And Fish Communities Of In-Stream Beaver Ponds In Northeastern Utah, Susan Washko Dec 2018

The Macroinvertebrate And Fish Communities Of In-Stream Beaver Ponds In Northeastern Utah, Susan Washko

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Beavers were virtually extirpated from North America during the fur trade, but populations have since recovered. Dams built by recolonizing beaver alter stream habitat by forming deep, slow ponds within the streams. Such changes to the habitat is likely to have consequences for organisms such as macroinvertebrates and fish. The objective of this study was to identify the differences in the macroinvertebrate and trout community in beaver ponds and lotic (e.g. flowing reaches of a stream) reaches in tributaries to the Logan River in northeastern Utah. The macroinvertebrate community of beaver ponds had fewer species, fewer numbers, and lower ...


Interactions Between Fire Severity And Forest Biota In The Central Sierra Nevada: Formation And Impact Of Small-Scale Fire Refugia And The Effect Of Fire On Forest Structure Predictive Of Fisher (Pekania Pennanti) Den Habitat, Erika M. Blomdahl Dec 2018

Interactions Between Fire Severity And Forest Biota In The Central Sierra Nevada: Formation And Impact Of Small-Scale Fire Refugia And The Effect Of Fire On Forest Structure Predictive Of Fisher (Pekania Pennanti) Den Habitat, Erika M. Blomdahl

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Fire is a natural and essential component of forests in western North America. Fire maintains biodiversity through the creation of different habitat types, and regular fire rotations reduce the accumulation of woody fuels and thick understory plant densities that give rise to catastrophic fire. The practice of fire exclusion has altered western forests and increased the risk of widespread change under rising temperatures projected for the 21st century. To manage for the reintroduction of fire it is critical that we understand the interactions between fire and forest biota in recently fire-suppressed forests.

In Chapter 2, I studied the formation ...


Patterns Of Use Before And After A Labeling Intervention Among Collegiate Division I Athletes At A Fueling Station, Julie A. Buzzard Dec 2018

Patterns Of Use Before And After A Labeling Intervention Among Collegiate Division I Athletes At A Fueling Station, Julie A. Buzzard

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The Fueling Station at Utah State University was created to provide pre-workout fueling and post-workout recovery foods to the Utah State University athletes. The athletes use an online survey to mark what foods they selected after each visit to the Fueling Station.

There is a large amount of research on the lack of sports nutrition knowledge in collegiate athletes, but there is little information on the dietary intake of athletes, the education of athletes, and the education of macronutrient timing in athletes.

A food labeling system named “Gain Your Edge” food labels that targeted the education of timing was created ...


Fresh Produce Direct Market Sales Considerations, Kynda R. Curtis, Sierra Allen, Susan Slocum Dec 2018

Fresh Produce Direct Market Sales Considerations, Kynda R. Curtis, Sierra Allen, Susan Slocum

All Current Publications

This fact sheet describes direct market sales including information on selling farm products or services directly to the final consumer, local grocery or restaurant.


The Abiotic And Biotic Controls Of Arctic Lake Food Webs: A Multifaceted Approach To Quantifying Trophic Structure And Function, Stephen L. Klobucar Dec 2018

The Abiotic And Biotic Controls Of Arctic Lake Food Webs: A Multifaceted Approach To Quantifying Trophic Structure And Function, Stephen L. Klobucar

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The Arctic is warming faster than any other region of the globe. To conserve and manage many thousands of lakes across arctic landscapes, scientists need to understand historic and present conditions within these lakes to predict how the lakes, and the organisms that inhabit them, may respond to a changing climate. The goal of my research was to improve our understanding of what physical, chemical, and biological factors contribute to: 1) how lake food webs are assembled; and, 2) how these food webs may change in the future. First, I used long-term observations and lab experiments to determine how fish ...


Cover Crops For Utah, Kristie Buckland, Earl Creech, Jennifer R. Reeve, Grant Cardon, Matt Yost, Deric Despain Dec 2018

Cover Crops For Utah, Kristie Buckland, Earl Creech, Jennifer R. Reeve, Grant Cardon, Matt Yost, Deric Despain

All Current Publications

This fact sheet provides the current state of knowledge on cover crop management for Utah based on USU research and local grower experience.


A Needs Assessment Of Arizona Agricultural Education Equine Science Curriculum, Emily Tobler Dec 2018

A Needs Assessment Of Arizona Agricultural Education Equine Science Curriculum, Emily Tobler

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Like any other agricultural industry, many different career paths in the equine field are becoming more technologically advanced. To adapt to technological progress, current standards need to be integrated into school-based agricultural education courses to properly train and teach students about current industry standards. In addition to equine science curriculum development, emphasis must also be focused on providing assistance to secondary-school-based agriculture teachers so they can effectively teach industry-based equine science objectives in their programs.

The equine curriculum objectives were measured in terms of perceived importance by equine professionals and post-secondary equine educators as well as Arizona school-based agriculture teachers ...


Plant Evolutionary Response To Climate Change: Detecting Adaptation Across Experimental And Natural Precipitation Gradients, Jacqueline J. Peña Dec 2018

Plant Evolutionary Response To Climate Change: Detecting Adaptation Across Experimental And Natural Precipitation Gradients, Jacqueline J. Peña

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Global climate change is a real-time problem that presents threats to many species. Climate change can alter ecosystems and may lead to species extinction. Species can respond to climate change by moving to a better environment or adapting. Therefore, it is necessary to rely on several approaches and perspectives to anticipate ecological impacts of climate change. A common strategy uses models to understand how populations respond to different climate scenarios. Ecological models have helped usunderstand population persistence, but they often ignore how populations adapt to environmental stress. Adaptive evolution has been ignored because it was assumed that evolution was too ...


Identification Of Sperm Chromatin Proteins As Candidate Markers Of Stallion Fertility, Chelsea C. Ketchum Dec 2018

Identification Of Sperm Chromatin Proteins As Candidate Markers Of Stallion Fertility, Chelsea C. Ketchum

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

During spermatogenesis, histones are largely replaced by transition proteins and protamines in normal stallions. Incomplete nucleoprotein exchange results in the abnormal retention of histones and transition proteins, which is an indicator of poor sperm quality. Equine nucleoprotein exchange has not previously been investigated in detail, so that equine sperm chromatin quality problems, which are often responsible for poor breeding performance of stallions, are not well understood. In order to characterize chromatin remodeling events in stallion spermatogenesis and to identify proteins indicative of sperm chromatin defects, such as excessive amounts of histones, we identified antibodies that recognize equine testis-specific proteins of ...