Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Life Sciences Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Plant Biology

2011

Institution
Keyword
Publication
Publication Type
File Type

Articles 1 - 30 of 135

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Functional Genomic Studies Of Soybean Defenses Against Pests And Soybean Meal Improvement, Jingyu (Lynn) Lin Dec 2011

Functional Genomic Studies Of Soybean Defenses Against Pests And Soybean Meal Improvement, Jingyu (Lynn) Lin

Doctoral Dissertations

Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] is an important crop worldwide. It has been widely consumed for protein, oil and other soy products. To develop soybean cultivars with greater resistance against pests and improved meal quality, it is important to elucidate the molecular bases of these traits. This dissertation aims to investigate the biochemical and biological functions of soybean genes from four gene families, which are hypothesized to be associated with soybean defense against pests and soybean meal quality. There are three specific objectives in this dissertation. The first one is to determine the function of components in the salicylic acid ...


Abiotic Stress Responses In Photosynthetic Organisms, Joseph Msanne Dec 2011

Abiotic Stress Responses In Photosynthetic Organisms, Joseph Msanne

Dissertations & Theses in Natural Resources

Cellular and molecular aspects of abiotic stress responses in Arabidopsis thaliana subjected to cold, drought, and high salinity and in two photosynthetic green alga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Coccomyxa sp. C-169, subjected to nitrogen deprivation were investigated. Cold, drought, and high salinity can negatively affect plant growth and crop production. The first research aimed at determining the physiological functions of the stress-responsive Arabidopsis thaliana RD29A and RD29B genes. Cold, drought, and salt induced both genes; the promoter of RD29Awas found to be more responsive to drought and cold stresses, whereas the promoter of RD29B was highly responsive to salt stress ...


Effects Of Nitrogen Deposition And Empirical Nitrogen Critical Loads For Ecoregions Of The United States, Linda H. Pardo, Mark E. Fenn, Christine L. Goodale, Linda H. Geiser, Charles T. Driscoll, Edith B. Allen, Jill S. Baron, Roland Bobbink, William D. Bowman, Christopher M. Clark, Bridget Emmett, Frank S. Gilliam, Tara L. Greaver, Sharon J. Hall, Erik A. Lilleskov, Lingli Liu, Jason A. Lynch, Knute J. Nadelhoffer, Steven S. Perakis, Molly J. Robin-Abbott, John L. Stoddard, Kathleen C. Weathers, Robin L. Dennis Dec 2011

Effects Of Nitrogen Deposition And Empirical Nitrogen Critical Loads For Ecoregions Of The United States, Linda H. Pardo, Mark E. Fenn, Christine L. Goodale, Linda H. Geiser, Charles T. Driscoll, Edith B. Allen, Jill S. Baron, Roland Bobbink, William D. Bowman, Christopher M. Clark, Bridget Emmett, Frank S. Gilliam, Tara L. Greaver, Sharon J. Hall, Erik A. Lilleskov, Lingli Liu, Jason A. Lynch, Knute J. Nadelhoffer, Steven S. Perakis, Molly J. Robin-Abbott, John L. Stoddard, Kathleen C. Weathers, Robin L. Dennis

Biological Sciences Faculty Research

Human activity in the last century has led to a significant increase in nitrogen (N) emissions and atmospheric deposition. This N deposition has reached a level that has caused or is likely to cause alterations to the structure and function of many ecosystems across the United States. One approach for quantifying the deposition of pollution that would be harmful to ecosystems is the determination of critical loads. A critical load is defined as the input of a pollutant below which no detrimental ecological effects occur over the long-term according to present knowledge. The objectives of this project were to synthesize ...


Annual Warm-Season Grasses Vary For Forage Yield, Quality, And Competitiveness With Weeds, Andrew W. Lenssen, S. Dennis Cash Dec 2011

Annual Warm-Season Grasses Vary For Forage Yield, Quality, And Competitiveness With Weeds, Andrew W. Lenssen, S. Dennis Cash

Andrew W. Lenssen

Warm-season annual grasses may be suitable as forage crops in integrated weed management systems with reduced herbicide use. A 2-year field study was conducted to determine whether tillage system and nitrogen (N) fertilizer application method influenced crop and weed biomass, water use, water use efficiency (WUE), and forage quality of three warm-season grasses, and seed production by associated weeds. Tillage systems were zero tillage and conventional tillage with a field cultivator. The N fertilization methods were urea broadcast or banded near seed rows at planting. Warm-season grasses seeded were foxtail (Setaria italica L.) and proso (Panicum mileaceum L.) millets, and ...


