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Full-Text Articles in Legal History

Mixed Contracts And The U.C.C.: A Proposal For A Uniform Penalty Default To Protect Consumers, Jesse M. Brush Jul 2007

Mixed Contracts And The U.C.C.: A Proposal For A Uniform Penalty Default To Protect Consumers, Jesse M. Brush

Student Scholarship Papers

Although Article 2 of the Uniform Commercial Code provides a standard set of rules for goods transactions, it is silent on the treatment of mixed goods and services contracts. Without guidance from the Code, courts have taken a number of different approaches to such contracts. These varied tests encourage opportunistic behavior: sellers withhold information about implied warranties during negotiations, and can later claim they do not apply. Uninformed buyers must either forfeit their warranty protection or resort to an expensive court determination of the Code’s applicability. This Article proposes a “penalty default” of applying the Code in consumer contracts ...


From St. Ives To Cyberspace: The Modern Distortion Of The Medieval 'Law Merchant', Stephen E. Sachs Mar 2005

From St. Ives To Cyberspace: The Modern Distortion Of The Medieval 'Law Merchant', Stephen E. Sachs

Student Scholarship Papers

Modern advocates of corporate self-regulation have drawn unlikely inspiration from the Middle Ages. On the traditional view of history, medieval merchants who wandered from fair to fair were not governed by domestic laws, but by their own lex mercatoria, or "law merchant." This law, which uniformly regulated commerce across Europe, was supposedly produced by an autonomous merchant class, interpreted in private courts, and enforced through private sanctions rather than state coercion. Contemporary writers have treated global corporations as descendants of these itinerant traders, urging them to replace conflicting national laws with a law of their own creation. The standard history ...


Treaties And Executive Agreements A Reply, Edwin Borchard Jan 1945

Treaties And Executive Agreements A Reply, Edwin Borchard

Faculty Scholarship Series

The authors of the articles under reply, Messrs. McDougal and Lans, have, like McClure, essayed to show that the treaty and the executive agreement are interchangeable, and, since executive agreements are simpler to conclude, they advocate disregarding as obsolete the treaty-making power, requiring, as it does, the consent of two thirds of the Senate, and substituting for it the use of the executive agreement. In that demand they differ radically from the constitutional conclusions which the writer, as well as many other students of the subject, have reached. To give their proposal a more “democratic” tinge, the authors propose what ...


Shall The Executive Agreement Replace The Treaty, Edwin Borchard Jan 1944

Shall The Executive Agreement Replace The Treaty, Edwin Borchard

Faculty Scholarship Series

In recent years many political leaders and publicists have sought to prove that the treaty-making process, requiring the "undemocratic." valid and desirable preferably without congressional approval or, by a majority of Congress. 1300 executive agreements have been concluded history, as contrasted 900 i8 that up to 1928 only 15 for good reasons; treaties have been amended by have benefited the nation.

BASES OF THE PROPOSALS FOR CHANGE

The recent proposals for a change in the Constitution, either with or without benefit of a constitutional amendment, have their origin in several grievances and are said to derive moral support from several ...


State Indemnity For Errors Of Criminal Justice, Edwin Borchard Jan 1941

State Indemnity For Errors Of Criminal Justice, Edwin Borchard

Faculty Scholarship Series

All too frequently the public is shocked by the news that Federal or State authorities have convicted and imprisoned a person subsequently proved to have been innocent of any crime. These accidents in the administration of the criminal law happen either through an unfortunate concurrence of circumstances or perjured testimony or are the result of mistaken identity, the conviction having been obtained by zealous prosecuting attorneys on circumstantial evidence. In an earnest effort to compensate in some measure the victims of these miscarriages of justice, Congress in May 1938 enacted a law "to grant relief to persons erroneously convicted in ...


Relation Between International Law And Municipal Law, Edwin Borchard Jan 1940

Relation Between International Law And Municipal Law, Edwin Borchard

Faculty Scholarship Series

Recent events on this continent make it seem appropriate once more to discuss the much – debated question of the relation between international law and municipal law. For one school, the dualists, municipal law prevails in case of conflict; for the other school, the monists international law prevails. There are two special features about the debate which warrant mention: first, that while the disputants do not widely differ in the ultimate solution of practical problems, they do differ considerably in their major premises and in the resulting theories; and second, that the attempt of various countries on occasion to escape the ...


Taney's Influence On Constitutional Law, Edwin Borchard Jan 1936

Taney's Influence On Constitutional Law, Edwin Borchard

Faculty Scholarship Series

The hundredth anniversary of the elevation of Roger Brooke Taney to the post of Chief Justice of the Supreme Court affords a fitting occasion to review the significance of his judicial services to the nation and to American constitutional law. A re-examination of his life work in the perspective of history indicates how unwise it often is to form rigid judgments on men and events in the excitement of contemporary emotion, for the harsh opinions which Taney evoked by his decisions on the slavery question have been tempered in the detached light reason. The historical cloud under which his name ...


