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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

A Climatological Dataset Of Nutrient, Chlorophyll, And Particulate Matter Distributions On The Ross Sea Continental Shelf Derived From Cruise-Based Measurements Spanning 1967 To 2016, Walker O. Smith Jr., Daniel E. Kaufman Oct 2018

A Climatological Dataset Of Nutrient, Chlorophyll, And Particulate Matter Distributions On The Ross Sea Continental Shelf Derived From Cruise-Based Measurements Spanning 1967 To 2016, Walker O. Smith Jr., Daniel E. Kaufman

Data

This dataset includes data used in the publication Smith and Kaufman (2018), Progress in Oceanography, which examines the temporal and spatial distributions of nutrients and particulate matter in the Ross Sea continental Shelf using cruise-based observations, and compares the resulting annual productivity estimates with previously reported satellite-based estimates. Specifically, these data represent distributions of nutrients, chlorophyll, particulate organic carbon, particulate organic nitrogen, and biogenic silica that were compiled from 42 cruises (from 1967 - 2016) to the Ross Sea continental shelf to generate a comprehensive climatological dataset for November, December, January, and February. This climatology provides a novel look at broad ...


Predicting The Trajectories Of Dead Sea Turtles In Virginia Using Experimental Data And Model Simulations, Bianca Santos, David Michael Kaplan Sep 2018

Predicting The Trajectories Of Dead Sea Turtles In Virginia Using Experimental Data And Model Simulations, Bianca Santos, David Michael Kaplan

Data

No abstract provided.


The Contribution Of Local And Transport Processes To Phytoplankton Biomass Variability Over Different Timescales In The Upper James River, Virginia, Qubin Qin, Jian Shen Sep 2018

The Contribution Of Local And Transport Processes To Phytoplankton Biomass Variability Over Different Timescales In The Upper James River, Virginia, Qubin Qin, Jian Shen

Articles

Although both local processes (photosynthesis, respiration, grazing, and settling), and transport processes (advective transport and diffusive transport) significantly affect local phytoplankton dynamics, it is difficult to separate their contributions and to investigate the relative importance of each process to the local variability of phytoplankton biomass over different timescales. A method of using the transport rate is introduced to quantify the contribution of transport processes. By combining the time-varying transport rate and high-frequency observed chlorophyll a data, we can explicitly examine the impact of local and transport processes on phytoplankton biomass over a range of timescales from hourly to annually. For ...


Evaluating Recruitment Of American Eel, Anguilla Rostrata, In The Potomac River (Spring 2018), Troy D. Tuckey, Mary C. Fabrizio Sep 2018

Evaluating Recruitment Of American Eel, Anguilla Rostrata, In The Potomac River (Spring 2018), Troy D. Tuckey, Mary C. Fabrizio

Reports

No abstract provided.


2018 Annual Report Estimating Relative Juvenile Abundance Of Ecologically Important Finfish In The Virginia Portion Of Chesapeake Bay (1 July 2017 – 30 June 2018), Troy D. Tuckey, Mary C. Fabrizio Sep 2018

2018 Annual Report Estimating Relative Juvenile Abundance Of Ecologically Important Finfish In The Virginia Portion Of Chesapeake Bay (1 July 2017 – 30 June 2018), Troy D. Tuckey, Mary C. Fabrizio

Reports

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

1 July 2017 – 30 June 2018

The Trawl Survey provides crucial data to state, regional, and national fisheries management agencies, including the Virginia Marine Resources Commission (VMRC), the Atlantic States Marine Fisheries Commission (ASMFC), the Mid-Atlantic Fisheries Management Council (MAFMC), and the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS). The MAFMC recognizes the juvenile trawl survey as one of the key predictors of Summer Flounder recruitment. Annual indices of juvenile abundance have been generated from trawl survey data for species of key recreational, ecological, and commercial importance in the Virginia portion of Chesapeake Bay. These include Spot, Atlantic Croaker, Weakfish ...