Bryoecology In The American Southwest: Patterns Of Biodiversity And Responses To Global Change, John Carroll Brinda Dec 2011

Bryoecology In The American Southwest: Patterns Of Biodiversity And Responses To Global Change, John Carroll Brinda

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

This dissertation combines investigation of the large-scale responses of bryophyte species diversity and distribution with small-scale physiological adaptations to global change. These two areas of inquiry are linked because one way to predict plant species responses to global change is to examine their distribution across current ecological gradients produced by factors such as latitude and elevation. By examining these biogeographic patterns one can identify those species that have a narrow tolerance and therefore are most sensitive to change. Selected bryophytes might then be used as indicator species in long-term monitoring programs. Where historical data exist, these can be used to ...


The Occurrence Of A Thylakoid-Localized Small Zinc Finger Protein In Land Plants, Yan Lu Nov 2011

The Occurrence Of A Thylakoid-Localized Small Zinc Finger Protein In Land Plants, Yan Lu

Yan Lu

No abstract provided.


No Accession-Specific Effect Of Rhizosphere Soil Communities On The Growth And Competition Of Arabidopsis Thaliana Accessions, Anna G. Aguilera, Adán Colón-Carmona, Rick Kesseli, Jeffrey S. Dukes Nov 2011

No Accession-Specific Effect Of Rhizosphere Soil Communities On The Growth And Competition Of Arabidopsis Thaliana Accessions, Anna G. Aguilera, Adán Colón-Carmona, Rick Kesseli, Jeffrey S. Dukes

Biology Faculty Publication Series

Soil communities associated with specific plant species affect individual plants' growth and competitive ability. Limited evidence suggests that unique soil communities can also differentially influence growth and competition at the ecotype level. Previous work with Arabidopsis thaliana has shown that accessions produce distinct and reproducible rhizosphere bacterial communities, with significant differences in both species composition and relative abundance. We tested the hypothesis that soil communities uniquely affect the growth and reproduction of the plant accessions with which they are associated. Specifically, we examined the growth of four accessions when exposed to their own soil communities and the communities generated by ...


Is The Common Teasel (Dipsacus Sylvestris) A Carnivorous Plant Or Was Francis Darwin Wrong?, Justin Matthew Thomas Nov 2011

Is The Common Teasel (Dipsacus Sylvestris) A Carnivorous Plant Or Was Francis Darwin Wrong?, Justin Matthew Thomas

Kaleidoscope

No abstract provided.


Heritable Epigenetic Variation Among Maize Inbreds, Steve R. Eichten, Ruth A. Swanson, James C. Schnable, Amanda J. Waters, Peter J. Hermanson, Sanzhen Liu, Cheng-Ting Yeh, Yi Jia, Karla Gendler, Michael Freeling, Patrick S. Schnable, Matthew W. Vaughn, Nathan M. Springer Nov 2011

Heritable Epigenetic Variation Among Maize Inbreds, Steve R. Eichten, Ruth A. Swanson, James C. Schnable, Amanda J. Waters, Peter J. Hermanson, Sanzhen Liu, Cheng-Ting Yeh, Yi Jia, Karla Gendler, Michael Freeling, Patrick S. Schnable, Matthew W. Vaughn, Nathan M. Springer

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

Epigenetic variation describes heritable differences that are not attributable to changes in DNA sequence. There is the potential for pure epigenetic variation that occurs in the absence of any genetic change or for more complex situations that involve both genetic and epigenetic differences. Methylation of cytosine residues provides one mechanism for the inheritance of epigenetic information. A genome-wide profiling of DNA methylation in two different genotypes of Zea mays (ssp. mays), an organism with a complex genome of interspersed genes and repetitive elements, allowed the identification and characterization of examples of natural epigenetic variation. The distribution of DNA methylation was ...


