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Full-Text Articles in International Law

Introduction: The Power Of Global Performance Indicators, Judith G. Kelley, Beth A. Simmons Jan 2019

Introduction: The Power Of Global Performance Indicators, Judith G. Kelley, Beth A. Simmons

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

In recent decades, IGOs, NGOs, private firms and even states have begun to regularly package and distribute information on the relative performance of states. From the World Bank's Ease of Doing Business Index to the Financial Action Task Force blacklist, Global Performance Indicators (GPIs) are increasingly deployed to influence governance globally. We argue that GPIs derive influence from their ability to frame issues, extend the authority of the creator, and—most importantly —to invoke recurrent comparison that stimulate governments' concerns for their own and their country's reputation. Their public and ongoing ratings and rankings of states are particularly ...


Human Rights Violations Consequent To Transshipment Practices In Fisheries, Chelsey F. Marto Jan 2019

Human Rights Violations Consequent To Transshipment Practices In Fisheries, Chelsey F. Marto

Ocean and Coastal Law Journal

Transshipment, the process of transferring catch from a small fishing vessel onto a larger fishing vessel far off shore, has been used to commit a variety of human rights abuses on the sea. Companies can get away with this because there is little to no oversight over the activities. Yet, there has been little to no incentive to change these practices, because companies are generally not penalized for these actions. The author proposes a variety of tactics be implemented in addressing these concerns. These include imposition of sanctions upon countries who allow for nefarious activities, increased video surveillance on board ...


Marine Renewable Energy Law And Policy In The Bay Of Fundy: The Impact Of Ambiguous Domestic Boundaries In Canada On Nova Scotia's Regulatory Framework, Esteban Salcedo Jan 2019

Marine Renewable Energy Law And Policy In The Bay Of Fundy: The Impact Of Ambiguous Domestic Boundaries In Canada On Nova Scotia's Regulatory Framework, Esteban Salcedo

Ocean and Coastal Law Journal

Using a legal history methodology, this paper examines existing marine renewable energy law and policy in Nova Scotia with a focus on its application in the Bay of Fundy. This paper critically assesses the current approach to coastal management in light of recent recommendations summarized in the Fournier report. This paper argues that, despite clear calls to develop integrated ocean management and marine spatial planning in policies and regulations, Canada and Nova Scotia have failed to do so because of unclear federal-provincial boundaries. Ambiguous domestic borders in the Bay of Fundy have been at the source of an overly cautious ...


Pacta Sunt Servanda State Legalization Of Marijuana And Subnational Violations Of International Treaties: A Historical Perspective, Brian M. Blumenfeld Jan 2019

Pacta Sunt Servanda State Legalization Of Marijuana And Subnational Violations Of International Treaties: A Historical Perspective, Brian M. Blumenfeld

Pepperdine Law Review

In November 2012, voters in the states of Colorado and Washington passed ballot initiatives to legalize recreational marijuana industries. Since then, eight additional states and the District of Columbia have followed suit, and many more have seen legalization debates in their legislative halls and among their electorates. Over twenty bills recently introduced in Congress have sought to break federal marijuana laws away from prohibition. Although the national debate is indeed a vibrant one, it has neglected to address how legalization may be jeopardizing the compliance status of the United States under international drug treaties, and what the consequences may be ...


Courts Increasingly Demand That Businesses Break The Law, Geoffrey Sant Jan 2019

Courts Increasingly Demand That Businesses Break The Law, Geoffrey Sant

Akron Law Review

United States courts are demanding that businesses break foreign laws at an exponentially increasing rate. A practice that was virtually unheard of only 30 years ago is now so widespread that U.S. courts are ordering foreign lawbreaking in the most trivial discovery matters. When a court receives a discovery request that violates a foreign law, it applies the 5-part Aérospatiale balancing test—a test where 4 of the 5 factors are left to the subjective decisions of the judge. By ordering foreign law breaking, our courts—often biased in favor of United States discovery rules—are encouraging abusive litigation ...


The Horror In Our Heads: Cultural Trauma Expert Testimony In U.S. Courts, Elizabeth Topolosky Jan 2019

The Horror In Our Heads: Cultural Trauma Expert Testimony In U.S. Courts, Elizabeth Topolosky

Akron Law Review

Over the past twenty years, the international criminal tribunals have increasingly relied upon expert testimony describing the intergenerational and cultural effects of mass trauma events in their decisions. The admission of such broad, generalized expert testimony is facilitated by permissive rules of evidence and the broad and complex scope of international criminal litigation. To date, few litigators have attempted to present American courts with similar expert testimony. This article explores the admissibility and uses of this kind of evidence in American legal forums and provides a how-to guide for practitioners hoping to use similar testimony to build their cases.