Abundance Trends Of Highly Migratory Species In The Atlantic Ocean: Accounting For Water Temperature Profiles, Patrick D. Lynch, Kyle W. Shertzer, Enric Cortes, Robert J. Latour Jul 2018

Abundance Trends Of Highly Migratory Species In The Atlantic Ocean: Accounting For Water Temperature Profiles, Patrick D. Lynch, Kyle W. Shertzer, Enric Cortes, Robert J. Latour

VIMS Articles

Relative abundance trends of highly migratory species (HMS) have played a central role in debates over the health of global fisheries. However, such trends have mostly been inferred from fishery catch rates, which can provide misleading signals of relative abundance. While many biases are accounted for through traditional catch rate standardization, pelagic habitat fished is rarely directly considered. Using a method that explicitly accounts for temperature regimes, we analysed data from the US pelagic longline fishery to estimate relative abundance trends for 34 HMS in the Atlantic Ocean from 1987 through 2013. This represents one of the largest studies of ...


Virginia Shellfish Aquaculture Situation And Outlook Report: Results Of The 2017 Virginia Shellfish Aquaculture Crop Reporting Survey, Karen Hudson, Virginia Sea Grant Marine Advisory Program Jul 2018

Virginia Shellfish Aquaculture Situation And Outlook Report: Results Of The 2017 Virginia Shellfish Aquaculture Crop Reporting Survey, Karen Hudson, Virginia Sea Grant Marine Advisory Program

Reports

No abstract provided.


An Assessment Of Sea Scallop Abundance And Distribution In Georges Bank Closed Area Ii And The Southern Extension Closure: Final Report, David B. Rudders, Sally Roman May 2018

An Assessment Of Sea Scallop Abundance And Distribution In Georges Bank Closed Area Ii And The Southern Extension Closure: Final Report, David B. Rudders, Sally Roman

Reports

For the sea scallop, Placopecten magellanicus, the concepts of space and time have emerged as the basis of an effective management tool. The strategy of closing or limiting activities in certain areas for specific lengths of time has gained support as a method to conserve and enhance the scallop resource. In the last decade, rotational area management has provided a mechanism to protect juvenile scallops from fishing mortality by closing areas based upon scallop abundance and age distribution. Approximately half of the sea scallop industry’s current annual landings come from areas under this rotational harvest strategy. While this represents ...


A Cooperative High Precision Dredge Survey To Assess The Mid-Atlantic Sea Scallop Resource : Final Report, David B. Rudders, Sally Roman May 2018

A Cooperative High Precision Dredge Survey To Assess The Mid-Atlantic Sea Scallop Resource : Final Report, David B. Rudders, Sally Roman

Reports

For the sea scallop, Placopecten magellanicus, the concepts of space and time have emerged as the basis of an effective management tool. The strategy of closing or limiting activities in certain areas for specific lengths of time has gained support as a method to conserve and enhance the scallop resource. In the last decade, rotational area management has provided a mechanism to protect juvenile scallops from fishing mortality by closing areas based upon scallop abundance and age distribution. Approximately half of the sea scallop industry’s current annual landings come from areas under this rotational harvest strategy. While this represents ...


An Assessment Of Sea Scallop Abundance And Distribution In The Nantucket Lightship Closed Area And Surrounds: Final Report, David B. Rudders, Sally Roman May 2018

An Assessment Of Sea Scallop Abundance And Distribution In The Nantucket Lightship Closed Area And Surrounds: Final Report, David B. Rudders, Sally Roman

Reports

For the sea scallop, Placopecten magellanicus, the concepts of space and time have emerged as the basis of an effective management tool. The strategy of closing or limiting activities in certain areas for specific lengths of time has gained support as a method to conserve and enhance the scallop resource. In the last decade, rotational area management has provided a mechanism to protect juvenile scallops from fishing mortality by closing areas based upon scallop abundance and age distribution. Approximately half of the sea scallop industry’s current annual landings come from areas under this rotational harvest strategy. While this represents ...