Brassinosteroid-Mediated Stress Tolerance In Arabidopsis Thaliana, Tawhidur Rahman Oct 2011

Brassinosteroid-Mediated Stress Tolerance In Arabidopsis Thaliana, Tawhidur Rahman

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Brassinosteroids (BRs) are a group of steroidal plant hormones that are essential for proper plant development and also promote stress tolerance. Without BRs, plants are dwarfs and infertile. To understand the molecular mechanisms underlying BR-mediated stress tolerance, global gene expression analysis of untreated and 24-epibrassinolide (EBR)-treated Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings under non-stress and heat stress (HS) conditions was carried out. Microarray data analysis indicated that stress-related genes were predominant within the EBR up-regulated gene data set. Furthermore, several of these genes were abscisic acid (ABA) and jasmonic acid (JA) related. Measurements of endogenous hormones showed significant increases in the levels ...


Transcriptomic Characterization Of A Synergistic Genetic Interaction During Carpel Margin Meristem Development In Arabidopsis Thaliana, April N. Wynn, Elizabeth E. Rueschhoff, Robert G. Franks Oct 2011

Transcriptomic Characterization Of A Synergistic Genetic Interaction During Carpel Margin Meristem Development In Arabidopsis Thaliana, April N. Wynn, Elizabeth E. Rueschhoff, Robert G. Franks

Biological Sciences Research

In flowering plants the gynoecium is the female reproductive structure. In Arabidopsis thalianaovules initiate within the developing gynoecium from meristematic tissue located along the margins of the floral carpels. When fertilized the ovules will develop into seeds. SEUSS (SEU) and AINTEGUMENTA (ANT) encode transcriptional regulators that are critical for the proper formation of ovules from the carpel margin meristem (CMM). The synergistic loss of ovule initiation observed in the seu ant double mutant suggests that SEU and ANT share overlapping functions during CMM development. However the molecular mechanism underlying this synergistic interaction is unknown. Using the ATH1 transcriptomics platform ...


Construction Of The Next Generation Of Energy Efficient Light Boxes - Sponsored By Bayer Environmental Science, Gregory Keith Bartley Jr. Sep 2011

Construction Of The Next Generation Of Energy Efficient Light Boxes - Sponsored By Bayer Environmental Science, Gregory Keith Bartley Jr.

Gregory Keith Bartley Jr.

This short presentation includes an overview of features that went into constructing a new type of light box technology utilizing low-power usage LEDs and Low Density flexible Polymers. This light box was constructed for digital image analysis of plant health and ground cover using a Canon Powershot G12 camera and Sigma Scan Digital Image Analysis Software.


Productivity Is A Poor Predictor Of Plant Species Richness, Peter B. Adler, Eric W. Seabloom, Elizabeth T. Borer, Helmut Hillebrand, Yann Hautler, Andy Hector, W. Stanley Harpole, Lydia R. O'Halloran, James B. Grace, T. Michael Anderson, Jonathan D. Bakker, Lori A. Biederman, Cynthia S. Brown, Yvonne M. Buckley, Laura B. Calabrese, Cheng-Jin Chu, Elsa E. Cleland, Scott L. Collins, Kathryn L. Cottingham, Michael J. Crawley, Ellen I. Damschen, Kendi F. Davies, Nicole M. Decrappeo, Philip A. Fay, Jennifer Firn, Paul N. Frater, Eve I. Gasarch, Daniel S. Gruner, Nicole Hagenah, Janneke Hillerislambers, Hope Humphries, Virginia L. Jin, Adam Kay, Kevin P. Kirkman, Julia A. Klein, Johannes M. H. Knops, Kimberly J. La Pierre, John G. Lambrinos, Wei Li, Andrew S. Macdougall, Rebecca L. Mcculley, Brett A. Melbourne, Charles E. Mitchell, Joslin L. Moore, John W. Morgan, Brent D. Mortensen, John L. Orrock, Suzanne M. Prober, David A. Pyke, Anita C. Risch, Martin Schuetz, Melinda D. Smith, Carly J. Stevens, Lauren K. Sullivan, Gang Wang, Peter D. Wragg, Justin P. Wright, Louie H. Yang Sep 2011