Justiciability, Edwin Borchard Jan 1936

Justiciability, Edwin Borchard

Faculty Scholarship Series

It might be supposed that justiciability, the very foundation of the judicial function, would be a matter on which courts could hardly differ. Yet there seems to be the greatest confusion among the courts as to when an issue is and is not susceptible of judicial decision. This is largely due to a devotion to phrases and symbols which make historical investigation and theoretical analysis seem an unnecessary encroachment on the judicial prerogative. The very system of stare decisis invites courts to relieve themselves of the necessity of thinking through again ostensible propositions which seem to have once received the ...


Judicial Relief For Insecurity, Edwin Borchard Jan 1933

Judicial Relief For Insecurity, Edwin Borchard

Faculty Scholarship Series

In an earlier article' an attempt was made to criticize the narrowness of view which has limited the concept of "wrongs" and "cause of action” to committed delicts, and the concept of the judicial process, to their redress. This superficial view of legal relations and of the judicial function has obscured realization of the fact that harm is done and rights are impaired or jeopardized by mere dispute or challenge before and without any physical attack. The mere existence of an instrument, the denial of a right, the assertion of an unfounded claim, the existence of conflicting claims to the ...


Judicial Relief For Peril And Insecurity, Edwin Borchard Jan 1932

Judicial Relief For Peril And Insecurity, Edwin Borchard

Faculty Scholarship Series

In the United States, we are not accustomed to consider the theory of procedure as of profound importance. Possibly the extraordinary technicality of American procedure by reason of which substantive issues are so often relegated to practical oblivion by procedural tactics is in part responsible. At all events, the unsystematic and empirical method of embarking upon and concluding litigation seems to have developed a frame of mind somewhat indifferent to the theoretical function of the judicial process. For example, down to very recent days Justices of the United States Supreme Court gave expression to the view, now happily repudiated, that ...


Strength And Weakness Of The New International Court, Edwin Borchard Jan 1922

Strength And Weakness Of The New International Court, Edwin Borchard

Faculty Scholarship Series

For an adequate understanding of the origin, jurisdiction and functions of the newly established court of international justice at the Hague, it will be necessary to revert to the two Hague Conferences of 1899 and 1907 and to examine the organization of the Permanent Court of Arbitration at the Hague created and developed at: those Conferences. The characteristic feature of the Court of Arbitration as distinguished from the new Permanent Court of Justice lies in the fact that the personnel of the former consists of an eligible list or panel, of which there are now some one hundred and twenty ...


The Uniform Act On Declaratory Judgments, Edwin Borchard Jan 1921

The Uniform Act On Declaratory Judgments, Edwin Borchard

Faculty Scholarship Series

The national conference of Commissioners on Uniform State Laws at its session in St. Louis in August, 1920, approved the first draft of a Uniform Act on Declaratory Judgments. At the next session of the Conference in 1921 the Act will probably receive final approval and be recommended to legislatures for enactment. The importance of the recommendations of this August body in promoting the enactment of legislation in our states warrants some comment upon the draft they have approved.


International Pecuniary Claims Against Mexico, Edwin Borchard Jan 1917

International Pecuniary Claims Against Mexico, Edwin Borchard

Faculty Scholarship Series

The Claims Commission which will ultimately be established to adjudicate upon claims of citizens of the United States and other countries against Mexico will have to decide some of the most interesting and practical questions of international law. Not the least important of these are the fundamental questions of the liability of the Carranza government for its own acts while a revolutionary faction (the Constitutionalists) and for those of the Huerta government it has displaced. An examination of these questions in the light of international law and precedents may not prove without interest. Assuming that the Carranza government will maintain ...


Some Lessons From The Civil Law, Edwin Borchard Jan 1916

Some Lessons From The Civil Law, Edwin Borchard

Faculty Scholarship Series

The purpose of this brief article is not so much to set forth any specific institutions disclosed by a study of the civil law, as to point out some of those defects of our own system which are accentuated by comparison with the civil law, defects due to the methods rather than the substance of the common law. There is no desire to urge such a radical and perhaps impossible step as the substitution of civil law methods for our own; but in the consideration of plans for the improvement of our law, it may be profitable to observe that ...


Jurisprudence In Germany, Edwin Borchard Jan 1912

Jurisprudence In Germany, Edwin Borchard

Faculty Scholarship Series

The Library of Congress is now undertaking the publication of a series of guides to foreign law. One of the objects of the enterprise is to acquaint the practitioner and the legislator with the legal institutions of foreign countries. Another of its objects is to show the evolution and present development of juristic thought abroad, and the extent to which a virile philosophy of law and a sound conception of the relation between law and social science have succeeded in creating a jurisprudence which has proved far more efficient than the common law in responding to the needs of present ...