Efficacy Of Intranasal Administration: A Clinical Approach To Attention, Jacob Feldmann May 2018

Efficacy Of Intranasal Administration: A Clinical Approach To Attention, Jacob Feldmann

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Orexins are a class of neuropeptides that are associated with homeostatic functions, such as food intake, sexual behavior, and the sleep/wake cycle. Orexins also play a pivotal role in cognitive processes such as attention and memory. In the present experiment, we employed a visual attention task to assess the effects of intranasal administration of orexin A in rats. This task required the rats to discriminate between trials when a visual light was illuminated from trials when the light was not illuminated. We tested the efficacy of this administration technique to see its viability as a therapeutic in attention disorders ...


Comparative Performance Of Three Length-Based Mortality Estimators, Quang C. Huynh, Jennifer Beckensteiner, Liese M. Carleton, Benjamin J. Marcek, Vaskar Nepal Kc, Cassidy D. Peterson, Megan A. Wood, John M. Hoenig May 2018

Comparative Performance Of Three Length-Based Mortality Estimators, Quang C. Huynh, Jennifer Beckensteiner, Liese M. Carleton, Benjamin J. Marcek, Vaskar Nepal Kc, Cassidy D. Peterson, Megan A. Wood, John M. Hoenig

VIMS Articles

Length‐based methods provide alternatives for estimating the instantaneous total mortality rate (Z) in exploited marine populations when data are not available for age‐based methods. We compared the performance of three equilibrium length‐based methods: the length‐converted catch curve (LCCC), the Beverton–Holt equation (BHE), and the length‐based spawning potential ratio (LB‐SPR) method. The LCCC and BHE are two historically common procedures that use length as a proxy for age. From a truncated length‐frequency distribution of fully selected animals, the LCCC estimates Z with a regression of the logarithm of catch at length by the ...


Evolutionary Competition As Religion: A Religio-Biological Model Of The Maori And Vaisnava Sahajiya Traditions, Benjamin Highland May 2018

Evolutionary Competition As Religion: A Religio-Biological Model Of The Maori And Vaisnava Sahajiya Traditions, Benjamin Highland

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Within the modern field of Religious Studies, there exists an epistemological divide between structuralist and post-structuralist thought. Structuralists seek to find underlying and universally applicable knowledge about religion, while post-structuralists argue that traditions must be studied within their own specific geographic, temporal, and cultural contexts. In an aim to reconcile these two disparate paradigms, I introduce the Religio-Biological Model and apply it to two distinct religious traditions: the Maori and the Vaisnava Sahajiya. Drawing from both religious and biological theory (specifically multilevel selection theory), this thesis seeks to create an interdisciplinary framework for the future study of religion that cohesively ...


The Impact Of Racial Group Status On Neural Activity, Belongingness, And Distress During Social Exclusion, Brian Anyakoha May 2018

The Impact Of Racial Group Status On Neural Activity, Belongingness, And Distress During Social Exclusion, Brian Anyakoha

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Social exclusion, whereby individuals are made to feel isolated by others, has been frequently demonstrated to be detrimental to human social needs and can negatively impact mental and physical health because human beings are intrinsically social (Goodwin et al., 2010). Past research has shown that human motivational, psychological, and affective responses to ostracism indicate increased levels of social pain, the emotional pain we experience when our social needs are violated (Kawamoto et. al, 2013). The current study aimed to assess the impact of social exclusion on neural activity, feelings of belonging, and self-reported distress, while also determining whether these responses ...


Virginia Game Fish Tagging Program Annual Report 2017, Susanna Musick, Lewis Gillingham May 2018

Virginia Game Fish Tagging Program Annual Report 2017, Susanna Musick, Lewis Gillingham

Reports

Through 2017, the Virginia Game Fish Tagging Program (VGFTP) has maintained a 22-year database of rec-ords for tagged and recaptured fish. The program is a cooperative project of the Virginia Saltwater Fishing Tournament (VSFT) under the Virginia Marine Resources Commission-(VMRC) and the Virginia Institute of Marine Science (VIMS) of the College of William and Mary (under the VIMS Marine Advisory Program).