Productivity Is A Poor Predictor Of Plant Species Richness, Peter B. Adler, Eric W. Seabloom, Elizabeth T. Borer, Helmut Hillebrand, Yann Hautler, Andy Hector, W. Stanley Harpole, Lydia R. O'Halloran, James B. Grace, T. Michael Anderson, Jonathan D. Bakker, Lori A. Biederman, Cynthia S. Brown, Yvonne M. Buckley, Laura B. Calabrese, Cheng-Jin Chu, Elsa E. Cleland, Scott L. Collins, Kathryn L. Cottingham, Michael J. Crawley, Ellen I. Damschen, Kendi F. Davies, Nicole M. Decrappeo, Philip A. Fay, Jennifer Firn, Paul N. Frater, Eve I. Gasarch, Daniel S. Gruner, Nicole Hagenah, Janneke Hillerislambers, Hope Humphries, Virginia L. Jin, Adam Kay, Kevin P. Kirkman, Julia A. Klein, Johannes M. H. Knops, Kimberly J. La Pierre, John G. Lambrinos, Wei Li, Andrew S. Macdougall, Rebecca L. Mcculley, Brett A. Melbourne, Charles E. Mitchell, Joslin L. Moore, John W. Morgan, Brent D. Mortensen, John L. Orrock, Suzanne M. Prober, David A. Pyke, Anita C. Risch, Martin Schuetz, Melinda D. Smith, Carly J. Stevens, Lauren K. Sullivan, Gang Wang, Peter D. Wragg, Justin P. Wright, Louie H. Yang

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

For more than 30 years, the relationship between net primary productivity and species richness has generated intense debate in ecology about the processes regulating local diversity. The original view, which is still widely accepted, holds that the relationship is hump-shaped, with richness first rising and then declining with increasing productivity. Although recent meta-analyses questioned the generality of hump-shaped patterns, these syntheses have been criticized for failing to account for methodological differences among studies. We addressed such concerns by conducting standardized sampling in 48 herbaceous-dominated plant communities on five continents. We found no clear relationship between productivity and fine-scale (meters−2 ...


Miscanthus 3 Giganteus Productivity: The Effects Of Management In Different Environments, Matt Maughan, German Bollero, D.K. Lee, Robert Darmody, Stacy Bonos, Laura Cortese, James Murphy, Roch E. Gaussoin, Matthew Sousek, David Williams, Linda Williams, Fernando Miguez, Thomas Voigt Sep 2011

Miscanthus 3 Giganteus Productivity: The Effects Of Management In Different Environments, Matt Maughan, German Bollero, D.K. Lee, Robert Darmody, Stacy Bonos, Laura Cortese, James Murphy, Roch E. Gaussoin, Matthew Sousek, David Williams, Linda Williams, Fernando Miguez, Thomas Voigt

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

Miscanthus 9 giganteus is a C4 perennial grass that shows great potential as a high-yielding biomass crop. Scant research has been published that reports M. 9 giganteus growth and biomass yields in different environments in the United States. This study investigated the establishment success, plant growth, and dry biomass yield of M. 9 giganteus during its first three seasons at four locations (Urbana, IL; Lexington, KY; Mead, NE; Adelphia, NJ) in the United States. Three nitrogen rates (0, 60, and 120 kg ha -1) were applied at each location each year. Good survival of M. 9 giganteus during its first ...


Constructing New Technology: The Crop Circle Gps Cart In Pictures, Gregory Bartley, Brandon Horvath Sep 2011

Constructing New Technology: The Crop Circle Gps Cart In Pictures, Gregory Bartley, Brandon Horvath

Gregory Keith Bartley Jr.

The crop circle spectrometer represents a breakthrough in unbiased sensor data. Unlike traditional passive sensors, it pulses light at a speed of 20,000 times per second. With this comes the ability of these filters to discern reflectance measurements from that of natural sunlight, allowing it to be used in environments of sun, shade, and even darkness. From these various reflectance values at different wavelengths, we get measurements of plant health known as vegetation indices. And different vegetation indices can tell us different things about the health of a plant. Couple this with the recent advances in GPS technology, we ...


Muts Homolog1 Is A Nucleoid Protein That Alters Mitochondrial And Plastid Properties And Plant Response To High Light, Ying-Zhi Xu, Maria P. Arrieta-Montiel, Kamaldeep S. Virdi, Wilson B. M. De Paula, Joshua R. Widhalm, Gilles J. Basset, Jaime I. Davila, Thomas Elthon, Christian G. Elowsky, Shirley J. Sato, Thomas E. Clemente, Sally Ann Mackenzie Sep 2011