Money Laundering Through Cryptocurrencies, George Forgang Jan 2019

Money Laundering Through Cryptocurrencies, George Forgang

Economic Crime Forensics Capstones

Bitcoin, the world’s first cryptocurrency, was first introduced in 2009, by Satoshi Nakamoto. While many believe the name is a pseudonym, and the true identity of the creator(s) is unknown, it is an undisputed fact that cryptocurrencies have introduced an indelible change to monies worldwide. Consequently, cryptocurrencies have also introduced a plethora of new opportunities for money laundering activity.

While cryptocurrencies follow the same three-step laundering process of placement, layering, and integration, the activity can be more difficult to detect due to the anonymous nature of cryptocurrencies. Moreover, while traditional schemes such as smurfing or gambling at a ...


Humanitarian Logic And The Law Of Siege: A Study Of The Oxford Guidance On Relief Actions, Sean Watts Jan 2019

Humanitarian Logic And The Law Of Siege: A Study Of The Oxford Guidance On Relief Actions, Sean Watts

International Law Studies

In terms of human suffering, few military operations have rivaled sieges and comparably harsh legal regimes have governed them. At a time when legal vindication of humanitarian interests in armed conflict is ascendant, conventional accounts of the law of war governing humanitarian relief may seem out of step, plagued with glaring gaps in humanitarian logic. In 2016, Oxford University professors published a United Nations-commissioned legal study—the Oxford Guidance on the Law Relating to Humanitarian Relief Operations in Situations of Armed Conflict. The Guidance contends that during armed conflict international law prohibits belligerents from arbitrarily denying offers of humanitarian relief ...


Whose Land Is It Anyway? Navigating Ghana's Complex Land System, Aimee Kline, Élan Moore, Elizabeth Ramey, Kevin Hernandez, Lauren Ehrhardt, Megan Reed, Morgan Parker, Samantha Henson, Taylor Winn, Taylor Wood Jan 2019

Whose Land Is It Anyway? Navigating Ghana's Complex Land System, Aimee Kline, Élan Moore, Elizabeth Ramey, Kevin Hernandez, Lauren Ehrhardt, Megan Reed, Morgan Parker, Samantha Henson, Taylor Winn, Taylor Wood

Texas A&M Law Review

This Article dives into Ghana’s complex land-registration system, which is influenced by both statutory and customary law. Section II discusses Ghana’s statutory land laws. Section III provides a brief overview of Ghana’s customary land laws. Section IV discusses several obstacles within Ghana’s land-administration system.


Special Issue, December 2018 Jan 2019

Special Issue, December 2018

International Journal on Responsibility

Contents:

5 – 7 Terry Beitzel, Gjylbehare Muharti, and Hysen Nimani, Responsibility in the Balkans: Justice, Media and Arts.

8 – 22 Mujë Ukaj and Qendresa Jasharaj, International Criminal Responsibility in Kosovo: Establishment of the International Criminal Court - de lege lata, de lege ferenda.

23 – 41 Avdullah Robaj and Sabiha Shala, Responsibility in Building Rule of Law: Kosovo Challenges.

42 – 54 Mujë Ukaj, The Irresponsible Persons: the Imposition and Execution of the Mandatory Treatment Measures on Criminal Procedure of Kosovo.

55 – 64 Gani Asllani, Bedri Statovci, and Gentiana Gega, Development and Protection of Economic Competition in Kosovo.

65 – 87 Saranda Leka and ...


Adopting And Adjusting To The Development Of The Investor-State Dispute Settlement Mechanism In China’S Recent Bilateral Investment Treaty Negotiations With The European Union, Runyang Liu Jan 2019

Adopting And Adjusting To The Development Of The Investor-State Dispute Settlement Mechanism In China’S Recent Bilateral Investment Treaty Negotiations With The European Union, Runyang Liu

Hastings International and Comparative Law Review

The Investor-State Dispute Settlement (ISDS) mechanism has been widely used in international treaty-making and invoked many times in crossborder dispute resolution. ISDS is a system where a foreign investor can bring claims against a host state for its discriminatory acts upon the investor. As China pursues a new level of outbound investment in the last decade, the ISDS mechanism will apply particularly in the context of investment disputes involving Chinese investors and foreign countries. This note will examine the evolution of ISDS clauses in China’s Bilateral Investment Treaties (BITs), especially with the European Union (EU), as well as these ...


Planetary Defense: Near-Earth Objects, Nuclear Weapons, And International Law, James A. Green Jan 2019

Planetary Defense: Near-Earth Objects, Nuclear Weapons, And International Law, James A. Green

Hastings International and Comparative Law Review

The risk of a large Near-Earth Object (NEO), such as an asteroid, colliding with the Earth is low, but the consequences of that risk manifesting could be catastrophic. Recent years have witnessed an unprecedented increase in global political will in relation to NEO preparedness, following the meteoroid impact in Chelyabinsk, Russia in 2013. There also has been an increased focus amongst states on the possibility of using nuclear detonation, in particular, as a means of diverting or destroying a collision-course NEO, something that a majority of scientific opinion now appears to view as representing humanity’s best—or perhaps only ...