The Unusual Paradigm Of The Acid Response Two Component System Of Helicobacter Pylori, Anna Kenan May 2018

The Unusual Paradigm Of The Acid Response Two Component System Of Helicobacter Pylori, Anna Kenan

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Two component signal transduction systems in bacteria are key for environmental adaptation. Signaling via these systems is traditionally considered to be relatively simple, only involving interactions between the sensory protein and its cognate response regulator. The ArsRS two component system is vital for the acid response in Helicobacter pylori. This study investigates the mechanism by which ArsRS responds to acid in H pylori. Recent studies in our lab have challenged the the classic model in which the response regulator ArsR is activated by the phosphorylation of a conserved aspartic acid by the transfer of a phosphoryl group from a histidine ...


Tidal Habitats Support Large Numbers Of Invasive Blue Catfish In A Chesapeake Bay Subestuary, Mary C. Fabrizio, Troy D. Tuckey, Robert J. Latour, Gary C. White, Alicia J. Norris May 2018

Tidal Habitats Support Large Numbers Of Invasive Blue Catfish In A Chesapeake Bay Subestuary, Mary C. Fabrizio, Troy D. Tuckey, Robert J. Latour, Gary C. White, Alicia J. Norris

VIMS Articles

The introduction of a non-native freshwater fish, blue catfish Ictalurus furcatus, in tributaries of Chesapeake Bay resulted in the establishment of fisheries and in the expansion of the population into brackish habitats. Blue catfish are an invasive species in the Chesapeake Bay region, and efforts are underway to limit their impacts on native communities. Key characteristics of the population (population size, survival rates) are unknown, but such knowledge is useful in understanding the impact of blue catfish in estuarine systems. We estimated population size and survival rates of blue catfish in tidal habitats of the James River subestuary. We tagged ...


Debating The Effectiveness Of Marine Protected Areas, Linwood H. Pendleton, Gabby N. Ahmadia, Howard I. Browman, Ruth Thurstan, David M. Kaplan, Valerio Bartolino May 2018

Debating The Effectiveness Of Marine Protected Areas, Linwood H. Pendleton, Gabby N. Ahmadia, Howard I. Browman, Ruth Thurstan, David M. Kaplan, Valerio Bartolino

VIMS Articles

Increasing the size and number of marine protected areas (MPAs) is widely seen as a way to meet ambitious biodiversity and sustainable development goals. Yet, debate still exists on the effectiveness of MPAs in achieving ecological and societal objectives. Although the literature provides significant evidence of the ecological effects of MPAs within their boundaries, much remains to be learned about the ecological and social effects of MPAs on regional and seascape scales. Key to improving the effectiveness of MPAs, and ensuring that they achieve desired outcomes, will be better monitoring that includes ecological and social data collected inside and outside ...


Gear And Survey Efficiency Of Patent Tongs For Oyster Populations On Restoration Reefs, David M. Schulte, Romuald N. Lipcius, Rp Burke May 2018

Gear And Survey Efficiency Of Patent Tongs For Oyster Populations On Restoration Reefs, David M. Schulte, Romuald N. Lipcius, Rp Burke

VIMS Articles

Surveys of restored oyster reefs need to produce accurate population estimates to assess the efficacy of restoration. Due to the complex structure of subtidal oyster reefs, one effective and efficient means to sample is by patent tongs, rather than SCUBA, dredges, or bottom cores. Restored reefs vary in relief and oyster density, either of which could affect survey efficiency. This study is the first to evaluate gear (the first full grab) and survey (which includes selecting a specific half portion of the first grab for further processing) efficiencies of hand-operated patent tongs as a function of reef height and oyster ...


Activity Seascapes Highlight Central Place Foraging Strategies In Marine Predators That Never Stop Swimming, Yannis P. Papastamatiou, Yuuki Y. Watanabe, Urska Demšar, Vianey Leos-Barajas, Darcy Bradley, Roland Langrock, Kevin C. Weng, Christopher Lowe, Alan M. Friedlander, Jennifer E. Caselle May 2018

Activity Seascapes Highlight Central Place Foraging Strategies In Marine Predators That Never Stop Swimming, Yannis P. Papastamatiou, Yuuki Y. Watanabe, Urska Demšar, Vianey Leos-Barajas, Darcy Bradley, Roland Langrock, Kevin C. Weng, Christopher Lowe, Alan M. Friedlander, Jennifer E. Caselle

VIMS Articles

Background: Central place foragers (CPF) rest within a central place, and theory predicts that distance of patches from this central place sets the outer limits of the foraging arena. Many marine ectothermic predators behave like CPF animals, but never stop swimming, suggesting that predators will incur ‘travelling’ costs while resting. Currently, it is unknown how these CPF predators behave or how modulation of behavior contributes to daily energy budgets. We combine acoustic telemetry, multi-sensor loggers, and hidden Markov models (HMMs) to generate ‘activity seascapes’, which combine space use with patterns of activity, for reef sharks (blacktip reef and grey reef ...