Muts Homolog1 Is A Nucleoid Protein That Alters Mitochondrial And Plastid Properties And Plant Response To High Light, Ying-Zhi Xu, Maria P. Arrieta-Montiel, Kamaldeep S. Virdi, Wilson B. M. De Paula, Joshua R. Widhalm, Gilles J. Basset, Jaime I. Davila, Thomas Elthon, Christian G. Elowsky, Shirley J. Sato, Thomas E. Clemente, Sally Ann Mackenzie

Faculty Publications from the Center for Plant Science Innovation

Mitochondrial-plastid interdependence within the plant cell is presumed to be essential, but measurable demonstration of this intimate interaction is difficult. At the level of cellular metabolism, several biosynthetic pathways involve both mitochondrial- and plastid-localized steps. However, at an environmental response level, it is not clear how the two organelles intersect in programmed cellular responses. Here, we provide evidence, using genetic perturbation of the MutS Homolog1 (MSH1) nuclear gene in five plant species, that MSH1 functions within the mitochondrion and plastid to influence organellar genome behavior and plant growth patterns. The mitochondrial form of the protein participates in DNA recombination surveillance ...


Rna-Mediated Silencing In Algae: Biological Roles And Tools For Analysis Of Gene Function, Heriberto Cerutti, Xinrong Ma, Joseph Msanne, Timothy Repas Sep 2011

Rna-Mediated Silencing In Algae: Biological Roles And Tools For Analysis Of Gene Function, Heriberto Cerutti, Xinrong Ma, Joseph Msanne, Timothy Repas

Faculty Publications from the Center for Plant Science Innovation

Algae are a large group of aquatic, typically photosynthetic, eukaryotes that include species from very diverse phylogenetic lineages, from those similar to land plants to those related to protist parasites. The recent sequencing of several algal genomes has provided insights into the great complexity of these organisms. Genomic information has also emphasized our lack of knowledge of the functions of many predicted genes, as well as the gene regulatory mechanisms in algae. Core components of the machinery for RNA-mediated silencing show widespread distribution among algal lineages, but they also seem to have been lost entirely from several species with relatively ...


Single Molecule Analysis Of The Arabidopsis Fra1 Kinesin Shows That It Is A Functional Motor Protein With Unusually High Processivity, Chuanmei Zhu, Ram Dixit Sep 2011

Single Molecule Analysis Of The Arabidopsis Fra1 Kinesin Shows That It Is A Functional Motor Protein With Unusually High Processivity, Chuanmei Zhu, Ram Dixit

Biology Faculty Publications & Presentations

The Arabidopsis FRA1 kinesin contributes to the organization of cellulose microfibrils through an unknown mechanism. The cortical localization of this kinesin during interphase raises the possibility that it transports cell wall-related cargoes along cortical microtubules that either directly or indirectly influence cellulose microfibril patterning. To determine whether FRA1 is an authentic motor protein, we combined bulk biochemical assays and single molecule fluorescence imaging to analyze the motor properties of recombinant, GFP-tagged FRA1 containing the motor and coiled-coil domains (designated as FRA1(707)–GFP). We found that FRA1(707)–GFP binds to microtubules in an ATP-dependent manner and that its ATPase ...


A New Species Of Diploid Quillwort (Isoetes, Isoetaceae, Lycophyta) From Lebanon, Jay F. Bolin, Rebecca D. Bray, Lytton John Musselman Sep 2011

A New Species Of Diploid Quillwort (Isoetes, Isoetaceae, Lycophyta) From Lebanon, Jay F. Bolin, Rebecca D. Bray, Lytton John Musselman

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

A new species, Isoetes libanotica Musselman, Bolin & B. D. Bray (Isoetaceae, Lycophyta), is described from Akkar District of northern Lebanon. It is a seasonal terrestrial species of basaltic soils, diploid (2n = 22), with complete velum coverage. Megaspore diameter ranges from 338 to 477 mu m with remote, low tuberculate ornamentation and a low to obsolete equatorial girdle; microspore length ranges from 25 to 30 mu m, with echinate ornamentation. At the type locality of I. libanotica, two other Isoetes L. species occur sympatrically. These superficially similar Isoetes species can be differentiated from I. libanotica using megaspore characters; I. duriei Bory has larger alveolate megaspores and I. olympica A. Braun has a prominent equatorial girdle.