International Law And The Struggle Against Government Impunity In Africa, John Mukum Mbaku Jan 2019

International Law And The Struggle Against Government Impunity In Africa, John Mukum Mbaku

Hastings International and Comparative Law Review

In recent years, impunity has become pervasive throughout most African countries. In some African countries, impunity is due to the inability of national governments to bring perpetrators of human rights violations to account for their crimes. In others, impunity arises from the unwillingness of government to utilize the existing legal system to bring criminals, whether they are state- or non-state actors, to justice. Effectively combatting impunity in Africa must begin with the reconstruction of African States to provide democratic institutions, which are capable of adequately constraining the government and preventing civil servants and political elites from acting with impunity; and ...


New Punitive Damages In Mexican Law – Or The Chronicle Of A Failed Legal Transplant Foretold?, Edgardo Muñoz, Rodolfo Vázquez-Cabello Jan 2019

New Punitive Damages In Mexican Law – Or The Chronicle Of A Failed Legal Transplant Foretold?, Edgardo Muñoz, Rodolfo Vázquez-Cabello

Hastings International and Comparative Law Review

In February 2014, the Supreme Court of Mexico, referring to some American cases and scholarly articles, held that punitive damages must be awarded to a tort plaintiff as part of the indemnity afforded by Mexican law under the head of moral damages (daños morales). Before this landmark decision, punitive damages were unknown to the Mexican legal system. The authors submit that the legal transplant carried out in Mexico has a few problems, which concern both the incorrect understanding of the adopted rule and the incompatibility of the host legal system. As a consequence, punitive damages, as they stand now in ...


Masthead Jan 2019

Masthead

Hastings International and Comparative Law Review

No abstract provided.


Private International Law As An Ethic Of Responsivity, Ralf Michaels Jan 2019

Private International Law As An Ethic Of Responsivity, Ralf Michaels

Faculty Scholarship

The world is a mess. Populism, xenophobia, and islamophobia; misogyny and racism; the closing of borders against the neediest—the existential crisis of modernity calls for a firm response from ethics. Why, instead of engaging with these problems through traditional ethics, worry about private international law, that most technical of technical fields of law? My claim in this chapter: not despite, because of its technical character. Private international law provides such an ethic, an ethic of responsivity. It provides us with a technique of ethics, a technique that helps us conceptualise and address some of the most pressing issues of ...


Proseuctor V. Ntaganda – The International Criminal Court’S Dangerous Foray Into The Shades Of Lochner, Shane K. Blank Jan 2019

Proseuctor V. Ntaganda – The International Criminal Court’S Dangerous Foray Into The Shades Of Lochner, Shane K. Blank

Michigan State International Law Review

No abstract provided.


Strengthening The Southern African Development Community: A Critique Of The International Labor Organization’S Development Assistance In Swaziland And Zimbabwe, Desirée Leclercq Jan 2019

Strengthening The Southern African Development Community: A Critique Of The International Labor Organization’S Development Assistance In Swaziland And Zimbabwe, Desirée Leclercq

Michigan State International Law Review

No abstract provided.


Infant Inmates: An Analysis Of International Policy On Children Accompanying Parents To Prison, Emily Bauer Jan 2019

Infant Inmates: An Analysis Of International Policy On Children Accompanying Parents To Prison, Emily Bauer

Michigan State International Law Review

No abstract provided.


Raiders Of The Lost Art: How Economics And Amnesty Can Encourage The Return Of Stolen Art And Antiquities, Caitlin Mcbride Jan 2019

Raiders Of The Lost Art: How Economics And Amnesty Can Encourage The Return Of Stolen Art And Antiquities, Caitlin Mcbride

Michigan State International Law Review

No abstract provided.


Out Of The Shadows: Undocumented Children’S Access To Education In The United States And Germany, Jenna D. Tidwell Jan 2019

Out Of The Shadows: Undocumented Children’S Access To Education In The United States And Germany, Jenna D. Tidwell

Michigan State International Law Review

No abstract provided.


Data Exclusivities In The Age Of Big Data, Biologics, And Plurilaterals, Peter K. Yu Jan 2019

Data Exclusivities In The Age Of Big Data, Biologics, And Plurilaterals, Peter K. Yu

Texas A&M Law Review

The past decade has seen many new developments impacting the intellectual property system. The introduction of big data analytics has transformed the fields of biotechnology and bioinformatics while ushering in major advances in drug development, clinical practices, and medical financing. The arrival of biologics and personalized medicines has also revolutionized the healthcare and pharmaceutical industries. In addition, the emergence of bilateral, regional, and plurilateral trade agreements have raised serious, and at times difficult, questions concerning the evolution of domestic and international intellectual property standards.