An Assessment Of Sea Scallop Abundance And Distribution In Georges Bank Closed Area Ii And Surrounds : Final Report, David B. Rudders, Sally Roman May 2018

An Assessment Of Sea Scallop Abundance And Distribution In Georges Bank Closed Area Ii And Surrounds : Final Report, David B. Rudders, Sally Roman

Reports

For the sea scallop, Placopecten magellanicus, the concepts of space and time have emerged as the basis of an effective management tool. The strategy of closing or limiting activities in certain areas for specific lengths of time has gained support as a method to conserve and enhance the scallop resource. In the last decade, rotational area management has provided a mechanism to protect juvenile scallops from fishing mortality by closing areas based upon scallop abundance and age distribution. Approximately half of the sea scallop industry’s current annual landings come from areas under this rotational harvest strategy. While this represents ...


The Test-Retest Reliability Of Erp Components As Assessed By The Brief Neurometric Battery, James D. Cole, Paul Kieffaber May 2018

The Test-Retest Reliability Of Erp Components As Assessed By The Brief Neurometric Battery, James D. Cole, Paul Kieffaber

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Electroencephalography (EEG) has been a crucial component of neuropsychological research for nearly a century. Recent applications of the EEG recordings in a clinical setting have demonstrated a range of diagnostic and prognostic uses. Certain changes in event-related potentials (ERP) have been linked to the effects of different neurological conditions and can be accurately used to determine the severity of those conditions. However, in order to assess the stability of these ERP recordings over an extended period of time, one must first establish their statistical test-retest reliability. Using a novel Brief Neurometric Battery we assessed seven different ERP components in twenty ...


Monitoring The Abundance Of American Shad And River Herring In Virginia's Rivers - 2017 Annual Report, Eric J. Hilton, Rob Latour, Patrick E. Mcgrath, Brian Watkins, Ashleigh Magee Apr 2018

Monitoring The Abundance Of American Shad And River Herring In Virginia's Rivers - 2017 Annual Report, Eric J. Hilton, Rob Latour, Patrick E. Mcgrath, Brian Watkins, Ashleigh Magee

Reports

This report describes the results of the twentieth year of a continuing study to estimate the relative abundance and assess the status of American shad (Alosa sapidissima) stocks in Virginia by monitoring the spawning runs in the James, York and Rappahannock rivers in spring 2017, evaluating hatchery programs, and contributing to coast-wide assessments (ASMFC 2007). We also report on two fishery-independent monitoring programs, one using staked gillnets in the Rappahannock River (year 2) and the other using anchor gillnets in the Chickahominy River (year 3; a major tributary of the James River),to determine relative abundance and stock structure for ...


The Status Of Virginia’S Public Oyster Resource 2017, Melissa Southworth, Roger Mann Apr 2018

The Status Of Virginia’S Public Oyster Resource 2017, Melissa Southworth, Roger Mann

Reports

This report summarizes data collected during 2016 in the Virginia portion of the Chesapeake Bay. The report is composed of two parts, part one, oyster recruitment (shell string) in Virginia and part two, dredge survey of selected oyster bars in Virginia


Relationship Between Injury And Spirituality In Pilgrims On The Camino De Santiago, Katelyn Rennyson Apr 2018

Relationship Between Injury And Spirituality In Pilgrims On The Camino De Santiago, Katelyn Rennyson

Undergraduate Honors Theses

The purpose of this research was to determine whether there is a relationship between spirituality and the likelihood of injury and the impact of that injury on pilgrims walking along the Camino de Santiago. The Camino de Santiago is an ancient, 791 km Christian pilgrimage route along the north of Spain from the French Pyrenees to Santiago de Compostela in Galicia, Spain. A total of 418 participants aged 18-80 were recruited along the Camino, and through social media, from May 15 to August 20, 2017. Participants on the walk completed a ten minute survey with questions pertaining to general demographics ...