A Role For Late Meristem Identity2 In The Reproductive Development Of Arabidopsis, Jennifer J. Pastore Aug 2011

A Role For Late Meristem Identity2 In The Reproductive Development Of Arabidopsis, Jennifer J. Pastore

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

The switch from producing vegetative structures--branches and leaves--to producing reproductive structures--flowers--is a crucial developmental transition that significantly affects the reproductive success of flowering plants. In Arabidopsis thaliana , this transition is in large part controlled by the meristem identity regulator LEAFY (LFY) and the LFY direct target APETALA1 (AP1 ). The molecular mechanisms by which LFY orchestrates a precise and robust switch to flower formation is not well understood. Here we show that the R2R3 MYB transcription factor and direct LFY target LATE MERISTEM IDENTITY2 ( LMI2 ) plays a role in the meristem identity transition. Like LFY, LMI2 directly activates AP1 ; moreover LMI2 ...


The Molecular Mechanism For Vegetative Phase Change: Regulation Ff Mir156 Expression And Action, Li Yang Aug 2011

The Molecular Mechanism For Vegetative Phase Change: Regulation Ff Mir156 Expression And Action, Li Yang

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

The timing of the transitions between the juvenile and adult vegetative stages (vegetative phase change) is important for shoot maturation in plants. The juvenile and adult vegetative stages are defined by a difference in reproductive competence (incompetent versus competent), but they are also associated with a variety of other morphological and physiological differences. An evolutionarily conserved microRNA, miR156, plays a central role in promoting the juvenile phase through its repression of ten adult-phase-inducing SPL family transcription factors. A decrease in miR156 abundance and a concomitant increase in SPL expression are correlated with the onset of adult traits. However, despite the ...


Developing Biocontainment Strategies To Suppress Transgene Escape Via Pollen Dispersal From Transgenic Plants, Hong Seok Moon Aug 2011

Developing Biocontainment Strategies To Suppress Transgene Escape Via Pollen Dispersal From Transgenic Plants, Hong Seok Moon

Doctoral Dissertations

Genetic engineering is important to enhance crop characteristics and certain traits. Genetically engineered crop cultivation brings environmental and ecological concerns with the potential of unwanted transgene escape and introgression. Transgene escape has been considered as a major environmental and regulatory concern. This concern could be alleviated by appropriate biocontainment strategies. Therefore, it is important to develop efficient and reliable biocontainment strategies.

Removing transgenes from pollen has been known to be the most environmentally friendly biocontainment strategy. A transgene excision vector containing a codon optimized serine resolvase CinH recombinase (CinH) and its recognition sites RS2 were constructed and transformed into tobacco ...


Gata-Family Transcription Factors In Magnaporthe Oryzae, Cristian F. Quispe Aug 2011

Gata-Family Transcription Factors In Magnaporthe Oryzae, Cristian F. Quispe

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research in Agronomy and Horticulture

The filamentous fungus, Magnaporthe oryzae, responsible for blast rice disease, destroys around 10-30% of the rice crop annually. Infection begins when the specialized infection structure, the appressorium, generates enormous internal turgor pressure through the accumulation of glycerol. This turgor acts on a penetration peg emerging at the base of the cell, causing it to breach the leaf surface allowing its infection.

The enzyme trehalose-6- phosphate synthase (Tps1) is a central regulator of the transition from appressorium development to infectious hyphal growth. In the first chapter we show that initiation of rice blast disease requires a regulatory mechanism involving an NADPH ...


Aiding Conservation Of The Federally Threatened Scutellaria Montana (Lamiaceae, Large-Flowered Skullcap) Through Abundance Monitoring And Transplantation Studies, Heather Mae Kile Aug 2011

Aiding Conservation Of The Federally Threatened Scutellaria Montana (Lamiaceae, Large-Flowered Skullcap) Through Abundance Monitoring And Transplantation Studies, Heather Mae Kile

Masters Theses and Doctoral Dissertations

Scutellaria montana Chapm. (large-flowered skullcap) is a federally threatened species endemic to Georgia and Tennessee. This thesis presents conservation work on this species through abundance monitoring at a single site in Catoosa County, Georgia, and transplantation experiments at two sites located in Hamilton County, Tennessee, and Catoosa County, Georgia. Plants naturally occurring in the fixed plots surveyed over seven years had an overall stable growth status, though relatively low floral induction and seedlings. Transplantation revealed influences of abiotic and biotic factors. One transplantation site was fenced to prevent human trampling and apparently discouraged vertebrate grazing, resulting in dramatic flower number ...