One topic linking all three developments together concerns the establishment of international standards to protect clinical ...


The International Tax Environment And Simplification Of South African Tax Legislation: A Double-Edged Sword, Jinyan Li, Teresa Pidduck Jan 2019

The International Tax Environment And Simplification Of South African Tax Legislation: A Double-Edged Sword, Jinyan Li, Teresa Pidduck

Articles & Book Chapters

In this paper, we examine the relationship between the international tax environment and legislative complexity in South Africa’s international tax system. We suggest that the international tax environment is a double-edged sword. It causes complexity in South Africa’s tax legislation as it largely responds to the needs of OECD countries and produces tax rules to deal with ‘sophisticated’ tax problems and taxpayers (such as multinational enterprises). When such rules are transplanted into South Africa, they are typically more complex than local rules dealing with local taxpayers. On the other hand, the international tax environment offers ideas for ‘scientific ...


Contemporary Practice Of The United States Relating To International Law (113:1 Am J Int'l L), Jean Galbraith Jan 2019

Contemporary Practice Of The United States Relating To International Law (113:1 Am J Int'l L), Jean Galbraith

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

This article is reproduced with permission from the January 2019 issue of the American Journal of International Law © 2019 American Society of International Law. All rights reserved.


Book (Oup) - Proportionality Balancing And Constitutional Governance - Chapter 6.Pdf, Alec Stone Sweet Dec 2018

Book (Oup) - Proportionality Balancing And Constitutional Governance - Chapter 6.Pdf, Alec Stone Sweet

Alec Stone Sweet

No abstract provided.


Book (Oup) - Proportionality Balancing And Constitutional Governance - Chapter 2.Pdf, Alec Stone Sweet Dec 2018

Book (Oup) - Proportionality Balancing And Constitutional Governance - Chapter 2.Pdf, Alec Stone Sweet

Alec Stone Sweet

No abstract provided.


Leading Examples Of Regulatory Objectives For The Legal Profession (2019), Laurel S. Terry Dec 2018

Leading Examples Of Regulatory Objectives For The Legal Profession (2019), Laurel S. Terry

Laurel S. Terry

This one-page document contains four examples of regulatory objectives:

1) the regulatory objectives adopted by the Nova Scotia Barristers' Society in 2014 and updated in 2016;

2) the regulatory objectives that Laurel Terry, Steve Mark, and Tahlia Gordon recommended in this lengthy 2012 article with many examples, which were summarized in this 9-page Terry article and these slides

3) the regulatory objectives the ABA adopted in February 2016; and

4) the regulatory objectives found in Section 1 of the UK's Legal Services Act 2007.

This document was prepared for the Jan. 2019 Association of Professional Responsibility Lawyers' Midyear Conference ...


Implementing A Portable Reciprocity Passport To Crowdfund Real Estate Across Borders, Raymond Tran Dec 2018

Implementing A Portable Reciprocity Passport To Crowdfund Real Estate Across Borders, Raymond Tran

The Journal of Business, Entrepreneurship & the Law

No abstract provided.


The Balkan Loophole: China's Potential Circumvention Of Eu Protectionism, Dimitrije Canic Dec 2018

The Balkan Loophole: China's Potential Circumvention Of Eu Protectionism, Dimitrije Canic

University of Miami Business Law Review

The global recession of 2008 appeared to end the honeymoon between globalization and the reduction of international trade barriers. This was especially visible in the European Union, which saw a surge of conservatism as European economies suffered. With the EU unable to assist its members, the countries turned to China for financial aid. In return, China saw this as its chance to enter the EU using the engine of its newly–formed superpower status–its economy. From loans and financial aid to foreign direct investments (FDI), China began to pour money into the EU market. The poorer EU members accepted ...


Domestic Law Creating International Regimes: How Legal Formalism Is Hobbling U.S. Foreign Policy, Christopher Mirasola Dec 2018

Domestic Law Creating International Regimes: How Legal Formalism Is Hobbling U.S. Foreign Policy, Christopher Mirasola

University of Miami International and Comparative Law Review

International law has always been contested. In recent years, however, competition between States to influence the trajectory of international law has intensified. Unfortunately, most international lawyers and policy makers still employ an impoverished understanding of the way in which international law is created (i.e., through formal international negotiations or as developed through custom). In this article, I argue that this formalist perspective neglects the foundational role of domestic lawmaking and regulation in the development of international law. Indeed, this paper shows that domestic action has historically been a direct causal antecedent to international legal regimes, and concludes that States ...