Investigating Phenotypic And Genetic Variation In Quorum Sensing In Natural Isolates Of The Model Yeast, Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, Benedict Lenhart Apr 2018

Investigating Phenotypic And Genetic Variation In Quorum Sensing In Natural Isolates Of The Model Yeast, Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, Benedict Lenhart

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Microbes can enact massive change to themselves and their environment through the process of quorum sensing (QS). Through the chemical and metabolic processes of QS, microbes can determine the concentration of cooperative cells in their environment, and if a “quorum” is reached, alter genetic expression to modify microbe behavior and take advantage of resources. Often this altered behavior involves cooperative formations, as is the case of yeast strains like Saccharomyces Cerevisiae. This vastly abundant microbe serves as a convenient and effective model organism for studies examing microbial communication, as well as model for developing treatments for related-yeast Candida albicans infections ...


Impacts Of Atmospheric Nitrogen Deposition And Coastal Nitrogen Fluxes On Chesapeake Bay Hypoxia, Fei Da Mar 2018

Impacts Of Atmospheric Nitrogen Deposition And Coastal Nitrogen Fluxes On Chesapeake Bay Hypoxia, Fei Da

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

Although rivers are the primary source of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) inputs to the Chesapeake Bay, direct atmospheric DIN deposition and DIN fluxes from the continental shelf can also significantly impact Chesapeake Bay hypoxia. The relative role of these additional sources of DIN has not previously been thoroughly quantified. In this study, the three-dimensional Estuarine-Carbon-Biogeochemistry model embedded in the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ChesROMS-ECB) is used to examine the relative impact of these three DIN sources. Model simulations highlight that DIN inputs from the atmosphere have roughly the same impact on hypoxia as the same gram for gram change in ...


Estimating Relative Abundance Of Young‐Of‐Year American Eel, Anguilla Rostrata, In The Virginia Tributaries Of Chesapeake Bay (Spring 2017), Troy D. Tuckey, Mary C. Fabrizio Mar 2018

Estimating Relative Abundance Of Young‐Of‐Year American Eel, Anguilla Rostrata, In The Virginia Tributaries Of Chesapeake Bay (Spring 2017), Troy D. Tuckey, Mary C. Fabrizio

Reports

No abstract provided.


Virginia Seafood Sustainability, Robert A. Fisher Mar 2018

Virginia Seafood Sustainability, Robert A. Fisher

Reports

Virginia’s commercial fisheries operate sustainably under a suite of management tools based upon information received from marine scientists and fishery managers who regularly conduct biological sampling of fish while tracking commercial landings and other gathering of required information. Analyses of fishing effort and overall stock conditions, as well as formulas designed to calculate threshold limits for maintaining sustainable stocks are regularly performed. Restrictions on seasons, size, days at sea, and gear are imposed as needed to achieve management supporting long-term biological sustainability.


Genetic Evaluation Of Population Structure In White Marlin (Kajikia Albida): The Importance Of Statistical Power, Nadya Mamoozadeh, Jan R. Mcdowell, Jay R. Rooker, John E. Graves Mar 2018

Genetic Evaluation Of Population Structure In White Marlin (Kajikia Albida): The Importance Of Statistical Power, Nadya Mamoozadeh, Jan R. Mcdowell, Jay R. Rooker, John E. Graves

VIMS Articles

The genetic basis of population structure in white marlin (Kajikia albida) is not well understood. Previous evaluation of genetic population structure in this species utilized a small number of molecular markers to survey genetic variation across opportunistically collected samples of adults, resulting in statistically significant levels of genetic differentiation for some pairwise comparisons and global levels of genetic differentiation that approached statistical significance. This study increased statistical power to improve resolution of genetic population structure in white marlin by surveying a larger number of molecular markers across sample collections of increased size, including collections from additional geographic locations and a ...