Relationships Among Rubus (Rosaceae) Species Used In Traditional Chinese Medicine, Yinu Wang Aug 2011

Relationships Among Rubus (Rosaceae) Species Used In Traditional Chinese Medicine, Yinu Wang

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Traditional Chinese medicine has a long history of using plants therapeutically including multiple species of the genus Rubus (Rosaceae). Fruits and other parts of Rubus plants have had a significant effect on human health and nutrition in both ancient and modern times. The pharmacological effects of Rubus include anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, anti-stress, anti-cancer and anti-aging properties. One of the current challenges limiting further development of Rubus resources in traditional Chinese medicine is a poor understanding of phylogenetic relationships among Rubus species in general and especially among Asian species, and also the need for additional studies of phytochemicals. Several confounding factors are ...


Outdoor Classroom And Wildlife Habitat Development, Patricia Sowell, Deborah Sherfey, Kandy Fear Jul 2011

Outdoor Classroom And Wildlife Habitat Development, Patricia Sowell, Deborah Sherfey, Kandy Fear

Education for Sustainability Summer Institute

No abstract provided.


Oak Galls: A Strange Biology Indeed!, W. John Hayden Jul 2011

Oak Galls: A Strange Biology Indeed!, W. John Hayden

Biology Faculty Publications

Anyone who takes the time to look closely at several branches of oak will soon find one or another peculiar anomaly among the leaves and twigs. One can easily find structures resembling Ping-Pong balls, hard knots, fluffy tufts, horns—either single or clustered, or irregular thickenings, to mention just a few possibilities. These abnormal growths are galls, structures caused by the presence of small insect larvae living inside the tissue of the plant. Galls can be found on a wide variety of plants. They are common, for example, on the stems of goldenrods, and the leaves of maples, but oaks ...


Prairie Restoration And Species Diversity: A Comparison Of Propagation Success Between Seeded And Planted Forbs, Julie A. Widinski Jul 2011

Prairie Restoration And Species Diversity: A Comparison Of Propagation Success Between Seeded And Planted Forbs, Julie A. Widinski

All Student Theses

Prairie ecosystems used to dominate Illinois’ landscapes, providing some of the most organically rich soils in the world, supplying homes to hundreds of native species, and conserving soil and water. The deep rooted forbs prevent water runoff and soil erosion. Economically the prairies have provided medicines, commercial forbs, and aesthetically pleasing landscapes for humans. Society is dependent on the rich soils these prairies have provided for agriculture and for prevention of erosion and water runoff. With less than one tenth of one percent of Illinois prairies still remaining, successful prairie restoration is of the utmost importance. In order to achieve ...


Documenting Effects Of Urbanization On Flora Using Herbarium Records, Rebecca W. Dolan, Marcia E. Moore, Jessica Stephens Jul 2011

Documenting Effects Of Urbanization On Flora Using Herbarium Records, Rebecca W. Dolan, Marcia E. Moore, Jessica Stephens

Scholarship and Professional Work - LAS

  1. As human populations increasingly live in cities, urban floras and the ecosystem services they provide are under increasing threat. Understanding the effects of urbanization on plants can help to predict future changes and identify ways to preserve biological diversity. Relatively few studies document changes through time in the flora of a focal region and those that do primarily address European floras. They often rely on contemporary spatial gradient studies as surrogates for changes with time.

  2. We compare historical species records (prior to 1940) with the current flora for Marion County, Indiana, USA, home to Indianapolis, the 13th largest city in ...


Herbicide-Resistant Risk Assessment: Response Of Common Nebraska Weeds To Dicamba Dose, Roberto J. Crespo Jul 2011

Herbicide-Resistant Risk Assessment: Response Of Common Nebraska Weeds To Dicamba Dose, Roberto J. Crespo

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research in Agronomy and Horticulture

Dicamba-resistant soybeans are being developed to provide an additional herbicide mechanism of action that can be used in soybean, and to provide a tool to help manage or mitigate the evolution of other herbicide-resistant weed populations. The objectives of this thesis were to assess the risk of common Nebraska weeds developing resistance to dicamba, quantify baseline dose-response to dicamba of high-risk weed species, and survey the variability in dicamba dose-response among populations of those species. Twenty-five weed scientists were asked to estimate the risk likelihood of ten weed species evolving resistance to dicamba following the commercialization of dicamba-resistant soybean. Palmer ...